Kabardian and Adyghe

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Massimiliano B
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Kabardian and Adyghe

Postby Massimiliano B » 2015-05-20, 9:08

A Grammar of the Kabardian Language (PDF) (a North-West Caucasian language), by John Colarusso:


http://prism.ucalgary.ca/handle/1880/49341
Last edited by Massimiliano B on 2017-05-06, 9:52, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Kabardian

Postby Itikar » 2015-11-21, 18:55

I up the ante. :P

120 video-lessons of Kabardian!
http://telestudio.pro/index.php?p=1

(Also 120 lessons of Balkar if one is interested.)

Enjoy!
Fletto i muscoli e sono nel vuoto!
All corrections are welcome and appreciated.

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Re: Kabardian

Postby Massimiliano B » 2015-11-25, 10:19

Itikar wrote:120 video-lessons of Kabardian!
http://telestudio.pro/index.php?p=1



Great find! Now I have to learn Russian. I can understand only few Russian words in those videos.

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Re: Kabardian

Postby Itikar » 2015-11-25, 14:00

Massimiliano B wrote:Great find! Now I have to learn Russian. I can understand only few Russian words in those videos.

Do note that on that site the videos have got a transcript of the lesson, so you can slowly work through the lessons with that.

In ogni caso son lieto che il corso sia di tuo gradimento. :)
Fletto i muscoli e sono nel vuoto!
All corrections are welcome and appreciated.

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Re: Kabardian

Postby księżycowy » 2016-01-20, 14:36


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Re: Kabardian and Adyghe

Postby Massimiliano B » 2017-05-12, 22:33

Adyghe Audio Language Course (and a lot of other language courses) here:

http://www.goethe-verlag.com/book2/EN/ENAD/ENAD002.HTM

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Re: Kabardian and Adyghe

Postby Massimiliano B » 2017-05-13, 23:28


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Re: Kabardian and Adyghe

Postby Massimiliano B » 2018-02-25, 14:53

I'll try to learn the basics of Adyghe. This site is quite interesting for my purposes: http://www.goethe-verlag.com/book2/IT/ITAD/ITAD002.HTM (in Italian) - http://www.goethe-verlag.com/book2/EN/ENAD/ENAD002.HTM (in English). Phonology is here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adyghe_phonology and here: https://www.omniglot.com/writing/adyghe.htm

э is an open-mid central unrounded vowel (IPA [ɜ])
шъ voiceless retroflex sibilant fricative (IPA [ʂ])
x is a voiceless velar fricative (IPA [x])
o = [ɜw/wɜ]
y = [əw/wə/w]
a = [a:]


From lesson 1

сэ [sɜ] = I
o [wɜ] = you (singular)
ар [a:r] = he/she/it
тэ [tɜ] = we
шъо [ʂwɜ] = you (plural)
aхэр ['a:xɜr] = they
Last edited by Massimiliano B on 2018-02-28, 22:32, edited 3 times in total.

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Re: Kabardian and Adyghe

Postby Massimiliano B » 2018-02-25, 22:59

(Adyghe)

ы = schwa [ə]
щ = voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant fricative [ɕ]
шъy = labialized voiceless retroflex sibilant fricative [ʂʷ]. Lips are rounded before, during, and after the articulation of [ʂ].
I = glottal stop [ʔ]


Word order is SOV.


From lesson 1 http://www.goethe-verlag.com/book2/EN/ENAD/ENAD002.HTM

Сэ мыщ сыщыI [sɜ məɕ sə'ɕəʔ] (Сэ мыщ сы-щыI = I here I-am) = I am here
О мыщ ущыI [wɜ məɕ wə'ɕəʔ] (О мыщ у-щыI = you-sing here you-are) = You are here
Ар мыщ щыI [a:r məɕ ɕəʔ] (Ар мыщ щыI = he/she/it here is) = He/she/it is here.
Тэ мыщ тыщыI [tɜ məɕ tə'ɕəʔ] (Тэ мыщ ты-щыI = We here we-are) = We are here
Шъо мыщ шъущыI [ʂwɜ məɕ ʂʷ'ɕəʔ] (Шъо мыщ шъу-щыI = You-plur here you are) = You are here
Ахэр мыщ щыIэх ['a:xɜr məɕ ɕəʔɜx] (Ахэр мыщ щыI-эх = They here are-they) = They are here.

Well... First- and second-person singular and plural verbs take prefixes. Prefixes are clearly related to the personal pronouns. Third-person singular has zero marking. Third-person plural has a suffix, which reminds of the personal pronoun, due to the presence of the letter x.
Last edited by Massimiliano B on 2018-03-30, 21:50, edited 10 times in total.

