Ainu

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"Kotoba" (2)

Postby Karavinka » 2007-09-25, 16:40

2. Where was Ainu spoken? (アイヌ語はどこで話されていたか)

Ainu was not only confined to Hokkaido, but it was once spoken in Southern Sakhalin (Karafuto), whole of Kurile Islands (Chishima), and northern Tohoku region of Honshu Island as well. Ainu in Honshu is traceable only from the place names and it is believed that it became extinct much earlier. The records of Kurile Islands Ainu ends in 1910s and it is believed it became extinct around then. Much of Ainu in Sakhalin migrated to Japan after the World War II as entire Sakhalin became Soviet territory. In present, a small number of Ainu speakers in Sakhalin, Hokkaido and Honshu are identified to exist.

It is believed that Ainu was spoken throughout Hokkaido, but currently the Ainu went extinct in much of Western coast, Soya area and on the Northern coast on Okhotsk Sea. Currently the Ainu speakers are found only in the areas along the Pacific coast and Ishikari river area.

Among them, Saru river area including Biratori in Hitaka region is well documented from the early days and much is known about the language of the region. In addition, Horobetsu dialect, Ishikari dialect (including Asahikawa), Tokachi dialect (including Honbetsu) and Chitose dialects are well researched and much of their vocabulary and grammar are known.

The regional variation in Ainu is not as big compared to Japanese. All dialects in Hokkaido are mutually intelligible without much grammatical differences, and the differences are thought to be less than Tokyo and Kansai Japanese. But Sakhalin dialect differs much from Hokkaido and it may be difficult for the speakers to understand each other.


Aside: Ezo Interpreters and Ainu Lexicon

The Sisam in Early Modern Hokkaido Traiding Areas (Basho) worked in various positions, shihai, tsushi, choho, hannin, etc while shihai were often employed as tsushi at the same time. These tsushi were the so-called "Ezo Interpreters" who interpreted between the Ainu and Sisam. Since they were interpreters, we tend to think that they must have known Ainu, but it turned out that many of then weren't so.

But there were certain good interpreters such as Uehara Kumajiro, Nodoya Maruyoshi, Kagaya Denzo, etc. Among them, Uehara Kumajiro was the compiler of Moshihokusa and Ezogoshu, the largest Ainu dictionaries before the works of J. Bachelor. Kindaichi Kyosuke praised Uehara Kumajiro as the "forefather of Ezo Linguistics".

Ainu dictionaries of this period were only Japanese-Ainu, and there was no Ainu-Japanese. From this, it is inferred that the communication between them was one-way from Sisam to Ainu, and the Sisam probably did not really cared to listen to what Ainu had to say.

Translator's Notes:

Ezo is the archaic name of Hokkaido and the Ainu area. The entire Ezo was given as the fiefdom of Matsumae Clam in Tokugawa Shogunate, and the island was divided into Japanese settlements ("Wajinchi") and Ainu areas ("Ezochi") to prevent the Ainu to contact with Japanese and learn their language. The ban on Ainu learning Japanese was never official but in practice it was very well enforced, so even many of the contemporaries thought it to be an official law. The word "Shihai" literally means "rulers", and the Ezo Interpreters were generally in charge of all issues related to the Ainu, from governance to trading, which was possible since they were the only ones who could do it as Ainu were banned from learning Japanese. Perhaps they were the highest income interpreters of all times.

Kindaichi Kyosuke is the so-called "father of Ainu studies." He was the first one to begin a through modern study on the Ainu people and language.
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"Kotoba" (3)

Postby Karavinka » 2007-09-26, 2:21

3. What is Ainu like? (アイヌ語はどんな言葉か)

Ainu speakers are now concentrated in Hokkaido and they use Japanese as their daily language. However, not only Hokkaido but Sakhalin, Kurile Islands, and to a certain extent Northeastern Honshu areas once belonged to Ainu language area.

Ainu is not a dialect of Japanese. Even if it is true that they were related a long time ago, they are two distinct languages now. To learn Ainu is just like to learn any other foreign language.

But still there is an advantage for Japanese speakers in learning Ainu. It is that the word order of the two languages is very similar to each other.

For example, there are close equivalents of Japanese passive voice forms like saseru (to be made to do something) or continuous shiteiru (doing something) in Ainu as well. In many cases, simply transcribing Ainu sentence into Japanese word by word can be idiomatic in Japanese. For example, look at the following sentence:

Toan retar cape cep e kor an na.
Ano shiroi neko sakanawo tabe te iru yo.
"That white cat is eating fish."

