Ainu

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Karavinka
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Aynu Itak

Postby Karavinka » 2007-09-04, 22:21

Okay, another Ainu thread on this forum.. this is meant to be a general discussion/QnA thread about Ainu while the other one is to be more or less an archive for the translations. Yes, I am going to spam the forum with the legitimate materials 8)

First, for those of you who never heard of it.. Ainu is an indigeneous language of Japan and Russia, and it is the language of the Yukars, the traditional Ainu oral narrative.

Wikipedia: Ainu language
Wikipedia: Yukar

Online resources in English are few, but here are some.

Ainu language : a few basic phrases with sound files.
Ainu Grammar by Batchelor
Ainu -Japanese-English Dictionary by Batchelor

The works of Batchelor were pioneering at that time, but the Ainu scholarship advanced much since then and apparently there were large number of mistakes in his books. Use them at your risk, if you want.

And of course, the Sapporo TV Ainu Radio Lessons translations on this very forum. :)


For printed materials, "The Languages of Japan" by Masayoshi Shibatani is probably the only Ainu material that you can easily purchase online. His book discusses both Ainu (about 80 pages) and Japanese (the rest). This book is more like a linguistic description, though - it's not very learner friendly.

"The Ainu Language: The Morphology and Syntax of the Shizunai Dialect" by Kirsten Refsing is a very comprehensive study of Ainu, and unfortunately this is out of print and rare. If you have an access to a university library, try it.

"Japanese Step by Step" by Gene Nishi is one of the best introduction to Japanese in English. You will need some Japanese if you ever want to go beyond the basics of this language. Japanese unlocks the access not only to Ainu but another rare language - Ryukyuan as well.
Last edited by Karavinka on 2007-09-09, 7:02, edited 1 time in total.
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Lesson 30: "You do.." (pl.)

Postby Karavinka » 2007-09-04, 22:41

Sapporo TV Ainu Radio Lessons
STVアイヌ語ラジオ講座

Broadcasted on October 22 2006

Sentences

エチミナ。
eci=mina.
You laugh. (pl.)

チェプコイキクル エチネ。
cepkoykikur  eci=ne.
You are fishers. (pl.)

Words in the Sentences

エチ       eci=     You (pl.)
チェプコイキクル cepkoykikur  Fisher. cep=fish, koyki=to take, catch, kur=person.
ネ        ne      Copula (to be)
ミナ       mina     To laugh, smile

Grammar

エ e= learned in lesson 17 was the secnod person singular pronominal prefix, and here comes the plural: エチ eci=. Like all pronominal affixes, エチ eci= can never occur independently.

You are eating meat. (pl.)
  × エチ カム   エ。 Eci kam e.
  ○    カム エチエ。 Kam eci=e.

エチ eci= is also used to denote the genitive relationships, that something belongs to "those of you."

エチテケ/エチテケヘ
eci=teke / eci=tekehe "your hands"

エチケリ/エチケリヒ
eci=ker / eci=kerihi "your shoes"

エチケウトゥム/エチケウトゥムフ
eci=keutum / eci=keutumhu "your hearts"

Practice Sentences

You (pl.) walk a lot.
I see your heads.

  アプカシ apkas To walk.
  ポロンノ poronno A lot, many, much
  エチ eci=  You (pl.)
  ヌカル nukar To see.
  ク ku= I.
  ナヌフ nanuhu Head of..

Answers from Lesson 29

[spoiler]1.ケラアン ペ ポロンノ オカイ keraan pe poronno okay
2.タパン イタ アナク アチャポ ヌイエ プ ネ tapan ita anak acapo nuye p ne[/spoiler]
↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ← → ← → B A
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Lesson 31: Independent Pronoun "You" (pl.)

Postby Karavinka » 2007-09-06, 4:02

Sapporo TV Ainu Radio Lessons
STVアイヌ語ラジオ講座

Broadcasted on October 29 2006

Sentences

エチオカイ フランス エン エチパイェ。
eciokay   FRANCE en  eci=paye.
You go to France.

エチオカイ アナクネ アタイコル ステーキ エチエ。
eciokay   anakne  ataykor  STEAK  eci=e.
You eat expensive steaks.

Words in the Sentences

アタイコル ataykor   To be expensive. Atay = price, kor = to have. Also "アタイエ ルイ ataye ruy", "the tough price."
アナクネ  anakne    Topic marker.
エ     e      To eat.
エチ    eci=    You (pl.)
エチオカイ eciokay   You (pl.)
エン    en     To, towards.
ステーキ  SUTE-KI   Steak. (Loanword into Japanese)
パイェ   paye    To go (pl.)
フランス  HURANSU   France. (Loanword into Japanese)

Grammar

We introduce the second person plural independent pronoun エチオカイ eciokay in this lesson. This is used in the same way as エアニ eani, the second person singular, which was introduced in lesson 22. And this means that the pronominal affixe must be retained even when the independent pronouns are used.

Examples:

"You go to France" (pl.)
  × エチオカイ フランス エン   パイェ。Eciokay furansu en paye.
  ○ エチオカイ フランス エン エチパイェ。Eciokay furansu en eci=paye.

You eat expensive steaks. (pl.)
  × エチオカイ アナクネ アタイコル ステーキ   エ。Eciokay anakne ataykor suteki e.
  ○ エチオカイ アナクネ アタイコル ステーキ エチエ。Eciokay anakne ataykor suteki eci=e.