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Re: Kabardian and Adyghe

Postby księżycowy » 2018-02-25, 23:57

I'm so jealous. :P

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Re: Kabardian and Adyghe

Postby Massimiliano B » 2018-02-26, 0:08

You can study it with me!

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Re: Kabardian and Adyghe

Postby księżycowy » 2018-02-26, 0:30

Well, if I were to study any North Caucasian language, it'd be Chechen first and foremost. (Which I do hope to do. Some year. :P )

And, unfortunately Kabardian doesn't have all that good of resources atm. (Not that Chechen is much better.)

Anyway, I have a little too much on my plate at the moment as it is. But maybe some day.

I'll be watching your progress though! :D
Last edited by księżycowy on 2018-02-27, 22:47, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Kabardian and Adyghe

Postby Massimiliano B » 2018-02-27, 22:28

(Adyghe)

и = [əj] [jə]
e = [ɜj] [jɜ]
дж = voiced palato-alveolar sibilant affricate [d͡ʒ]
кI = palato-alveolar ejective affricate [t͡ʃʼ] or velar ejective [kʼ]
й = voiced palatal approximant [j]
л = voiced alveolar lateral fricative [ɮ] or alveolar lateral approximant [l]
лъ = voiceless alveolar lateral fricative [ɬ]
гъ = voiced uvular fricative [ʁ]
гъу = labialized voiced uvular fricative [ʁʷ]. Lips are rounded before, during, and after the articulation of [ʁ].
цI = alveolar ejective affricate [t͡sʼ]
хъу = labialized voiceless uvular fricative [x̣ʷ]. Lips are rounded before, during, and after the articulation of [x̣]


From lesson 1 http://www.goethe-verlag.com/book2/EN/ENAD/ENAD002.HTM

сэррэ оррэ ['sɜr:ɜ 'wɜr:ɜ] (I-and you-and) / (I-both you-and) = I and you.
The conjunction -ppэ appears at the and of the conjoined words.

унагъо ['wəna:ʁwɜ] = family
сиунагъо ['sjəwna:ʁwɜ] (си-унагъо = my-family) = my family
The possessive adjectives are prefixed before the noun.

хъулъфыгъ ['x̣ʷɬfəʁ]= man
бзылъфыгъ ['bzəɬfəʁ] = woman
сабый [sabəj] = child


From lesson 2 http://www.goethe-verlag.com/book2/EN/ENAD/ENAD002.HTM

Тэ – тыунагъу [tɜ tə'wəna:ʁʷ] (Тэ ты-унагъу = we (I-pers-plur)-family) = We are a family
I think that the prefix ты- is the first-person plural prefix of the verb. Which verb? The verb "to be family". So, унагъо ['wəna:ʁwɜ] means "family", while Тэ – тыунагъу [tɜ tə'wəna:ʁʷ] means "we are family". I don't know why, in the last sentence, the last vowel of the word унагъо ['wəna:ʁwɜ] (family) is not present.

Тэ тиунагъо цIыкIоп [tɜ təj'wəna:ʁwɜ t͡sʼəkʼ'wɜp] (Тэ ти-унагъо цIыкIо-п = We our-family small-not) = Our family is not small.
The suffix -п is the negation "not".
The first-person plural adjective possessive ти- (our) is preceded here by the first-person plural personal pronoun tэ (we). I don't know why this happens here: from lesson 1 we learn that cиунагъо means "my-family", without any personal pronoun.
Last edited by Massimiliano B on 2018-03-23, 22:26, edited 3 times in total.

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Re: Kabardian and Adyghe

Postby Massimiliano B » 2018-02-28, 22:53

(Adyghe)

къ = voiceless uvular stop [q]
ш = voiceless palato-alveolar fricative [ʃ]


From lesson 2 http://www.goethe-verlag.com/book2/EN/ENAD/ENAD002.HTM

ты [tə] = father
ны [nə] = mother
къо [qwɜ] = son

пхъу [px̣ʷə] = daughter.
хъу is labialized voiceless uvular fricative [x̣ʷ], while хъ is a voiceless uvular fricative [x̣]. How can I know whether the word пхъу is composed of п+хъу or of п+хъ+у? By listening to the audio of lesson 2, I can hear a schwa at the end of the word. If so, the right sillable division should be the first (п+хъ+у).