The sentence above is Ainu and the italicised sentence is Japanese. It is nothing but a literal word for word translation, and it is a good Japanese sentence already.

Still there are some points where two languages are different. For example, the grammatical person of the subject must be clearly said in Ainu. Japanese need not to specify the personal pronoun when it can be certainly inferred from the context. Kino Sapporo he itta? Un, ittayo. ("Did you go to Sapporo yesterday? Yes, I did.") The Japanese sentences don't have personal pronouns like "you" or "I" in them, because the context tells you who we're talking about. This must be made explicit in Ainu or English.

In Ainu, the above sentence would be numan sapporo otta e=oman ruwe? ku=oman ruwe un. Here, the subject of each sentences are clearly marked by the pronominal affixes e "you" and ku "I" attached to the verb oman "to go." This is not only in the subject pronouns, but the same thing applies to the direct and indirect objects as well: they are expressed by attaching small words like aforementioned ku or e, and one verb with the right affixes can be a full sentence by itself. Ainu is thus called a polysynthetic language.

More, Ainu verbs have singular and plural forms. The Ainu verb for "to come" is ek when the subject is singular, and arki when the subject is plural (two or more persons). And the aforementioned pronominal suffixes will be attached to them: "I come" would be ku=ek, and "we come" is arki=as. This is a bit tricky to remember.

On the other hand, Ainu has no past tense form of the verbs. In English there is a difference between "come" and "came", and in Japanese there is kuru and kita. Ainu only has ek to deal with this, and the context or the adverbs like "yesterday" or "since then" will tell you when it happened.

The differences mentioned so far are grammatical. The pronunciation of Ainu is similar to Japanese, but again there are some differences. There are five vowels same with Japanese: a e i o u. Ainu has less consonants than Japanese, as it does not distinguish voiced and unvoiced sounds like p and b, or t and d. Whether one says hapo or habo "mother" would not make difference in Ainu, although Japanese speakers will notice the different sounds. Think of Japanese speakers who do not distinguish r and l in English.

If this was all it would be easy for Japanese speakers to pronounce Ainu, but Ainu has a distinction that Japanese doesn't. Ainu allows consonants on the word final: if you take a careful look at the Ainu texts in Katakana, you will notice some of the letters look smaller than the rest. For example, sap, 、sat サッ and sak. They each mean "to go out on the beach", "to be dry" and "not to exist, to have a lack of." The English word "sap" has a glottal stop at the end which helps distinguish whether the final consonant is p, t or k but Ainu does not have the stop at the end and all three of them may sound like "sat" if one is not used to it. Once you get used to it, then speaking or listening to Ainu would not become difficult and it will still be considerably easier than English or French.
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"Kotoba" (4)

Postby Karavinka » 2007-09-26, 3:03

4. Is Ainu related to Japanese? (アイヌ語と日本語は関係があるのだろうか)

I am often asked questions like "Where did Ainu language come from?" or "Is it related to Japanese?" There are various publications on this question and one thing that we are sure of is that we don't know. If you find any book with a definite conclusion, it is nothing but a pure guess based on a small data set and a few words that looks similar. First of all, we need to know the history of Ainu language if we want to examine the historical relationship between Ainu and Japanese, and the research on the Ainu historical linguistics just began to take place. We just won't know until we know what Ainu was like in the past.

True, there are some words that look similar and there are people who do not think it could be a pure chance. For example, the word for "god" is kami in Japanese, and kamuy in Ainu. The word for "soul" is tama in both languages. "To bow" is ogami in Japanese and onkami in Ainu. A ritual tool called takusa in Japanese is also takusa in Ainu. It has been known since a long time that there are similarities in religious vocabularies. Some people explain them to be loanwords (usually from Japanese to Ainu) while the others argue that the religious pattern itself spread from one region to the other.

In terms of linguistics, it is very difficult to determine whether they are loanwords or the remnants of certain Proto-Ainu-Japonic language, as it becomes more difficult to distinguish loanwords if the borrowing took place in a more ancient time. And even if they are indeed loanwords, it is impossible to distinguish to which direction it took place. Simply put, we cannot make a decisive conclusion until more information becomes available in fields of folklore, history or archeology. Some people argue that "culture flows from higher to lower", but this is only a hypothesis without any concrete evidence. After all, how do you determine whether the culture is "high" or "low"? Even if such words were loaned from Japanese to Ainu in the distant past, can it be the basis that the Japanese culture was "higher" than Ainu speaking culture at that time? This is simply groundless.

