These are surely some weird words! Definitely not something used in everyday Danish.
I have never heard this word before, and google wasn't too helpful. However, I can only image that it's some kind of cheat sheet used for division, since "blad" is "sheet" in English. Maybe with some common divisions precalculated. Guess it's a thing from before calculators became widespread.
I had to google this as well, but I think I have an idea what it is. Whenever you are working with something that is spinning, you use this to measure distance from the center, such that whatever you make gets a certain size. This could be in ceramics or when using a lathe. "mål" can mean "gauge" in English, so something like a "spinning gauge" or whatever.
Jeg stiller om
This is an expression hardly ever heard anymore, since everyone uses computerized switching boards. However, calling a firm in the old days, receiving the secretary who would redirect you to some employee, would say this.
kan jeg få lokal 3?
This is in the same ball park. Pretty much just that you want to speak to the person with the local (phone) number 3. Guess it doesn't make much sense in real life ...