шыпхъу = [ʃəpx̣ʷ] sister. This word is pronounced ш+ы+п+хъу. I have probably understood the rule. In the preceding word (пхъу) the y is the only vowel, so it is pronounced as a separate vowel y [wə]. In the word шыпхъу the stress is in the first syllable, so the last vowel becomes part of the trigraph хъу, which is pronounced [x̣ʷ].

шы [ʃə] = brother


From lesson 3

Сыдэу ущыт? [sə'dɜw wə'ɕət] = How are you?
The first word means "whatever/what". The second, means maybe "your (y-) health (-щыт)"

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Re: Kabardian and Adyghe

Postby księżycowy » 2018-02-28, 23:15

Massimiliano B wrote:хъу is labialized voiceless uvular fricative [x̣ʷ], while хъ is a voiceless uvular fricative [x̣]. How can I know whether the word пхъу is composed of п+хъу or of п+хъ+у? By listening to the audio of lesson 2, I can hear a schwa at the end of the word. If so, the right sillable division should be the first (п+хъ+у).

That's one of the crazy things about a lot of Northern Caucasian languages and how they're written in the Cyrillic script. It's not a very good alphabet to write them in. Not that I can think of a good alternative, but still :P

You either end up with systems like for Adyghe here (and Chechen is similar) or Abkhaz with all those funky new letters.

I can almost always figure out the consonants for Chechen, and usually the vowel quality too, but one thing that drives me nuts if the lack of length marking.

Does Adyghe have vowel length distinctions?

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Re: Kabardian and Adyghe

Postby Massimiliano B » 2018-02-28, 23:50

I cannot say whether Adyghe has vowel lenght distinction or not. This Wikipedia: page https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adyghe_language#Phonology says that the vowels are three [ə], [ɜ], [a]. Omniglot reports three vowels: [a:], [a], and [ə]. In the audio of the lessons I'm studying I can hear the following three vowels: [a:], [ɜ], and [ə]. I am confused!

In my previous post I try to give a rule about the pronunciation of хъу. Do you think it might be correct?

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Re: Kabardian and Adyghe

Postby księżycowy » 2018-02-28, 23:55

Massimiliano B wrote: I am confused!

Yeah, that's sounds about right. :P

But seriously, Chechen has a long more vowels, at least compared to Adyghe, and they all(?) have short and long forms. From what I remember anyway.

In my previous post I try to give a rule about the pronunciation of хъу. Do you think it might be correct?

It looks fine to me, but I'm far from an expert. I don't remember much Chechen. And I'm not sure how helpful that would be to begin with.

But I can dig around and see if I can verify anything.

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Re: Kabardian and Adyghe

Postby Massimiliano B » 2018-03-01, 15:19

(Adyghe)

a = [a:] or [a] at the end of the word.
шӏ = palato-alveolar ejective fricative [ʃʼ]
шӏу = labialized palato-alveolar ejective fricative [ʃʷʼ]
e = [jɜ/ɜj]
дж = voiced palato-alveolar sibilant affricate [d͡ʒ]

Words borrowed from Russian are pronounced in a more "Russian" way.


From lesson 3 http://www.goethe-verlag.com/book2/EN/ENAD/ENAD002.HTM

Уимафэ шIу! ['wəjma:fɜ ʃʷʼ] = Hello!
Европэм шъукъекIа? [jɜv'rɜwpɜm ʂʷ'qɜjt͡ʃʼa] (Европэ-м шъу-къекI-а = Europe+m(?) you.plur-come-interr.] = "Do you come from Europe?". The desinence -m at the end of the word Европэм marks the ergative-oblique case.
Мыр сиадрес [mər sjəadrjɜs] (Мыр си-адрес = here my-address]


From lesson 4

Тэдэ тыщыI? [tɜ'dɜ tə'ɕəʔ] (Тэдэ ты-щыI = Where we-are?) = Where are we?
Тэ еджапIэм тыщыI [tɜ jɜ'd͡ʒa:pʔɜm tə'ɕəʔ] (Тэ еджапIэ-м ты-щыI = We school-(at?) we-are) = "We are at school". The desinence -m marks the ergative-oblique case.
Мыхэр кIэлэеджакIох. [mə'xɜr t͡ʃʼɜ'lɜjɜ'd͡ʒa:kʼwɜx] (Those school-children) = Those are the school children.
Сыда тшIэрэр? [sə'da tʃʼɜrɜr] (Сыда т-шIэрэр = What we-do] = What are we doing?
Тэ теджэ [tɜ 'tjɜd͡ʒɜ] (Тэ те-джэ = we read) = We are reading.
Сэ инджылызыбзэр зэсэгъашIэ [sɜ jənd͡ʒələ'zəbzɜr zɜsɜ'ʁa:ʃʼɜ] (I English+r pref.(?)+I+learn) = "I am learning English". The suffix -r marks the absolutive case. The verb is in final position. I think it is compsed by a prefix зэ-,then by the first-person singular prefix -сэ-, then the verb stem.
Last edited by Massimiliano B on 2018-03-30, 21:49, edited 3 times in total.