And note how the word "paye" is used for "to go" in the sentences. Some Ainu verbs change the form entirely when they are in plural, so "エチオマン eci=oman" is grammatically incorrect.

Practice Sentences

You sleep well. (pl.)
You are elementary school students. (pl.)
  モコル   mokor   To sleep
  エチ    eci=   You (pl.)
  ピリカノ  pirkano  Well (adv.)
  エチオカイ eciokay  You (pl.)
  アナク   anak     Topic marker
  ネ     ne      Copula (to be)
  小学生   SYOUGAKUSEI Elementary school student

Answers from Lesson 30
[spoiler]1.ポロンノ エチアプカシ poronno eci=apkas
2.エチナヌフ クヌカル eci=nanufu ku=nukar[/spoiler]
↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ← → ← → B A
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Lesson 32: "We do..." (1)

Postby Karavinka » 2007-09-06, 4:26

Sapporo TV Ainu Radio Lessons
STVアイヌ語ラジオ講座

Broadcasted on November 5 2006

Sentences

モコルアン。
mokor=an.
We sleep.

ヌマン イシカル エン パイェアン。
numan  Iskar  en  paye=an.
We went to Ishikari yesterday.

Words in the Sentences

アン =an We
イシカル Iskar Ishikari. Etymology is uncertain.
エン en To, towards
ヌマン numan Yesterday
パイェ paye To go (pl.)

Grammar

We have seen three pronominal affixes so far: ku= for the first person singular, and e= and eci= for the second person singular and plural. They all acted as prefixes, but now we see a suffix: =an for the first person plural. Be careful not to put =an in front of the verb.

More examples:

 アルキアン Arki=an "We come"
 シンキアン Sinki=an "We are tired"
 リムセアン Rimse=an "We dance"
 ハウキアン Hauki=an "We talk/speak"
 テルケアン Terke=an "We jump"
 ペウレアン Peure=an "We are young"
 オンネアン Onne=an "We grow old"
 ポロアン Poro=an "We are big"
 サプアン Sap=an "We descend (down the river, etc)." May be shortened as "サパン Sapan" in speech.
 ラプアン Rap=an "We descend (from somewhere high)." May be shortened as "ラパン Rapan" in speech.
 オカイアン Okay=an "We are/exist" May be shortend as "オカヤン Okayan" or "オカアン Okaan" in speech.
 ポンアン Pon=an "We are small." May be shortened as "ポナン Ponan" in speech.

Note that Ainu has no adjectives in the strict sense. Instead, Ainu has corresponding verbs for "to be such" and they act as if they were verbs: the copula "to be" is largely incorporated in them. They also mean "to become such", and you must rely on the context to figure out what exactly is meant. Conventionally, Ainu sentences are translated into past tense unless the contextual cues tell otherwise.

Practice Sentences

We take a little break.
We come from Shiranuka.

  アン  =an  We
  シニ  sini  To rest, to take a break
  ポンノ ponno  A little
  シラルカ Sirarka Shiranuka
  アルキ  arki   To come 
  ワ    wa    From

Answers from Lesson 31
[spoiler]1.エチオカイ ピリカノ エチモコル eciokay pirkano eci=mokor
2.エチオカイ アナク 小学生 エチネ eciokay anak SYOUGAKUSEI eci=ne[/spoiler]
↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ← → ← → B A
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Lesson 33: "We do..." (2)

Postby Karavinka » 2007-09-09, 3:39

Sapporo TV Ainu Radio Lessons
STVアイヌ語ラジオ講座

Broadcasted on November 12 2006

Sentences

ドレス アンミ。
DRESS  an=mi.
We wear dress.

ケシト CD アンヌ。
kesto  CD  an=nu.
We listen to the CD everyday.

Words in the Sentences

アン  an=  We
ケシト kesto Everyday. Kes = each, every. To = day. "Kenpa" (every year) follows the same logic.
ドレス DORESU Dress.
ヌ   nu   To listen to.
ミ   mi   To wear.
CD  CD   CD (Compact Disc)

Grammar

Continuing from the lesson 32, we continue on using the first person plural pronoun.

Japanese would mark the object of the transitive verbs with the particle を (wo) but Ainu just changes the location of the affix from the back to the front of the verb. The examples are ミ mi "to wear", ヌ nu "to listen to", エ e "to eat", コル kor "to have/hold", ヌカル nukar "to look at" etc.

Note that "transitive" and "intransitive" mean slightly different things in English and Japanese. The original lesson explains Ainu grammar in terms of Japanese grammar, and there is a subtle difference that English speakers need to be aware of. For example, "to want" is a transitive verb in English as it takes an object, but in Japanese this is an intransitive verb as the action of "wanting" doesn't affect the object.

More examples:

アンエ  an=e "We eat ..."
アンコル  an=kor "We have ..."
アンネ  an=ne "We are..."
アンヌカル  an=nukar "We look at..."
アンカル  an=kar "We make..."
アンク  an=ku "We drink..."
アンヌ  an=nu "We listen to..."
アンミ  an=mi "We wear..."
アンヌイェ an=nuye "We write/inscribe..."
アンオ  an=o "We ride..."

Notice how some verbs are classified as "transitive", such as "ne." The verbs that the particle "を wo" or "に ni" in Japanese are classified as "transitive" and this applies to Ainu as well.

