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E}{pugnator
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Postby E}{pugnator » 2003-05-26, 17:06

AUXILIARY VERB “TO BE” IN THE PRESENT TENSE (From Irina's translation)

ვინ? (vin) who? რა? (ra) why?

Singular
ვინ ხარ შენ? (vin khar shen?) who are you?

ვინ ვარ მე? (vin var me?) who am I?

ვინ არის იგი? (vin aris igi?) who is he/she (Georgian has no gender, so the pronoun იგი works for both. Think of it as "that person", " who is that person?")

Plural
ვინ ვართ ჩვენ? (vin vart# ch#ven?) who are we?

ვინ ხართ თქვენ (vin khart# t#k#ven?) who are you?

ვინ არიან ისინი? (vin arian isini?) who are they?
Learning Georgian, Mandarin Chinese, Russian and Papiamentu from scratch. Trying to brush up my Norwegian up to an advanced level.

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Postby E}{pugnator » 2003-05-26, 17:09

VERB TO BE (continuing...)

მე ვარ ადამიანი (me var adamiani*) I am a human being (Russian человек)
(could be მე ადამიანი ვარ) * cool word! an interesting way of expressing this idea.

შენ ხარ ადამიანი/ (shen khar adamiani) You are a human being
შენ ადამიანი ხა�

იგი არის ადამიანი/ (igi aris adamiani) He/she is a human being.
იგი ადამიანია (igi adamiania [1])

ჩვენ ვართ ადამიანიბი/ (ch#ven vart# adamianibi) We are human beings.
ჩვენ ადამიანიბი ვართ

თქვენ ხართ ადამიანიბი/ (t#k#ven khart# adamianibi) You are human beings.
თქვენ ადამიანიბი ხართ

ასინი არიან ადამიანიბი/ (asini arian adamianibi) They are human beings.
ასინი ადამიანიბი არიან

რა არის ეს? (ra aris es?) what is this?

ეს არის სახლი/ეს სახრია (es aris sakhli/es sakhlia) This is a house

Notes:

[1] The form of the auxiliary verb "to be" in the 3rd person singular - არის ("is") is often shortened to one consonant, ა, which is added to the end of the word.


ნანა მასწავლებერია - nana masts'avlebelia - Nana is a teacher.
ეს ნანაა - es nanaa - This is nana

[2] The same thing we have with the 3rd person plural of the verb "to be" if we talk about inanimate things.
ეს მარადმწვანე ხეებია - es maradmts'vane kheebia - These are evergreen trees.
ეს ახალი სახლებია - es akhali sakhlebia - These are new houses.
Learning Georgian, Mandarin Chinese, Russian and Papiamentu from scratch. Trying to brush up my Norwegian up to an advanced level.

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Postby leppie » 2003-05-28, 8:48

I'm still here...
I hadn't much time last week, and I'm still mastering alpabeth....
But I'll begin to read last posts on grammar this weekend.
Se il drago rifiuta di combattere,
forse è solo pigro.
Ma se ignora la zanzara,
allora è davvero addormentato.

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Postby leppie » 2003-06-01, 15:54

I'd like to summarize the sounds of Georgian,
grouping them in classes:
I hope they are right.

<pre>
Vowels:
a e i o u
ა ე ი ო უ

5 Groups of three, ejective, aspirated, voiced
p' p# b t' t# d
პ ფ ბ ტ თ დ

k' k# g ch' ch# j
კ ქ გ ჭ ჩ ჯ

ts' ts# dz
წ ც ძ

some couples of unvoiced/voiced
- s z sh zh kh gh
ს ზ შ ჟ ხ ღ

and seven 'alone'
m n r l v q' h
მ ნ რ ლ ვ ყ ჰ

</pre>
Se il drago rifiuta di combattere,
forse è solo pigro.
Ma se ignora la zanzara,
allora è davvero addormentato.

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Postby zhiguli » 2003-12-13, 14:41

Poor Georgian has been languishing at the bottom of the list for too long...I thought it was time to try and bring it back to life (assuming there is still interest).
The alphabet and its phonology have already been extensively covered upthread. Those who want a few more details about the nuances of Georgian pronunciation may refer to this page:
http://www.rosettaproject.org/live/sear ... allpages=1
However, it's safe to say that Georgian is generally spoken as it is written.
I'll be using the Georgian Academy of Sciences transliteration:
http://laag.iatp.org.ge/article/008.htm
which seems to be the standard. And unlike IPA or other transcription schemes it's readable on any machine.