On the other hand, there are arguments that they do not seem to be loanwords and therefore they must have had a common proto-language. In view of linguistics, this is problematic as well. If they indeed descended from a common proto-language, they should have common words in areas other than just religion as well. The possible cognates between Ainu and Japanese are concentrated mostly in one area of life and it is hard to believe that the common words were preserved only in this area. The words for body parts and kinship terms, basic verbs and adjectives, and other words necessary in daily life do not seem to cognate.

It is likely that they will argue back with words such as tek ("hand", Japanese te) and hone ("bone", Japanese hone) and they indeed seem to be cognates. They indeed look similar, but what happened to the final -k in Japanese? Did such a thing exist in Japanese a long time ago and got lost? Or was it attached to Ainu for some reason? There is another word for "hand" in Ainu, mon and how is it related to Japanese? "Bone" is hone in both languages, but "nose" in Ainu is not same with Japanese hana, it's etu. Why is it so? The linguistic society will not accept the common ancestor hypothesis unless such questions could be reasonably answered.

And more, it is now widely accepted that proto-Japanese had eight vowels, and the fact that modern Ainu has only five vowels (a, i, u, e, o) makes the common ancestor hypothesis even weaker ground. None of the adherents of this hypothesis tried to explain this matter.

Takeshi Umehara claims that the sheer authority of Kindaichi Kyosuke makes the linguists silent. But the linguistic society just does not obey Kindaichi's claim because he said Ainu and Japanese weren't related. Much of Kindaichi's grammatical analysis of Ainu is now challenged and modified. There are still piles of problems in comparative linguistics for the serious linguists, and the amateurish comparison of few words will not prove anything. I wish that people who study the genetic relationship of Ainu may have fruitful results, but I also wish that they study comparative linguistics first.
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Postby Karavinka » 2007-09-26, 3:30

5. Why didn't the Ainu have writing? (アイヌ民族はなぜ文字を持たなかったか)

Ainu people do not have an indigeneous writing system. In fact it is rare for a people to invent a script from the scratch, most writing systems in the World were borrowed from somewhere else and modified to make it easier to use with their languages. Japanese Hiragana and Katakana are no exceptions, they first borrowed Chinese characters and modified them through a long period of use.

It's not an easy question to answer why Ainu didn't use a writing, but there are two possible reasons behind.

First, we need to consider why writing is necessary in the first place, and what purpose it serves. In order for the written literature to be developed for any people, it is necessary that there's a need to record the official orders, taxation, rewards and punishments, and the deeds of the rulers - the history. If this is the case, there was no need for the Ainu to record such things, because they did not establish a nation state.

Another reason is that the only neighbouring people with a writing system, that is Japanese, did not want Ainu to learn and tried to prevent them from it. There were a few reasons, one of it is to assume advantage in communication and maintain the control of the trade. When the Japanese finally decided that they would teach Ainu to read in Meiji periods, it was to assimilate them into Japanese culture and Ainu language use declined.

But there were attempts to write their language in Roman alphabet or Katakana. Recently it became customary to write the final consonants such as p and k are now generally written with small-case Katakana, and this is an advancement of the unique writing system based on Katakana.

And there are people who can write Ainu either in Kana or Roman alphabet yet still refuse to do so, because "they forget if they write." We now take notes when we hear some meaningful information, but there are some old people who rely entirely on the memory. They store all information in their brain and retrieve them freely at will. Although we feel that we remember better if we take notes, but we become helpless when we can't find that note.

When we listen to the elderly Ainu, we are often surprised by their accuracy and details of memory. It is because they will never find that information again once they forget. People may feel comfortable after taking a note using a writing system because they can retrieve that information from the record even if they forget, and they end up forgetting them. This is something we need to think about. We can obtain as much information as we want in the modern information age, but how much do we internalise them? We tend underestinate the people who do not have a writing or the illiterate persons, but are we really more knowledgeable than them?
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"Kotoba" (6)

Postby Karavinka » 2007-09-28, 17:14

6. Ainu in Japanese (身近にあるアイヌ語)

Note: This essay is originally intended for Japanese speakers.