An= as a prefix is used to describe genitive relationships, translated as "our" as well:

アンシキ/アンシキヒ
An=siki / An=sikihi "Our day"

アンパケ/アンパケヘ
An=pake / An=pakehe "Our head"

アンチセ/アンチセヘ
An=cise / An=cisehe "Our house"

アンマッネポ/アンマッネポホ
An=matnepo / An=matnepoho "Our daughter"

Practice Sentences

We eat meat.
We drink wine a little.
  アン an=  We
  カム kam  Meat
  エ  e   To eat
  ク   ku   To drink
  ワイン WAIN  Wine
  ポンノ ponnno A little

Answers from Lesson 32
[spoiler]1.ポンノ シニアン ponno sini=an
2.シラリカ ワ アルキアン Sirarika wa arki=an[/spoiler]
↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ← → ← → B A
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Lesson 33: "We do..." (2)

Postby Karavinka » 2007-09-09, 3:42

Sapporo TV Ainu Radio Lessons
STVアイヌ語ラジオ講座

Broadcasted on November 12 2006

Sentences

ドレス アンミ。
DRESS  an=mi.
We wear dress.

ケシト CD アンヌ。
kesto  CD  an=nu.
We listen to the CD everyday.

Words in the Sentences

アン  an=  We
ケシト kesto Everyday. Kes = each, every. To = day. "Kenpa" (every year) follows the same logic.
ドレス DORESU Dress.
ヌ   nu   To listen to.
ミ   mi   To wear.
CD  CD   CD (Compact Disc)

Grammar

Continuing from the lesson 32, we continue on using the first person plural pronoun.

Japanese would mark the object of the transitive verbs with the particle を (wo) but Ainu just changes the location of the affix from the back to the front of the verb. The examples are ミ mi "to wear", ヌ nu "to listen to", エ e "to eat", コル kor "to have/hold", ヌカル nukar "to look at" etc.

Note that "transitive" and "intransitive" mean slightly different things in English and Japanese. The original lesson explains Ainu grammar in terms of Japanese grammar, and there is a subtle difference that English speakers need to be aware of. For example, "to want" is a transitive verb in English as it takes an object, but in Japanese this is an intransitive verb as the action of "wanting" doesn't affect the object.

More examples:

アンエ  an=e "We eat ..."
アンコル  an=kor "We have ..."
アンネ  an=ne "We are..."
アンヌカル  an=nukar "We look at..."
アンカル  an=kar "We make..."
アンク  an=ku "We drink..."
アンヌ  an=nu "We listen to..."
アンミ  an=mi "We wear..."
アンヌイェ an=nuye "We write/inscribe..."
アンオ  an=o "We ride..."

Notice how some verbs are classified as "transitive", such as "ne." The verbs that the particle "を wo" or "に ni" in Japanese are classified as "transitive" and this applies to Ainu as well.

An= as a prefix is used to describe genitive relationships, translated as "our" as well:

アンシキ/アンシキヒ
An=siki / An=sikihi "Our day"

アンパケ/アンパケヘ
An=pake / An=pakehe "Our head"

アンチセ/アンチセヘ
An=cise / An=cisehe "Our house"

アンマッネポ/アンマッネポホ
An=matnepo / An=matnepoho "Our daughter"

Practice Sentences

We eat meat.
We drink wine a little.
  アン an=  We
  カム kam  Meat
  エ  e   To eat
  ク   ku   To drink
  ワイン WAIN  Wine
  ポンノ ponnno A little

Answers from Lesson 32
[spoiler]1.ポンノ シニアン ponno sini=an
2.シラリカ ワ アルキアン Sirarika wa arki=an[/spoiler]
↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ← → ← → B A
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Lesson 34: "We do..." (3)

Postby Karavinka » 2007-09-09, 4:12

Sapporo TV Ainu Radio Lessons
STVアイヌ語ラジオ講座

Broadcasted on November 19 2006

Sentences

ウシケシ  ワ   アルキアシ。
Uskes   wa   arki=as.
We come from Hakodate.

ポロンノ アプカシアシ ワ   シンキアシ。
poronno  pakas=as  wa   sinki=as.
We walked a lot and got tired.

Words in the Sentences

アシ   as    We.
アプカシ apkas  To walk.
アルキ  arki   To come (pl.)
ウシケシ uskes   Hakodate. Us = bay, kes = end. "Hakodate(函館)" is an unrelated Japanese name. Used to be known as ウショルケシ "Ushorkes" or ウソルケシ "Usorkes" as well.
シンキ  sinki   To be tired.
ポロンノ poronno  A lot, many, much.
ワ1    wa    ...from
ワ2    wa    ...and

Grammar

"An" that we learned in the previous two lessons are inclusive second person, and we learn another form "as" which is exclusive second person: in sum, the "we" as in an is "you-and-I", including the listener while the "we" as in as is "we, not you" thereby excluding the listener. Although they both translate as "we" in English, the difference has to be observed in Ainu.

