grammar sentences

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kman1
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grammar sentences

Postby kman1 » 2007-09-22, 23:41

I made the sentences below to get a feel of how different English tenses are expressed in Danish. Please check what I've written for accuracy and please explain the ones I got wrong or didn't know.

1. I speak Spanish.
2. I used to play video games.
3. I ate a cookie 5 min. ago.
4. Last year he was ill.
5. When his parents built the house, he was ill.
6. At the beginning of this year he has been ill, now he is fine again.
7. He had broken a leg, therefore he couldn't come to school.
8. I’m reading a book now.
9. I was working while she was studying.
10. I was eating there (- let's say lunch) until I got to know that there were cockroaches in the kitchen. Then I left (immediately).

11. I had been lying there for 3 hrs. before I fell asleep.
12. You will have been eating for 10 min. when I finish.
13. He wants me to go home now.
14. I would buy more food but I’m full now.
15. You are baptized now. ‘passive’
16. You were baptized for 5 min. ‘passive’
17. The city was destroyed by the fire ‘passive’
18. I had been baptized 3 times by 2001.
19. I will have been baptized 6 times by 2002.
20. If he paid me more, I would stay. (2 possibilities for ‘if he paid me more’)*
21. We would have built the house, if we had had the money.*


In my Danish translation, I only translated the verb portion of the sentences. that's the only part I'm concerned with. So remember when correcting what I wrote I only need the verbs NOT the whole sentence. (unless you feel translating the entire sentence would be better for everyone viewing the post)

1. jeg taler dansk
2. legte
3. spiste
4. han er syg
5. konstruerede, ?
6. han er blevet syg, han er god
7. havde brækket
8. læser / sidder og læser
9. arbejdet , studeret
10. sad og spiset
11. var blevet læggende
12. ?
13. han viller jag gå hjem
14. ?
15. behandles
16. blev behandlt
17. blev ødelæggt
18. ?
19. ?
20. ?
21. ?

Thanks

k

nbo
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Postby nbo » 2007-09-23, 8:22

1. jeg taler dansk
This is... in some way correct. You were using "Spanish" in the English sentence, and now "dansk" (Danish) in the Danish sentence?

2. legte
In past tense you're not using -te, but usually -ede. So the correct one would be; legede.

3. spiste
Correct.

4. han er syg
"er" is used in present tense, while "var" is used in past tense. So the correct one would be; han var syg.

5. konstruerede, ?
Correct. Another, more common word, would be "byggede."

6. han er blevet syg, han er god
Again you're using "er." You should use "var" again. Except for that, you've done something we call "undersat," in Danish. It means you've translated the "good" right to "god." But in Danish we don't say "he is good," when someone is not ill anymore, we actually say "he is fresh." So the correct one would be; han var syg, han er rask.

7. havde brækket
Correct.

8. læser / sidder og læser
Correct.

9. arbejdet , studeret
When you're using the -t, it means it was in past tense. You should use something we call a "nutids-r." So the correct one would be; arbejder, studerer.

10. sad og spiset
There's no word "spiset" in the Danish language. But if you swap "e" and "t," it would be correct; spiste.

11. var blevet læggende
Your suggestion is a bit overkill :-) You can simply use; lå.

12. ?
I don't really understand the English sentence you've come up with.

13. han viller jag gå hjem
There's no word, "viller." It shall be "ville." Usually, in the Danish language, the -r is only used in present tense. "jag" is a common typo. It's usually used my small kids (no offense!) because the pronunciation sounds like it should be an "a." Beside all that, you've constructed it somewhat wrong. This would be correct; han ville have, at jeg skulle gå hjem.

14. ?
I've translated the full sentence, then you can take a look at it yourself; Jeg ville have købt mere mad, men jeg er mæt nu.

15. behandles
-s is used for something that's going to happen. You should use -t. It's used for something that has happened; behandlet.

16. blev behandlt
You're almost correct, you just need an "e." This is also something that has happened, like in 15; blev behandlet.

17. blev ødelæggt
The correct word is; ødelagt.

18. ?
I've translated the full sentence, then you can take a look at it yourself; Jeg er blevet behandlet tre* gange siden 2001.

19. ?
I don't really understand the English sentence you've come up with.

20. ?
I've translated the full sentence, then you can take a look at it yourself; Hvis han betalte mig noget mere, ville jeg blive.
betal (betalte) = pay (paid)

21. ?
I've translated the full sentence, then you can take a look at it yourself; Vi ville have bygget huset, hvis vi havde pengene.
byg (bygget) = build (built)
penge (pengene) = money (the money)

* As you see in my example I'm writing the number with letters, and not just numbers. It's because that there's an unwritten rule that says that numbers from 0-20 should be written with letters, and not just the number. You can decide yourself, if you want to follow it or not. Some people in Denmark do, and some don't. None of the ways are wrong.

kman1
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Postby kman1 » 2007-09-25, 8:56

Hi Oranen,

I just went through the corrections and I have some questions in response:

2. how do you know which verbs take ‘-te’ and which verbs take ‘-ede’? Is it just rote memorization?