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Re: Kabardian and Adyghe

Postby Massimiliano B » 2018-03-02, 23:22

(Adyghe)


If you speak Russian, here you can find some good material: http://minobr.ru/audio/
At the end of the page there are 14 downloadable textbooks for learning Adyghe.

я = [ja:]
гу = labialized voiced velar stop [ɡʷ]

From lesson 4 http://www.goethe-verlag.com/book2/EN/ENAD/ENAD002.HTM

Сэ инджылызыбзэр зэсэгъашIэ. [sɜ jənd͡ʒələ'zəbzɜr zɜsɜ'ʁa:ʃʼɜ] (I English-abs. ?-I-learn) = I learn English.
I don't know the meaning of the prefix зэ- [zɜ]. The noun indicating the language is in the absolutive case (-p [r]) , which corresponds to the object in subject-object languages like English.
The first-person singular prefix is in bold letters.

О испаныбзэр зэогъашIэ. [wɜ jə'spa:nəbzɜr zɜwɜ'ʁa:ʃʼɜ] (you.sing. Spanish-abs. ?-you-learn) = You learn Spanish.
The second-person singular prefix is in bold letters.

Ащ нэмыцыбзэр зэрегъашIэ [a:ɕ nɜmə't͡səbzɜʁ zɜrjə'ʁa:ʃʼɜ] (he/she German-abs. ?-he/she+learn) = He/she learns German.
The third-person subject in the absolutive case is ap [a:r]. I don't know why here it is aщ [a:ɕ]. Maybe this is the ergative case, but in this case I don't know why the previous personal pronouns (and the following ones) are in the indefinite case - without case marker). The third-person singular prefix is in bold letters.

Тэ французыбзэр зэтэгъашIэ [tɜ fra:n't͡swəbzɜr zɜtɜ'ʁa:ʃʼɜ] (We French-abs. ?-we.pl-learn) = We learn French.
The first-person plural prefix is in bold letters.

Шъо итальяныбзэр зэшъогъашIэ [ʂwɜ jəta:'lja:nəbzɜr zɜʂwɜ'ʁa:ʃʼɜ] (You.pl. Italian-abs. ?-you.pl-learn) = You all learn Italian.
The second-person plural prefix is in bold letters.

Ахэм урысыбзэр зэрагъашIэ [a:xɜm wərə'səbzɜr zɜra:'ʁa:ʃʼɜ] (They-erg.(?) Russian-abs. ?-they-learn) = They learn Russian.The ending -бзэ [bzɜ] means "language".
The third-person plural prefix is in bold letters.

Бзэхэр зэбгъэшIэныр гъэшIэгъоны ['bzɜxɜr zɜbʁɜ'ʃʼɜnər ʁɜʃʼɜʁwɜnə] (Languages-abs. learning be-interesting) = Learning languages is interesting.
"Language learning" is in the absolutive case -p [r] because it is the subject of an intransitive verb ("to be interesting").

Тэ цIыфхэр къыдгурыIонхэу тыфай [tɜ t͡sʼəfxɜr qədɡʷrə'ʔwɜnxɜw təfa:j] (We people.abs understand we-want) = We want to understand people.
The word цIыфхэр [t͡sʼəfxɜr] is in the absolutive case -p [r] because it is the object of a transitive verb. The verb тыфай is composed by the prefix ты- (we-) and the verb stem -фай (-want)

Тэ цIыфхэм тадэгущыIэнэу тыфай [tɜ t͡sʼəfxɜm ta:dɜɡʷɕ'ʔɜnɜw təfa:j] (We people.erg.oblique speak we-want) = We want to speak with people.
I think the word цIыфхэм [t͡sʼəfxɜm] is in the ergative/oblique case -m because it is an indirect object.
Last edited by Massimiliano B on 2018-03-04, 23:05, edited 2 times in total.

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Re: Kabardian and Adyghe

Postby księżycowy » 2018-03-02, 23:33

Massimiliano B wrote:(Adyghe)
If you speak Russian, here you can find some good material: http://minobr.ru/audio/
At the end of the page there are 14 downloadable textbooks for learning Adyghe.

I'm drooling over here. More reasons for me to learn Russian! :P


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