Practice Sentences

We have a meal together.
Tomorrow we go to Osaka.
  アシ    =as     We
  イペ    ipe      To eat, have a meal
  ウトゥラノ uturano   Together
  パイェ  paye    To go (pl.)
  大阪   OOSAKA   Osaka
  ニサッタ nisatta   Tomorrow
  エン   en     To, towards

Answers from Lesson 33
[spoiler]1.カム アンエ kam an=e
2.ポンノ ワイン アンク ponno WINE an=ku[/spoiler]

Answers from Lesson 34
[spoiler]1.ウトゥラノ イペアシ uturano ipe=as
2.ニサッタ 大阪 エン パイエアシ nisatta OOSAKA en paye=as[/spoiler]
↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ← → ← → B A
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Lesson 35: "We do..." (4)

Postby Karavinka » 2007-09-09, 5:52

Sapporo TV Ainu Radio Lessons
STVアイヌ語ラジオ講座

Broadcasted on November 26 2006

Sentences

パソコン チコル。
PASOKON  ci=kor.
We have a (personal) computer.

サラリーマン ヘンネ チネ。
SARARIMAN  henne  ci=ne.
We're not the corporate employees. ("salaryman")

Words in the Sentences

コル     kor     To have, to hold.
サラリーマン SARARIMAN  A corporate employee.
チ      ci=     We
ネ      ne      Copula (to be)
パソコン   PASOKON   Personal computer
ヘンネ    henne    Negation (not)

Grammar

Continuing from lesson 32, we learn yet another form of first person plural: ci. Ci is the exclusive first person plural pronominal prefix for the transitive verbs.

To summarise the three words:

Transitive Exclusive: ci-
Transitive Inclusive: -an
Intransitive Exclusive: -as
Intransitive Inclusive: -an

As you can see, -an is used for the inclusive first person plural, for both transitive and intransitive verbs, and Ainu makes a distinction between first person plural transitive ci and intransitive as in exclusive.

Examples:

チコタヌ/チコタヌフ
Ci=kotanu / ci=kotanuhu "Our village"

チケリ/チケリヒ
Ci=ker / ci=kerihi "Our shoes"

チテケ/チテケヘ
Ci=tek / ci=tekehe "Our hands"

チミッポ/チミッポホ
Ci=mitpo / ci=mitpoho "Our grandchild"

And ci is also used for "people in general", similar to French on or German man. This aspect of ci is most noticeable in compound nouns, personal and place names. For example, チェプ cep "fish" is a compound noun made of チ ci + エ e + プ p, "what-people-eat", with p being the nominaliser.

Examples:

チカルカルペ cikarkarpe(Embroidered clothing)
チ・カルカル・ペ ci=karkar=pe "What people embroider"

チロンノプ cironnop(Fox)
チ・ロンノ・プ ci=ronno=p "What people kill"

チエイワンケプ cieyunkep(Tool)
チ・エイワンケ・プ ci=eyunke=p "What people use"

チタタプ citatap(An Ainu dish made of bashing a salmon's head)
チ・タタ・プ ci=tata=p "What people bash"

チノミシリ cinomisir(A holy land)
チ・ノミ・シリ ci=nomi=sir "Where people pray"

Practice Sentences

We eat fish.
We are young youth.

  エ   e   To eat
  チェプ cep  Fish
  チ   ci=  We
  ペウレ   pewre  To be young
  ネ     ne    Copula (to be)
  オッカイポ okkaypo Youth
↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ← → ← → B A
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Postby Karavinka » 2007-09-09, 6:52

About the Dialects and some bibliography:

There are three main branches of Ainu dialects: Sakhalin (Karafuto), Kuril Islands (Chishima) and Hokkaido. Among these, Kuril Islands Ainu is extinct, and whether Sakhalin Ainu still survives is unclear. The standard reference text for Sakhalin Ainu is "カラフトアイヌ語" (Karafuto Ainugo, 2vols.) by Kyoko Murasaki (村崎恭子). (The book is in Japanese, but I may introduce some of the contents later.)

Then Hokkaido Ainu has several sub-dialects and they are more or less mutually intelligible. Ainu is a pluricentric language: it has no definate standard and the regional variations still exist, but there is some kind of common consensus for the "standard" language that is likely to be understood by everyone. Still the grammars, coursebooks and dictionaries are written in a specific dialect.

Saru(沙流) Ainu is one of the most commonly taught dialect. Two dictionaries exist: "アイヌ語沙流方言辞典"(Ainugo Saru Hogen Jiten, Dictionary of Saru Dialect of Ainu) by Suzuko Tamura(田村すず子) and "萱野茂のアイヌ語辞典"(Kayano Shigeru no Ainugo Jiten, Ainu Dictionary of Shigeru Kayano) by Shigeru Kayano(萱野茂). Kayano was the first Ainu politician who made his way into Japanese Diet and an important figure in Ainu revival. This is also the dialect of Biratori (平取), the site of Ainu Cultural Centre.

Chitose(千歳) Ainu is another commonly taught dialect. "エクスプレス・アイヌ語"(Express Ainugo) by Hiroshi Nakagawa (中川裕) and Mutsuko Nakamoto (中本ムツ子) is probably the most commonly used Ainu textbook. "アイヌ語千歳方言辞典(Ainugo Chitose Hogen Jiten, Dictionary of Chitose Dialect of Ainu)" by Nakagawa is also available.

Horobetsu(幌別) Ainu is an important dialect in Ainu studies. This was the dialect of Yukie Chiri (知里幸恵), the transcribe and translator of many Ainu epic tales, the Yukar. The collection is in print as "アイヌ神謡集"(Ainu Shinyoshu, Collection of Ainu Epics of the Gods). Her younger brother Mashiho (真志保) also became a prominent Ainu linguist after his sister's untimely death.

Samani(様似) Ainu is the dialect that is taught in the Ainu Lesson Translations.