Ainu is heard much more often than you would imagine. For example, the word for sea otter "rakko" is in fact an Ainu word. Or, you know how Santa Claus ride sleigh "sori" led by the reindeer "tonakay." Many people mistakenly believe that they must be some Northern European word, but they are in fact Sakhalin Ainu words. Or how about shishamo, one of the favourite side dish with sake? This shishamo is from the Ainu word susam. The word susam is a compound noun of sus + ham, meaning "willow leaf." Shishamo kind of looks like a willow leaf, isn't it?

But the Ainu words are most often seen, heard and used in the place names. One may notice that the place names in Hokkaido sound just "different" from that of the other areas, and those are Ainu words. Let's take Noboribetsu. This is a Japonised form of the Ainu name Nupurpet, "muddy river." Noboribetsu comes from the Kanji transcription of Nupurpet, and thus the characters for nobori (登) and betsu (別) do not mean anything.

There are many place names in Hokkaido that end in betsu (別), nai (内), and shiri (尻). (Note: the Kanji literally mean "other", "inside", and "buttock" respectively.) This nai is from Ainu word nay meaning "marsh", and shiri comes from sir, meaning "land" or "mountain." For example, Wakkanai can be broken down into Ainu words yam wakka nay, "cold-water-river." Another place name Rishiri becomes ri sir, "high mountain."

There are many interesting findings in the study of Hokkaido toponyms. Erimo (襟裳岬) is from enrum, meaning "cape." Interestingly enough, the Kanji for Erimo preserves the character for "cape" in it: 岬. Siretoko (知床岬) comes from Sir etok, "the peninsula" which again means "cape" (岬). Ainu even gave new readings to Japanese Kanji here. But Chitose (千歳) is not Ainu in origin. The original Ainu is si kot, "large river." Sikot was originally transcribed as Shikotsu (死骨) literaly meaning "dead bones" in character. This didn't sound very appealing, and it was given a new name Chitose ("thousand years") in Japanese. Sikot remains in other place names such as Lake Shikotsu, this time with different characters: 支笏.

Now, are you interested in finding out what different place names means and what their original forms are in Ainu? Toponyms are usually given a long time ago, and they change with the history, and sometimes the same name is given to a different place later. For example, an area of Sapporo is called Tsukisamu (月寒), which used to be called Cikisap in Ainu. This later became Tsukisatpu and finally fixed in Kanji Tsukisamu. Another example is Lake Kussharo (屈斜路), from Ainu Kutcharo, "where water flows out of lake into river." This originally was just a village there, but the Japanese gave the Japanised name Kussharo to the whole lake.

The knowledge of Ainu language is necessary in order to study the toponyms of Hokkaido. What was the original name of this place, and where did this name originally refer to? For example, finding out exactly where the names for the wide regions such as Kushiro or Tokachi originally referred to, and what they mean in Ainu, is still the standard methodology in Hokkaido toponym studies.

This may sound too obvious, but the correct knowledge of Ainu language is necessary in order to analyse Ainu. If you are trying to analyse toponyms using J. Batchelor's Ainu-Japanese-English dictionary, you will often get erroneous results. For example, Batchelor lists a as the word for "to burn." This is an overanalysis of the Ainu word ape, "fire" into a pe, "something that burns." Even if a meant "to burn", the nominalised form in Ainu should be ap, not ape. Many of his analysis simply ignores the grammar, and the saying that "Mount Fuji" comes from Ainu "Huci" (grandmother) is another urban legend coming from Batchelor. There are many who believe it, but this is simply not the case.

If anyone wants to go further into Ainu studies, the following books can be of help.

* 知里真志保『アイヌ語入門』(1985年復刊)北海道出版企画センター
* 知里真志保『地名アイヌ語小辞典』(1985年復刊)北海道出版企画センター
* 山田秀三『アイヌ語地名の研究』全4巻(1982~3年)草風館
* 山田秀三『東北・アイヌ語地名の研究』(1993年)草風館

Translator's Notes:

Hokkaido toponym studies is the most popular field of Ainu studies and one can find more books on Hokkaido toponyms on Amazon Japan than the rest of Ainu language books combined, for example. The short bibliography above is left in Japanese as there aren't any translations, but for those who may be curious, they include "Introduction to Ainu" and "Pocket Ainu Toponym Dictionary" by Chiri Mashiho and "Study of Ainu Toponyms" (4 vols.) and "Study of Tohoku, Ainu Toponyms" by Hidezo Yamada.
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"Kotoba" (7)

Postby Karavinka » 2007-09-28, 17:43

7. Present situation of Ainu Learning Movement (アイヌ語学習運動の現在)

I often get questions like "How many people speak Ainu now?" There may be none who can give a definite answer to this question. There are still many of those who can speak Ainu yet refuse to do so, especially among the elderly. After years of social and economic discrimination from the Japanese, they chose not to let others know that they speak Ainu, and not to pass down the language to their children and conceal their Ainu heritage. This is common among elderly Ainu, who want to end everything in their generation.

