I have a question concerning those verbs of arabic whose meaning seems to equal that of their roots' respective adjectives or participles. I would like to know what the difference between the following pairs is, if it is a matter of the speaker's preference, of dialect, of language style or level etc.
a) Stative verbs: Some verbes have the vowel /u/ in their perfect stem. Their meaning usually is: "To be [meaning of the resp. adjective]. Examples would be حَسُنَ ḥasuna "to be good" existing along with حَسَنٌ ḥasanun, صَغُرَ ṣaġura "to be little, small" next to صَغِيرٌ ṣaġīrun etc. You will certainly know more of them.
But what is the actual meaning of هو يحسن huwa yaḥsunu and هو يصغر huwa yaṣġuru compared to هو حسن "he is good" and هو صغير "he is small" or, if the meaning is the same, what other difference is there?
b) Some verbs seem to have a meaning "to be [meaning of the resp. adjective] for someone". They are in the Vth stem, for example تَعَسَّرَعليهtaˤassara ˤalayhi "to be difficult for someone" next to the stative عَسُرَ ˤasura "to be difficult" and the adjective. Is it also possible to say هذا عسير لي "This is difficult for me"?
c) I wonder particularly in what the use of the present tense of verbs like اِشْتَاقَ ištāqa differs from the use of the participle. Is there a difference of any kind between أشتاق إليك 'aštāqu ilayki and أنا مشتاق إليك 'anā muštāqun ilayki? I am even more confused by reading that the past tense is normally used, so people when are asked to translate "I miss you" or the like tend to answering not أشتاق إليك aštāqu ilayk but اشتقت إليك ištaqtu ilayk. What, then, would be the finite, i.e. conjugated, verbal form corresponding to كُنْتُ مُشْتَاقًا إِلَيكِ kuntu muštāqan ilayki?
I would be really happy if someone could help me out of my confusion. Thank you in advance.
Now, let me end my post by congratulating you to such a beautiful mother tongue!