Other major dialects include Mukawa (鵡川), Shizunai (静内), Urakawa (浦河), Tokachi (十勝), Kushiro (釧路), Akan (阿寒) and Asahikawa (旭川).
↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ← → ← → B A
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Lesson 36: "If.. then"

Postby Karavinka » 2007-09-09, 7:55

Sapporo TV Ainu Radio Lessons
STVアイヌ語ラジオ講座

Broadcasted on December 3 2006

Sentences

エエク    ヤクン   クホシピ。
e=ek     yakun   ku=hosipi.
If you come, I come back.

ルヤンペ アシ ヤクン ヘンネ クオマン。
ruyanpe    as yakun henne ku=oman.
If it rains, I don't go.

Words in the Sentences

アシ as To fall
エ e= You
エク ek To come
オマン oman To go
ク ku= I
ヘンネ henne Negation
ホシピ  hosipi  To come back, to go back
ヤクン yakun Conditional
ルヤンペ ruyanpe Rain

Grammar

ヤクン yakun is a conditional particle which is translated as "if". But unlike English "if", yakun is placed at the end of the conditional clause. The second sentence "ruyanpe as yakun henne ku=oman" is broken down as "ruyenpe as yakun" (if rain falls) with yakun connects the conditional to the main clause "henne ku=oman" (I don't/won't go.)

But yakun is strictly used in if... then situations where the result (then..) is determined given the condition (if..) is satisfied. Yakun will not be used in a sentence like "it will become warm if spring comes" as this involves a prediction. Not in a sentence like "I wish if I were.." either, as this is a wish, not a determined action under specific conditions.

Practice Sentences

If snow comes, mother rides bus.
If father is angry, I apologise.

 オ o To ride
 ヤクン yakun Conditional
 バス BASU Bus
 アシ as To fall
 ハポ hapo Mother
 ウパシ upas Snow
 イルシカ  iruska  To be angry
 アチャ   aca    Father
 ヤウナシケ yawnaske To apologise
 ク   ku=   I

Answers from Lesson 35

[spoiler]1.チェプ チエ cep ci=e
2.ペウレ オッカイポ チネ pewre okkaypo ci=ne[/spoiler]
↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ← → ← → B A
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Lesson 37: "I suppose..."

Postby Karavinka » 2007-09-12, 3:24

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Broadcasted on December 10 2006

Sentences

ニサッタ ウパシ アシ ナンコル。
nisatta   upas as nankor.
I suppose it would snow tomorrow.

オヤパ カナダ  エン パイェアン ナンコル。
oyapa  CANADA en paye=an  nankor.
I supposed we would go to Canada next year.

Words in the Sentences

アシ as To fall
アン =an We
ウパシ upas Snow
エン en To, towards
オヤパ oyapa Next year. Oya = other, pa = year.
カナダ CANADA Canada.
ナンコル nankor "I suppose..." Also ナンコロ nankor depending on the speaker.
ニサッタ nisatta Tomorrow
パイェ paye To go (pl.)

Grammar

ナンコル nankor is attached at the end of the sentence to express a guess or prediction about the future or current event, corresponding to the Japanese particle "だろう darou." It may be used to express something is expected from people or things depending on the context.

トマコマイ エン エオマン ナンコル。
Tomakomay en e=oman nankor.
You would go to Tomakomai.

クイェ イタク エチヌ ナンコル。
Ku=ye itak eci=nu nankor.
You would listen to what I say.

Practice Sentences

I suppose the wind would blow strong today.
I suppose you would see lots of stars if you go outside.

  ユプケ  yupke  To be strong
  タント  tanto   Today
  レラ   rera   Wind
  ナンコル nankor  "I suppose..."
  ノチウ  nociw  Star
  ソイネ  soyne   To go outside
  エ    e=   You
  ヌカル  nukar   To see
  ポロンノ poronno  A lot of, many, much
  ヤクン  yakun   Conditional

Answers from Lesson 36

[spoiler]1.ウパシ アシ ヤクン ハポ バス オ upas as yakun hapo BUS
2.アチャ イルシカ ヤクン クヤウナシケ aca iruska yakun ku=yawnaske[/spoiler]
↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ← → ← → B A
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Lesson 38: Object Pronoun "Me"

Postby Karavinka » 2007-09-12, 3:40

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Broadcasted on December 17 2006

Sentences

クユポ エンキク。
ku=yupo en=kik.
My brother beat me.

クコル  ハポ  チョコレート エンコレ。
ku=kor  hapo  CHOKORETO  en=kore.
My mother gave me chocolate.

Words in the Sentences

エン     en=  Me, to me
キク     kik  To beat, to strike
ク      ku=  My
コル     kor  To have, to hold
コレ     kore  To give something to someone
チョコレート CHOKORETO  Chocolate
ハポ     hapo  Mother
ユポ     yupo  Elder brother

Grammar

In this lesson we introduce the first of the objective pronominal prefix エン en. エン en is attached before the verb. The subject of the verb is still the agent of the action, and en is there to mark the object of the action.

Practice Sentences

A big dog bites me.
My aunt scolds me.