9. can you please explain what “nutids-r” is? Is this another way to express the past progressive tense? According to the grammar on this page, the past tense can also be used to mean past progressive… :
http://users.cybercity.dk/~nmb3879/dani ... #progress2


10. ‘spise’ is an irregular verb, then?

11. can you explain this more? you mean I should just use ‘lå’ in this sentence? My goal in constructing this sentence is to figure out how to express the verb pattern (had been ‘doing something’) in Danish. How is this expressed?

12. this the future perfect tense. if you don’t understand this tense in English, look here:
http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/futureperfect.html

look under “USE 2” , this is what I want to express in Danish.

13. a. meaning of ‘ville have’? b. ‘at’ = ‘that’ ? c. why is ‘skulle’ used here?

14. does ‘ville have’ mean ‘would’, ‘would have’, or both??

15. on this page:
http://users.cybercity.dk/~nmb3879/dani ... ml#passive

it says that one way to form the passive is by adding ‘-s’. Is this site incorrect?

16. in the blive-passive example on the website in the link above, why does ‘solgtes’ lose it’s ‘e’ when it changes to ‘solgt’ but ‘behandlet’ does NOT lose it’s ‘e’ ??

17. is ‘ødelægge’ an irregular verb?

18. so (er blevet + ’past participle’) = (had been ’doing smth.’) ??

19. this is the same tense as the one used in #12 except here the passive voice is used. #12 above uses the active voice.
http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/futureperfect.html

look under “ACTIVE/PASSIVE”

20. ‘noget mere’ = ‘some more’ ?? How would I translate this into normal English? Using ‘some more’ doesn’t seem normal in English. (‘if he paid me some more’ is odd) Is ‘noget mere’ more common than simply ‘mere’ ?

21. how is the pluperfect (past perfect) formed in Danish?
http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/pastperfect.html

look under “USE 2”


Oranen wrote: As you see in my example I'm writing the number with letters, and not just numbers. It's because that there's an unwritten rule that says that numbers from 0-20 should be written with letters, and not just the number. You can decide yourself, if you want to follow it or not. Some people in Denmark do, and some don't. None of the ways are wrong.


I don't see any numbers with letters?? I don't understand what you mean here...

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Ulven
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Postby Ulven » 2007-09-25, 9:35

Doesn't Danish use this format too...
"I used to... (play)"
"Jeg brugte at... (lege)"
Swedish does, I'm sure.
If a tree falls in the woods
And no-one's there to hear
...the man under it scream
Is he really hurt?
And did he deserve it?

nbo
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Joined: 2007-08-19, 12:46

Postby nbo » 2007-09-26, 13:13

kman1 wrote:2. how do you know which verbs take ‘-te’ and which verbs take ‘-ede’? Is it just rote memorization?

I don't think there's a rule for this. It's memorization.

kman1 wrote:9. can you please explain what “nutids-r” is? Is this another way to express the past progressive tense? According to the grammar on this page, the past tense can also be used to mean past progressive… :
http://users.cybercity.dk/~nmb3879/dani ... #progress2

I just noticed that I'm wrong in this one. I read the sentence as present tense, so that's why I talked about the "nutids-r." The correct ones should be "arbejede," and "studerede."

He was going to work = Han skulle til at arbejde
He was working = Han arbejdede
He has worked = Han har arbejdet

kman1 wrote:11. can you explain this more? you mean I should just use ‘lå’ in this sentence? My goal in constructing this sentence is to figure out how to express the verb pattern (had been ‘doing something’) in Danish. How is this expressed?

Oh, in that way. "lå" is simply past tense.
What you're looking for is; Jeg har ligget.

kman1 wrote:13. a. meaning of ‘ville have’? b. ‘at’ = ‘that’ ? c. why is ‘skulle’ used here?

a. He wanted to have the ice cream = Han ville have isen.
b. "at" is used with verbs. to eat = at spise; to jump = at hoppe; etc.
c. I've been too fast in this translation as well. There should be no "skulle," sorry. The correct translation is; Han vil have, at jeg skal gå hjem nu. (skal = shall)

kman1 wrote:14. does ‘ville have’ mean ‘would’, ‘would have’, or both??

Not both, but yes, it means "would have." would = ville; have = have.

kman1 wrote:15. on this page:
http://users.cybercity.dk/~nmb3879/dani ... ml#passive

it says that one way to form the passive is by adding ‘-s’. Is this site incorrect?

No. It's because this one is hard. You can use the -s for something that is being done right now, and for something that's going to happen. Let's use the example from the link.

The book is being sold = Bogen sælges
The book is going to be sold = Bogen skal sælges

kman1 wrote:18. so (er blevet + ’past participle’) = (had been ’doing smth.’) ??

No, they're not identical. er = is; blevet = become. "blevet" is used when you have became something.

He has been painted yellow = Han er blevet malet gul

kman1 wrote:20. ‘noget mere’ = ‘some more’ ?? How would I translate this into normal English? Using ‘some more’ doesn’t seem normal in English. (‘if he paid me some more’ is odd) Is ‘noget mere’ more common than simply ‘mere’ ?