Although this trend existed for more than a century, there are still those who speak Ainu. Even now, some people who seemed like having no knowledge of Ainu suddenly start speaking the language they learned in childhood. Such people are not many, but it is a sign that the society finally began to change that the Ainu can claim their identity.

This change began in 1984, when traditional Ainu dance was officially recognised as "Intangible Cultural Heritage" from the government. Prime Minister Nakasone in 1986 claimed that "Japan is a homogeneous state" and since then the Ainu movements to appeal their existence received much of media attention.

In the midst of this, people began to realise that the key to their ethnic identity was the language, and the revival of Ainu language began. The most important achievement among it is the Ainu Language Classes which began to appear all over Hokkaido since 1987. They were modelled after the private classes of Shigeru Kayano in Biratori. As of now (1993), there are classes established in Asahikawa, Sapporo, Kushiro, Urakawa, Shiraoi, Chitose, Akan, Shizunai, Mukawa, and Obihiro, with the support of Hokkaido Utar Foundation. The development of a common textbook began recently.

And more, Ainu language and culture began to appear in post-secondary curricula in Hokkaido University of Education, Hokkai Gakuen University and Sapporo Gakuen University. The Ainu Culture Museum also opened the class for Ainu language and culture, and the students came not only from local but distant areas as well.

And the first Ainu Culture Festival was held in 1989, in order to preserve the Ainu traditional dance, announce the achievements in Ainu culture preservation and revival, such as Ainu language classes, and discuss the new form of the Ainu culture. It was held for the first time in Sapporo in 1989, and later in Kushiro, Asahikawa, Tomakonai and Obihiro.

Ainu language was often said to be "destined to die out," but it is becoming a new language with a new meaning in the society, and it is spreading and being revitalised again. But it is still true that the elderly, who are our primary source of information, are now passing away and this is posing a serious problem. Moreover, there is still discrimination against the Ainu in work, marriage or school. Until we solve these problems, Ainu will still not be spoken on the street as it deserves to be.

The efforts of the Ainu themselves are important in order for such movements to succeed, but more than that, the understanding and participation of the majority, the Japanese are also essential. Most importantly, the support from the State would be of the utmost necessity. But unfortunately, there hasn't been any until this point.
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Postby Karavinka » 2007-09-28, 17:45

So this is it. :)

These short essays by Hiroshi Nakagawa are originally intended to Japanese speakers, but they will be helpful also to the non-Japanese foreigners answering the general questions about the language and the people.
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Intermediate Ainu lessons

Postby Karavinka » 2007-10-07, 4:59

Note: These lessons have been moved from another topic to make it easier to access. - unzum

The previous 52 lessons by Kane Kumagai is currently still under revision. I must admit that revision is somewhat more tedious task and I have been rather slower in the process.

Here comes the next set of the lessons by Shigeru Kayano. Although I have titled the English translations of his set of lessons as "Intermediate Ainu" his lessons assume no previous knowledge of Ainu either. He moves at a faster face and reaches higher level at the end compared to Kumagai lessons.

The dialect used in this lesson is Saru dialect, compared to Samani in Kumagai lessons. The dialectal differences are not great, but you will notice certain minor differences.

Sapporo TV Ainu Radio Lessons
STVアイヌ語ラジオ講座

Broadcasted on April 6 2003

Lesson 01: Greetings (1) First Meeting

Text

イランカラプテー
i-ram-karap-te
Hello, how do you do? (At the first meeting)

ウウェランカラプ  アン  ナー
u-werankarap    an   na
Let us exchange greetings.

イワンケノ  エチ・オカ  ヤー?
iwanke-no  eci=oka   ya
How are you? (lit, "Are you well?", plural)

イワンケノ  オカ・アシ  ワー
iwanke-no  oka=as   wa
We are well.

エ・イワンケ  ヤー?
e=iwanke   ya
How are you? (lit, "Are you well?", singular)

エー、  ク・イワンケ  ワー
e     ku=iwanke  wa
Yes, I am well.