  シタ  sita  Dog
  クパパ kupapa To bite
  エン  en=   Me
  ポロ  poro  Big, to be big
  フチ    huci    Aunt
  コイルシカ koiruska  To scold
  コル    kor     To have, to hold
  ク     ku=     I

Answers from Lesson 38
[spoiler]1.タント レラ ユプケ ナンコル tanto rera yupke nankor
2.エソイネ ヤクン ノチウ ポロンノ エヌカル ナンコル
e=soyne yakun nociw poronno e=nukar nankor[/spoiler]
↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ← → ← → B A
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Lesson 39: Connector "korkay"

Postby Karavinka » 2007-09-13, 4:07

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Broadcasted on December 24 2006

Sentences

ウパシ アシ  コルカイ シリポプケ。
upas   as  korkay  sirpopke.
Snow falls, but it is warm. /It is warm though it's snowing.

タパン キムチ  チャルカル コルカイ ケラアン。
tapan KIMUCHI  carkar   korkay keraan.
This kimchi is hot, but it tastes good. / This kimchi tastes good though it is hot.

Words in the Sentences

アシ   as    To fall
ウパシ  upas   Snow
キムチ  KIMUCHI  Kimchi
ケラアン keraan  To taste good. ケラ kera =taste、アン ab = to be, to exist.
コルカイ korkay  But, although. Also コロカイ korokay, コルカ korka, コロカ koroka
シリポプケ sirpirke To be warm. (climate)
タパン  tapan   This
チャルカル carkar To be hot. (in taste) チャル car= mouth、カル kar=to hit. Salty taste is "ルンヌ runnu."

* "Salty" is mentioned in the original lecture as "to be hot" 辛い karai may mean either.

Grammar

Korkay is a word that connects two clauses. A korkay B is translated either as A, but B or B, thogugh A. Subordinate clause is followed by the main clause, and this is a shared feature between Japanese and Ainu.

Practice Sentences

I eat sherbet, although it is cold.
We dance, although we are tired.
  コルカイ   korkay   But, though
  エ      e      To eat
  シャーベット SHABETTO  Sherbet
  ク      ku=    I
  メアン    mean    To be cold
  リムセ  rimse  To dance
  アシ   =as  We
  シンキ  sinki  To be tired, fatigued

Answers from Lesson 38

[spoiler]1.ポロ シタ エンクパパ  poro sita en=kupapa
2.クコル フチ エンコイキ ku=kor huci en=koyki[/spoiler]
↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ← → ← → B A
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Lesson 40: "Let us.." (1)

Postby Karavinka » 2007-09-13, 4:27

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Broadcasted on December 31 2006

Sentences

イペアン  ノ。
ipe=an  no.
Let us have a meal.

ウラカ パクノ アプカシアン ノ。
Uraka pakno pakas =an  no.
Let us walk to Urakawa.

Words in the Sentences

アプカシ apkas To walk.
アン =an We.
イペ ipe To have a meal.
ウラカ Uraka Urakawa. (pn.)
ノ no "Let us.."
パクノ pakno Towards, up to.

Grammar

The suggestion of "let us..." is expressed in Ainu with the particle ノ no. This is essentially second person plural inclusive, and ノ no is simply placed at the end of the sentence, corresponding to Japanese しましょう shimashou.

スイ ウヌカルアン ノ suy unukar=an no! is a common "good bye" expression in Ainu, literally meaning "let us meet again!"

This ノ no may become ロ ro, ロク rok, or ナ na depending on the dialect.

Answers from Lesson 39
[spoiler]1.メアン コルカイ シャーベット クエ mean korkay SHERBET ku=e
2.シンキアシ コルカイ リムセアシ sinki=as korkay rimse=as[/spoiler]
↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ← → ← → B A
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Lesson 41: "Let us.." (2)

Postby Karavinka » 2007-09-14, 6:42

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Broadcasted on January 7 2007

Sentences

ポロリムセ アンキ   ノ。
pororimse an=ki   no.
Let us dance waodori

ヤマウ アンカル  ワ   アンエ     ノ。
yamaw an=kar   wa   an=e      no.
Let us make yamaw and eat.

Words in the Sentences

アン an= We
エ e To eat
カル kar To make
キ ki To do
ノ no Let us..
ポロリムセ pororimse Waodori. Japanese name means "circled dance", but the original Ainu means "big dance", poro= big, rimse = dance. It is a traditional dance in a circle after a celebration.
ヤマウ yamaw ヤマウ。 Yamaw, an Ainu dish. Literally means yam "cold" + ohaw "soup".
ワ wa And

Grammar

No was introduced in lesson 40, making the sentence a suggestion: "let us..." and we continue on it in this lesson as well. However, there is a difference; examples given in lesson 40 were all in intransitive verbs with no objects, and the pronominal affix =an was placed after the verb. Here, when the sentence takes an object and the verb is therefore transitive, the affix is placed before the verb: an=. The pronominal affix can never be omitted.

"Let us watch a movie"
○ 映画 アンヌカル ノ。 Eiga an=nukar no.
× 映画   ヌカル ノ。 Eiga nukar no.

In addition, no may cause a change in the sound of the preceeding word. If the preceeding word ends with a small Katakana ラリルレロ or an R in Roman Ainu, this r is dropped and nasalised as ン / n.