To begin, we'll look at basic pronouns, the nominative case, and subjective vs objective verbs.

There are no articles or genders in Georgian. სახლი (sakhli) can mean "house", "a house", or "the house" depending on context. However there are seven noun cases in Georgian, though they are fairly regularly formed, compared to those of languages like Russian. I'll do my best to explain the exceptions that do occur.

Nominative (სახელობითი - sakhelobiti) case
The pronouns in the nominative case are as follows:
მე (me) I
შენ (shen) You (singular, familiar)
ის (is) He*
ჩვენ (chven) We
თქვენ (tkven) You
ისინი (isini) They
*There is no gender in Georgian, so ის stands in for both He/She/It.
The nominative case is used mainly as the subject of subjective verbs, and the object of objective verbs. It is also the basic form given in dictionaries and vocabulary lists. Most noun roots in Georgian end in a consonant. The nominative case is formed by adding -ი (-i):
სახლ-ი (sakhli) house
სურათ-ი (surati) picture
ქალ-ი (kali) woman
კაც-ი (k'atsi) man
However, nouns already ending in a vowel do not change:
მამა (mama) father
დედა (deda) mother
და (da) sister
ხე (khe) tree, wood
ტაქსი (t'aksi) taxi
The normal plural suffix is -ებ. This is attached directly to the root of nouns ending in a consonant or any vowel other than ა (a). Any case or other endings come after:
სახლ-ი (sakhli) > სახლ-ებ-ი (sakhlebi) houses
ხე (khe) > ხე-ებ-ი (kheebi) trees
ტაქსი (t'aksi) > ტაქსი-ებ-ი (t'aksiebi) taxis
Words ending in ა usually drop it:
მამა (mama) > მამ-ებ-ი (mamebi) fathers
და (da) > დ-ებ-ი (debi) sisters
There are also some noun roots which drop vowels in the syllable preceding the suffix:
მეგობარ-ი (megobari) > მეგობრ-ებ-ი (megobrebi) friends
წყალ-ი (ts'qali) > წყლები (ts'qlebi) waters
სოფელ-ი (sopeli) > სოფლ-ებ-ი (soplebi) villages
These need to be learned by heart. However most of these words have roots that end in a sonorant (-ნ -n, -ლ -l, -რ -r, -მ -m). There are also some roots where a final vowel ო o is either turned into a ვ v or lost altogether:
მინდორი mindori "field > მინდვრები mindvrebi "fields".
The possessive pronouns are formed by adding the nominative ending -ი to the pronouns in the genitive case (which will be dealt with in future lessons):
ჩემი (chemi) My
შენი (sheni) Your (singular, familiar)
მისი (misi) His
ჩვენი (chveni) Our
თქვენი (tkveni) Your
მათი (mati) Their

ჩემი სოფელი (chemi sopeli) - my village
შენი დედა (sheni deda) - your mother
ჩვენი მეგობრები (chveni megobrebi) - our friends
Verbs
There are two main types of conjugation in Georgian, subjective and objective. Subjective verbs, as the name implies, are conjugated according to their subject. One such verb is the verb "to be":
მე ვარ (me var) I am
შენ ხარ (shen khar) You are
ის არის (is aris) He(she, etc) is. This is often shortened to -ა (-a), which is attached to the preceding word.
ჩვენ ვართ (chven vart) We are
თქვენ ხართ (tkven khart) You are
ისინი არიან (isini arian) They are
Since person is implicit in the verb the full (მე, etc) pronouns are often omitted:
ქართველი ვარ (kartveli var) - I'm a Georgian
ჩემი შვილი არის/ჩემი შვილია (chemi shvili aris/chemi shvilia) - He is my son.
As you can see, Georgian employs a system of affixes to show the different persons. The full range will be dealt with later.
The verbs for "to have" are examples of objective verbs. In the case of "to have" it might be useful to think of it as meaning "to me belongs...". There are two verbs for "to have":
For animates (humans, animals) the verb is ყოლა (qola):
მე მყავს (me mqavs)
შენ გყავს (shen gqavs)
მას ჰყავს (mas hqavs)
ჩვენ გვყავს (chven gvqavs)
თქვენ გყავთ (tkven gqavt)
მათ ჰყავთ (mat hqavt)