Vocabulary

イランカラプテー[Hello, nice to meet you]
イワンケ[To be good, healthy]
オカ[To be, exist, live]
アシ[I, we]・・・Pronominal affix
エ[You (singular)]・・・Pronominal affix
ク[I]・・・Pronominal affix
エチ[You (plural)]・・・Pronominal affix

Explanations

"Iramkarapte" is composed of i (that, you) - ram (heart) - karap (touch) - te (made to), translated as "I am touched by your heart." "U-werankarap an na" is composed of u (reciprocal, each other) - we (that) - ram (heart), karap (touch) - an (we) - na (let us). "Let our hearts touch each other."
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Postby zhiguli » 2007-10-13, 9:47

just found this russian site:

http://ainu-mosiri.narod.ru/

with some documents about ainu, including a grammar and this short article about a possible ancient ainu writing system.

edit: another russian page, with an ainu-russian-english dictionary and other stuff:

http://kunnesiri.narod.ru/

[edit #2: they are selling the dictionary, not offering it online]

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Intermediate Ainu 02 : "Greetings" (2)

Postby Karavinka » 2007-10-20, 17:16

To those who have been wondering about the process: I have not deserted this project, but I just got somewhat busier during the last few days because of the midterm exams. (Well, I'm a student) Kumagai lessons are still under revision.

Sapporo TV Ainu Radio Lessons
STVアイヌ語ラジオ講座

Broadcasted on April 13 2003

Lesson 02: Greetings (2) Reunion

Text

○○  ニシパ  ヘ-
○○  nispa  he
Mr ○○, long time no see.

○○  ク・サポ  ヘ-
○○  ku=sapo  he
Sister ○○, long time no see.

○○  カッケマッ  ヘ-
○○  katke-mat  he
Mrs. ○○, long time no see.

○○  ク・ユポ  ヘ-
○○  ku=yupo  he
Brother ○○, long time no see.

ヘマンタ  ネプキ  ア・キ  コロ  アナン(アン・アン)?
hemanta  nepki   a=ki  kor   an=an
What work do you do?

ケシトケシト  ク・ネプキコロ   カン(ク・アン)
kesto kesto  ku=nepkikor    kan(ku=an)
I work everyday, everyday.

Vocabulary

ニシパ[a rich man, Mr., Sir.]
サポ[Sister]
カッケマッ[Wife, madame]
ユポ[Brother]
ヘマンタ[What]
ネプキ[Work, to work]
キ[To do]
コロ[Connector "while.."]

Explanations

Nispa is a word difficult to translate into other language. It is a rich man, powerful man, great man at the same time. It is also someone who deserves to be a teacher to the other, one who deserves to be a leader. It can be used by wife to refer to own husband.
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Karavinka
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Postby Karavinka » 2007-10-31, 1:14

Progress has been slow, and I don't particularly want to defend myself how busy I have been. I'll just make the temporary break notice until mid. december.
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Postby Karavinka » 2007-12-15, 20:34

Finally I have some time to get back on this, and here comes the final copies of the first five lessons.

http://pds6.egloos.com/pds/200712/16/86/Ainu01.doc
http://pds7.egloos.com/pds/200712/16/86/Ainu01.rtf

I have made some extensive revision on the explanatory materials. First, the correct grammatical terms are employed. Second, I have edited the explanatory materials so it suits the English speaking readers better. Third, I tried to include all that is required for the reader to know in the text itself, since the non-Japanese speakers cannot benefit from the broadcast.

For the general information on the language, please see Kotoba("Language") by Hiroshi Nakagawa.

I think I will be able to finish up these lessons by the end of this year or early in January.

Suy unukar an no.
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Postby Karavinka » 2007-12-18, 23:39

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Postby Karavinka » 2007-12-23, 0:53

Last edited by Karavinka on 2008-01-04, 18:03, edited 1 time in total.
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Postby Karavinka » 2008-01-04, 18:03

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Postby Karavinka » 2008-01-11, 19:45

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Postby Karavinka » 2008-01-21, 18:56

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Postby Karavinka » 2008-02-23, 14:54

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Postby Karavinka » 2008-03-09, 23:59

Lessons 46 to 50.

http://pds9.egloos.com/pds/200803/10/86/Ainu10.doc
http://pds8.egloos.com/pds/200803/10/86/Ainu10.rtf

Three more lessons remain to be revised, and this series would be done.
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Postby Karavinka » 2008-03-10, 2:21

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