アンカル ノ An=kar no "Let us make..."
-> アンカン ノ An=kan no
アンヌカル ノ An=nukar no "Let us see..."
-> アンヌカン ノ An=nukan no

Practice Sentences

Let's ride metro.
Let's go to Tomakomai and find a cheap room.
  オ   o    To ride
  アン  an=   We
  ノ  no    "Let us..."
  地下鉄 CHIKATETSU Metro, subway
  トゥンプ  tumpu   Room
  トマコマイ Tomakomai Tomakomai
  エン    en     To, towards
  パイェ   paye    To go (pl.)
  アタイサク ataysak  To be cheap
  エシタン  estan   To find, to search
  ワ     wa    And
↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ← → ← → B A
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Lesson 42: Particle "na"

Postby Karavinka » 2007-09-15, 7:13

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Broadcasted on January 14 2007

Sentences

タント メアン ナ。
tanto  mean  na.
Today is cold.

カンピソシ ポロンノ クコル  ナ。
kampisos  poronno ku=kor  na.
I have a lot of books.

Words in the Sentences

カンピソシ kampisos Book. Kampi is a paper, and sos is rarely used word for collection of flimsy materials. Some speakers may say "hon" (本) after Japanese.
ク ku=  I
コル kor  To have, to hold.
タント tanto  Today.
ナ na  Particle (Assurence)
ポロンノ poronno  A lot, many, much
メアン mean  To be cold

Grammar

This lesson introduces the particle ナ na, which roughly corresponds to Japanese よ yo. The example sentences still make sense even if you get rid of na at the end, and na itself does not carry any special meaning. It is placed after when the speaker provides information that s/he wants the listner to pay attention: cf. "You know, it's cold outside."

Like ノ no from lesson 41, na may cause a sound change if the preceeding word ends in small Katakana ラリルレロ or an R. R in the preceeding word is then nasalised and becomes ン / n.

クコル ナ -> クコン ナ
ku=kor na -> ku=kon na

Practice Sentences

This melon is cheap but tastes good (and I assure you)
As for me, I understand Ainu language a little (so that you know)

  アタイサク ataysak To be cheap, inexpensive
  タパン   tapan  This
  ナ     na    Particle (Assurence)
  メロン   MERON  Melon
  コルカイ  korkay But
  ケラアン  keraan To be tasty, to taste good
  ク      ku=    I
  アナク    anak   Particle (Topic Marker)
  アイヌイタク aynuitak Ainu language
  エラムアン  eramuan  To know, understand
  クアニ    kuani   I
  ポンノ    ponno   A little

Answers from Lesson 41
[spoiler]1.地下鉄 アンオ ノ CHIKATETSU an=o no
2.トマコマイ エン パイェアン ワ アタイサク トゥンプ アンエシタシ ノ
  Tomakomai en paye=an wa ataysak tumpu an=estan no[/spoiler]
↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ← → ← → B A
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Lesson 43: Particle "ya"

Postby Karavinka » 2007-09-15, 7:33

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Broadcasted on January 21 2007

Sentences

鉛筆   エコル    ヤ?
ENPITSU e=kor     ya?
Do you have a pencil?

ウクラン イメル アッ  ヤ?
ukuran  imeru  at   ya?
Did lightning strike last night?

Words in the Sentences

アッ at  To appear or occur (light, smoke, smell, gas). cf. ウラルアッ urarat "to become misty", フラ アッ hura at "to become smelly/fragrant", ヌペキ アッ nupeki at "light appears, to shine", スプヤ アッ supya at "smoke appears"
イメル imeru Lightning. イ i "that (of god)" and メル meru "brightness." The sound of thunder is カムイフム kamuyhum.
ウクラン ukuran Last night, yesterday evening
エ    e=   You
鉛筆   ENPITSU Pencil. Japanese loanword.
コル   kor   To have, to hold
ヤ    ya   Particle (Interrogative)

Grammar

ヤ ya is an interrogative particle that is placed at the end of the sentence to make question, roughly corresponding to Japanese か ka. Like its Japanese counterpart, ya can be omitted in questions and you can just raise the tone of the voice instead.

ワッカ エク? Wakka e=ku?
You drink water?

アイヌイタク エチエランペテク? Ainu itak eci=eranpetek?
You (pl.) know Ainu language?

Practice Sentences

Is your aunt's house big?
Do you (pl.) work every day? (lit. Do you be while working every day?)

  コル   kor   To have, hold
  ヤ    ya   Particle (Interrogative)
  ポロ   poro  To be big
  ウナルペ unarpe Aunt
  エ    e=   You
  チセヘ  cisehe Home, house (possessed)
  カネ    kane   While
  ケシト   kesto   Everyday
  モンライケ monrayke  Work
  エチ    eci=   You (pl.)
  オカイ   okay   Copula (pl.)

Answers from Lesson 42

[spoiler]1.タパン メロン アタイサク コルカイ ケラアン ナ
  tapan MELONataysak korkay keraan na
2.クアニ アナク アイヌイタク ポンノ クエラムアン ナ
  kuani anak ayunitak ponno ku=eramuan na[/spoiler]
↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ← → ← → B A
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Lesson 44: Particle "rusuy"

Postby Karavinka » 2007-09-15, 7:52

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Broadcasted on January 28 2007

Sentences

アルバイト クキ   ルスイ。
ARUBAITO   ku=ki  rusuy.
I want to get (lit. "do") a part time job.

ルルモッペ エン パイェアシ ルスイ。
Rurmotpe  en  paye=as  rusuy.
We want to go to Rumoi.