For inanimates the verb is ქონა (kona):
მე მაქვს (me makvs)
შენ გაქვს (shen gakvs)
მას აქვს (mas akvs)
ჩვენ გვაქვს (chven gvakvs)
თქვენ გაქვთ (tkven gakvt)
მათ აქვთ (mat akvt)

Notice that the 3rd person pronouns change. This is because subjects of objective verbs are put in the dative case.

მე მყავს და (me mqavs da) - I have a sister
შენ გაქვს სახლი (shen gakvs sakheli) - You have a house
ჩვენ გვყავს ძაღლი (chven gvqavs dzaghli) - We have a dog.

zhiguli
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Postby zhiguli » 2003-12-21, 12:57

Word order

In the simple sentences we've been using so far the usual order is subject-object-verb, though subject-verb-object is also possible.

მე სტუდენტი ვარ me st'udent'i var OR მე ვარ სტუდენტი me var st'udent'i - I am a student

Yes and no

There are several words for yes:
დიახ diakh
კი k'i
ჰო ho
ხო kho
დიახ is the formal, polite form. კი and ჰო are more informal. Since ჰ h is a very uncommon sound in Georgian you'll often hear ჰო pronounced ხო.
No:
For simple no use არა ara
However, when negating verbs there are three forms:
არ(ა) ar(a)
ვერ ver
ნუ nu
The choice is fairly simple. არ(ა) indicates simple negation:
ქართველი არა ვარ kartveli ara var - I'm not a Georgian.
და ქართული არ ვიცი da kartuli ar vitsi - and I don't know Georgian.
ვერ indicates inability
ვერ ვხედავ მას ver vkhedav mas - I can't see him
ნუ is used to negate imperatives ("don't").

The (ა) in არ(ა) is what is called an extension. Words that end in a consonant that are followed by monosyllabic verbs (eg ვარ, ხარ, -ა) or და da "and" are given this extension.

სომეხი არა ვარ somekhi ara khar - You are not Armenian.
ბიჭი აქაა bich'i akaa - The boy is here.
როგორა ხარ? rogora khar - How are you?

You'll find, however, that in conversation the extension gets left off in certain cases; როგორა ხარ? for example, is often pronounced როგორ ხარ? rogor khar. რამდენი წლისა ხარ? ramdeni ts'lisa khar "How old are you?" > რამდენი წლის ხარ? ramdeni ts'lis khar.
Beginners, however, are advised to use the extension in all cases where it is required.

More verbs:

to know (a fact, thing, etc):
მე ვიცი vitsi - I know etc.
შენ იცი itsi
ის იცის itsis
ჩვენ ვიცით vitsit
თქვენ იცით itsit
ისინი იციან itsian

(ის) იცის ინგლისური (is) itsis inglisuri - He knows English.

to know (a person):
მე ვიცნობ vitsnob
შენ იცნობ itsnob
ის იცნობს itsnobs
ჩვენ ვიცნობთ vitsnobt
თქვენ იცნობთ itsnobt
ისინი იცნობენ itsnoben
ისინი მას იცნობენ isini mas itsnoben - They know him.

To write:
მე ვწერ vts'er
შენ წერ ts'er
ის წერს ts'ers
ჩვენ ვწერთ vts'ert
თქვენ წერთ ts'ert
ისინი წერენ ts'eren

შენ წერ წერილს shen ts'er ts'erils - You are writing a letter (წერილი ts'erili).

You'll notice all the subjective verbs given so far have the same suffixes.