It's different from person to person if you're using "noget," or not. You can leave it out in most sentences, and the sentence will still be correct and readable. When you're translating "noget mere" into English, you would simply translate it to "more."

He wanted more food = Han ville have (noget) mere mad.

kman1 wrote:
Oranen wrote:As you see in my example I'm writing the number with letters, and not just numbers. It's because that there's an unwritten rule that says that numbers from 0-20 should be written with letters, and not just the number. You can decide yourself, if you want to follow it or not. Some people in Denmark do, and some don't. None of the ways are wrong.

I don't see any numbers with letters?? I don't understand what you mean here...

I made a star (*) in front of that text, and also beside the sentence in #18. It's a small note.


As you see I haven't answered all of your questions. Danish is my native language, and I simply just "know" the language. But I don't know what the different stuff is called, mainly because I'm new in language studying, and do not know all the terms. I can't help you much from here, sorry.


Ulven wrote:Doesn't Danish use this format too...
"I used to... (play)"
"Jeg brugte at... (lege)"
Swedish does, I'm sure.

In Danish you can't say "Jeg brugte at..."

kman1
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Postby kman1 » 2007-09-26, 13:40

Oranen wrote:As you see I haven't answered all of your questions. Danish is my native language, and I simply just "know" the language. But I don't know what the different stuff is called, mainly because I'm new in language studying, and do not know all the terms. I can't help you much from here, sorry.


No problem, Oranen. I feel the same way about English in some ways. I'm sure someone here can explain the rest. (at least I hope so... :hmm: ) Btw, good explanations so far.

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Re: grammar sentences

Postby Mulder-21 » 2008-01-04, 18:58

Allow me to translate these sentences into Danish:

1. I speak Spanish. = Jeg taler spansk.
2. I used to play video games. = Jeg plejede at spille computerspil.
3. I ate a cookie 5 min. ago. = Jeg spiste en småkage for fem minutter siden.
4. Last year he was ill. = I fjor var han syg.
5. When his parents built the house, he was ill. = Han var syg, da hans forældre byggede huset.
6. At the beginning of this year he has been ill, now he is fine again. = Han havde været syg i begyndelsen af året, men nu er han rask igen.
7. He had broken a leg, therefore he couldn't come to school. = Han havde brækket et ben, derfor kunde han ikke komme i skole.
8. I’m reading a book now. = Jeg læser en bog nu.
9. I was working while she was studying. = Jeg arbejdede, men hun læste/studerede.
10. I was eating there (- let's say lunch) until I got to know that there were cockroaches in the kitchen. Then I left (immediately). = Jeg spiste frokost der, til jeg fik at vide, at der var kakkerlakker i køkkenet. Derefter gik jeg.

11. I had been lying there for 3 hrs. before I fell asleep. = Jeg havde ligget i 3 timer, før jeg faldt i søvn.
12. You will have been eating for 10 min. when I finish. = Du vil have spist i 10 minutter, da jeg er færdig.
13. He wants me to go home now. = Han vil have mig til at gå hjem nu. (OR: Han vil, at jeg går hjem nu)
14. I would buy more food but I’m full now. = Eg havde købt mere mad, men jeg er mæt nu.
15. You are baptized now. ‘passive’ = Du er døbt nu.
16. You were baptized for 5 min. ‘passive’ = Du blev døbt for 5 minutter siden.
17. The city was destroyed by the fire ‘passive’ = Byen var ødelagt af branden.
18. I had been baptized 3 times by 2001. = Per 2001 var jeg døbt 3 gange.
19. I will have been baptized 6 times by 2002. = Per 2002 vil jeg have været døbt 6 gange.
20. If he paid me more, I would stay. (2 possibilities for ‘if he paid me more’)* = Havde han betalt mere, var jeg blevet værende?
21. We would have built the house, if we had had the money.* = Vi havde bygget huset, om vi havde pengene.

I'm only in doubt about 20, but the rest I'm pretty sure about.
Gløgt er gestsins eyga. (Føroyskt orðafelli)
Wise is the stranger's eye. (Faroese saying)
L'occhio dell'ospite è acuto. (Proverbio faroico)
Hosťovo oko je múdre. (Faerské uslovie)

Fluent: Faroese, Danish, English, German
Almost fluent: Norwegian, Swedish
Basic: Slovak (studying), Spanish
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pasalupo
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Postby pasalupo » 2008-01-07, 9:38

Hejsa,
jeg er ikke længere så ofte her omkring. Derfor undskylder jeg at jeg blænder mig i jeres tråd.

14. Der er en lille skrivefejl; det hedder selvfølgelig 'Jeg' (ikke Eg).

17. Passiv kan man måske også udtrykkes på denne måde: Byen blev ødelagt ...

20. Jeg ville sige: Havde han betalt mig mere, var jeg blevet.

21. Jeg ville nok sige "hvis" i stedet for "om".

Men det kan være at det hele er noget sludder, idet dansk ikke er mit første sprog.
Gentles do not reprehend.

nbo
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Joined: 2007-08-19, 12:46

Postby nbo » 2008-01-07, 15:19

Det er skam ikke noget sludder, pasalupo. Det er helt korrekt. :-)


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