They can be summarized in the following table:
მე ვ-/Ø-(root)
შენ ხ-/Ø-(root)
ის (root)-ს/-ა/-ო/-Ø
ჩვენ ვ-/Ø-(root)-თ
თქვენ ხ-/Ø-(root)-თ
ისინი (root)-ან/-ენ/-ეს/-ნენ/-ნ

Though there is more than one possible suffix, nearly all verbs follow the same conjugation pattern in the present tense:

მე ვ-ხედავ v-khedav I see
შენ (root) ხედავ khedav You see etc.
ის ხედავ-ს khedav-s
ჩვენ ვ-ხედავ-თ v-khedav-t
თქვენ ხედავ-თ khedav-t
ისინი ხედავ-ენ khedav-en

The only real difference is with verbs like the verb "to be" or "to know (a fact/thing)" that end with a ი in the third person:
არი-ს
იცი-ს
The 3rd person plural ending of such verbs is -ან instead of the usual -ენ:
არი-ან
იცი-ან

Dative case

As you may have noticed, most of the verbs given had objects ending in an -ს. This is the ending for the dative (მიცამათი) case:
ქალ-ი > ქალ-ს
გოგო gogo "girl" > გოგოს gogos
While most words ending in a -ი in the nominative case tend to be consonant-final roots, sometimes the final ი is part of the root and as such cannot be removed:
გიორგი giorgi "George" > გიორგი-ს giorgis
Pronouns in the dative case are:
მე
შენ
მას (mas)
ჩვენ
თქვენ
მათ (mat)
You'll notice that only the 3rd person pronouns change.
Possessive pronouns decline like regular nouns:
შენ იცნობს ჩემს დას shen itsnobs chems das - You know my sister
მე ვხედავ შენს მამას me vkhedav shens mamas - I see your father
მის დედას mis dedas
ჩვენს chvens
თქვენს tkvens
მათ mat
მე ვიცნობ მის ბიძას (me vitsnob mis bidzas) I know his uncle.
მას ჰქვია ნინო (mas hkvia nino) Her name is Nino (or "she's named nino"). Since ჰქვია is an objective verb it is the subject ის that is put in the dative case. Since the formation of objective verbs is a little more complicated we'll leave that for next time. For now, learn this verb:

მე მქვია me mkvia My name is...
შენ გქვია shen gkvia Your name is...etc
ის ჰქვია hkvia
ჩვენ გვქვია gvkvia
თქვენ გქვიათ gkviat
ისინი ჰქვიათ hkviat

Demonstrative pronouns

ეს (dative. ამ): this
ეგ (dat მაგ): indicates nearness to the second person. can be translated as that (by you)
ის (dat. იმ): that (over there or out of sight)
ეს ქალი es kali - this woman > მე ვიცნო ბ ამ ქალს me vitsnob am kals "I know this woman"

Postpositions

Georgian uses a series of postpositions to indicate location or provenance. The most important ones to remember are -ში -shi "in" and -ზე -ze "on". These are governed by the dative case. Most of the time, however, the original case ending is lost:

უნივერსიტეტს > მე ვსწავლობ უნივერსიტეტში me vsts'avlob universitetshi - I study in university (not უნივერსიტეტსში universit'et'sshi)

ზაზა ბათუმში არის zaz batumshi aris - Zaza is in Batumi (zaza - man's name, Batumi - Georgian city on the Black Sea).

While they generally correspond to their English counterparts like prepositions in any other language, their specific usages need to be memorized.
რომელ საათზე სწავლობ? romel saatze sts'avlob - What time (at which hour) do you study?

Question words:
ვინ vin (dative vis ვის) who (humans)
რა ra (dative ras რას) what (everything else, including animals)
სად sad - where
საიდან saidan - from where "whence"
საითკან saitk'an - to where "whither"
როგორ rogor - how?
რატომ rat'om - why?
როდის rodis - when?
რომელი romeli - which?
რამდენი ramdeni - how many?

maka

about georgian

Postby maka » 2004-09-12, 7:03

Hello.
I just acidently found your forum-shool. I've got one page, and could not get any more, but as i understand, you tryng to learn Georgian, not having almost any info about it. I aprassiate that so much
However, I found a few misstakes in your study, my english is not that good to do a lot for this forum-shool, but if you like to, at least i could fix a couple of misstaces.
with respect maka.
My email is makakey77@aol.com

maka

about georgian

Postby maka » 2004-09-12, 7:20

My email address
makakey777@aol.com

Guest

Postby Guest » 2004-09-12, 18:13

a few misstaces here.
lamp.in georgian you spell it lamF.. it,s coming from russia, suposed to be lamp.
energiuli. energetic. (not energy.)
energia - energy.
parlamenTi.
marto - allone. lonely.
marti- match (the month).
liliputo- you are a liliput.
liliputI-
paralEli.
Poketi - pack,parcel,convolute.(actually it is a russian word, not georgian, in georgian it would be amanati.)
gibe - pocket.
analizI.
trAgedia - (not trgedia)- tragedy.

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E}{pugnator
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Postby E}{pugnator » 2004-09-12, 19:34

Hi,

Thanks for your help. Typing in georgian is difficult, so that is why I made some typos when copying the lessons here. We also had to stop the lessons because there isn't much information available for learning the language, so we are trying to learn the language with another resources in Russian first before teaching it here again.
Learning Georgian, Mandarin Chinese, Russian and Papiamentu from scratch. Trying to brush up my Norwegian up to an advanced level.

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E}{pugnator
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Postby E}{pugnator » 2004-09-13, 11:30

We won't be actually teaching others the language, but if you want to stay around and help us with questions regarding Georgian, no problem, you're definitevely welcome :wink:

Also, I run a project of a georgian page together with another unilang member.
Learning Georgian, Mandarin Chinese, Russian and Papiamentu from scratch. Trying to brush up my Norwegian up to an advanced level.

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LJ
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@ Pa-intergal

Postby LJ » 2004-09-23, 15:26

Pa-intergral, a fantastic font to view the Georgian characters can you donwload from: http://www.armazi.com/georgian/. Just scroll a bit below and then you will see: GEORGIAN FONTS.

Don't know if you already installed something, I didn't read the forum intirely :)

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LJ
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By the way ...

Postby LJ » 2004-09-23, 15:28

By the way, I just LOVE the Georgian script. I find it the most beautifull script I've ever known.
I've already heard a sample of text in Georgian, sounds bit like Turkish :)

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SamuraiMaster
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Postby SamuraiMaster » 2005-09-26, 20:52

Georgian lessons (in light of what has happened here!) will be restarted at the wiki section of Unilang. I'll be doing the lessons my self, and progress will probibly be slow because I'll be learning the language as I do the lessons. Corrections from more advanced learners and native speakers are always welcome!

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ladyskywalker
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Postby ladyskywalker » 2006-01-23, 1:37

Any chance that the Georgian lessons will be continued? I've been dabbling with this language for a couple of weeks now and have found no other online courses. :?

<a href="http://aspiringpolyglotblog.wordpress.com/" target="_blank"><b>Aspiring Polyglot</b></a> - A blog devoted to languages and language learning

<b>Languages I'm Learning -</b> Mandarin Chinese, Japanese, Dutch, Italian
<b>Languages I'd Like to Learn -</b> Ancient Egyptian, Romanian, Georgian, Modern Greek, Indonesian, Tibetan, Persian

Irrisim
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Postby Irrisim » 2006-01-23, 14:07

Hello ladyskywalker,
http://www.armazi.com/georgian/ features an online grammar of the Georgian language
As does the site http://www.seelrc.org:8080/grammar/main ... nguageID=7 -- which I find very very good looking with grammars, good described, in languages that you wouldn't normally find good grammars for.

Enjoy,
Sami

zhiguli
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Postby zhiguli » 2006-01-24, 7:40

if you're just dabbling in georgian these sites should satisfy your curiosity (the seelrc.org link contains a georgian textbook in english). i don't think i'll be writing any new lessons...there simply isn't enough interest to make it worth the while,and besides that, there is no native speaker around to correct any mistakes i may make.
the attrition rate for new learners is also very high...just about all of the dozen-odd people i met on unilang who started learning georgian gave it up after a few weeks or months. it's really not an easy language.

zhiguli
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Postby zhiguli » 2006-01-24, 7:44

i will, however, keep adding material to the wiki. i'll also be starting a section on the related language mingrelian in the next few weeks.

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nettchelobek1
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Postby nettchelobek1 » 2006-05-30, 5:12

what about the links? I'd be keen on learning Georgian, I love its script as much as Thai one... :D
Just a question: Does Georgian have declensions?

Nero

Postby Nero » 2006-08-04, 2:03

nettchelobek1 wrote:what about the links? I'd be keen on learning Georgian, I love its script as much as Thai one... :D
Just a question: Does Georgian have declensions?


I believe so. It has endings for the different uses of the nouns.


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