Words in the Sentences

アシ    =as   We (exclusive)
アルバイト ARUBAITO A part-time job, from German "Arbeit"
エン    en   To, towards
ク     ku=   I
キ     ki   To do
パイェ   paye  To go (pl.)
ルスイ   rusuy  Particle (Desire)
ルルモッペ Rurmotpe Rumoi (留萌). Rur = ocean, mo = silence, ot = to be, pe = place. "Where the silence of ocean is"

Grammar

Rusuy is a particle placed after the verb to express the desire to do something. While Japanese change the verb ending to ~したい shitai, Ainu adds an uninflected word instead.

Without rusuy, the example sentences mean "I do a part time job" and "we go to Rumoi."

Rusuy is often used in compound words as well, as in イペルスイ iperusuy "to be hungry" (lit. to want to eat), モコンルスイ mokonrusuy "to be sleepy" (lit. to want to sleep) and コンルスイ konrusuy "to want to have." Notice the sound changes of mokor and kor to mokon and kon here.

Practice Sentences

I want to buy a new watch.
Do you want to go to Sakhalin?

  ホク  hok  To buy, purchase
  アシリ asir  To be new
  ク   ku=  I
  ルスイ rusuy Particle (Desire)
  時計  TOKEI Watch, clock
  エン  en   To, towards
  ヤ   ya   Particle (Interrogative)
  パイェ paye  To go (pl.)
  エチ  eci=  You (pl.)
  カラプト  Karapto  Karafuto, Sakhalin
  エチオカイ eciokay  You (pl.)

Answers from Lesson 43

[spoiler]1.エコル ウナルペ チセヘ ポロ ヤ
  e=kor unarpe cisehe poro ya
2.ケシト エチモンライケ カネ エチオカイ ヤ
  kesto eci=monrayke kane eci=okay ya[/spoiler]
↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ← → ← → B A
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Lesson 45: Particle "kusu"

Postby Karavinka » 2007-09-15, 10:39

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Broadcasted on February 4 2007

Sentences

ソンノ メアン クス  ワッカ ルプシ。
sonno  mean  kusu wakka rupus.
Water froze because it is very cold.

スキー チキ  クス  パイェアシ  ルスイ。
SKI   ci=ki kusu paye=as rusuy.
We want to go to ski.

Words in the Sentences

アシ =as We (exclusive)
キ ki To do
クス kusu Particle (causal)
スキー SUKI Ski. Ski was used by Sakhalin Ainu to move around in the snow-piled mountains, but it is unlikely that it was so in Hokkaido.
ソンノ sonno Very, truly
チ ci= We (exclusive)
パイェ paye To go (pl.)
メアン mean To be cold.
ルスイ rusuy Particle (desire)
ルプシ rupus To freeze.
ワッカ wakka Water

Grammar

Kusu is an uninclined particle used at the end of the close to express a causal relationship. Water froze because the weather was cold, and we want to go in order to (or, "because") we ski. Note that the word order is different from English: "A because B" would translate as "B kusu A" in Ainu. B is the reason or goal, and A is the reason.

A common expression using kusu includes ~ クス ネ kusu ne. Literally it would mean "because it is so...", but in idiomatic usage this means "I am going to do / planning to do."

Example:

韓国 エン クオマン クス ネ。
Kankoku en ku=oman kusu ne.
I am going to Korea. (I have planned to do so.)

In the second sentence you find ci= and =as used in the same sentence. They are both first person plural exclusive pronominal affixes, that the "we" does not include the listener. Ki takes transitive ci= because it has an object (ski), while paye doesn't because there is no destination (object) specified.

Practice Sentences

Now I'm going back because I am tired.
We want to go to Hawaii for surfing.

  ク   ku=  I
  クス  kusu  Particle (causal)
  ホシピ hosipi To return, go back
  タネ  tane  Now
  シンキ sinki  To be tired
  アシ  =as   We (excl, intransitive)
  ハワイ HAWAI   Hawaii
  キ   ki    To do
  パイェ paye   To go (pl.)
  サーフィン SAFIN Surfing
  エン  en   To, towards
  ルスイ rusuy  Particle (desire)
  チ   ci=   We (excl, transitive)

Answers from Lesson 44

[spoiler]1.アシリ 時計 クホク ルスイ asir TOKEI ku=hok rusuy
2.エチオカイ カラプト エン エチパイエ ルスイ ヤ
  eciokay Karapto en eci=paye rusuy ya[/spoiler]
↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ← → ← → B A
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Lesson 46: <<Tuytak>>

Postby Karavinka » 2007-09-15, 11:37

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Broadcasted on February 11 2007

Text

(Beginning of the story)

ハー
ha

イシカル コタン Iskar kotan
Village of Ishikari

コタン エトコ kotan etoko
Hill of the village

アコホラリ ワ オカヤン a=kohorari wa okay=an
I was living.

パウ パウ ハエエエエエ(Refrain)
Paw paw haeeeee

イシカル コタン Iskar kotan
Village of Ishikari

コタン エトコ kotan etoko
Hill of the village

アコホラリ オカヤン アワ a=kohorari okay=an awa
I was living there, but

ポコインネアン マ pokoinne=an ma
I had a lot of children

アンポ ウタル an=po utar
My children

アンレス クス an=resu kusu
In order to raise them

トアニンマ タアニンマ toaninma taaninma
Here and there

テルケテルケアン カネ terketerke=an kane
I was flying about

パイェカイアン マ   payekay=an ma
I was walking about


アンポウタリ an=poutari
My children

アンエレ クン ペ an=ere kun pe
Something to feed them

アンエモマシヌ ワ an=emomasnu wa
I collected

アンルラ ワ an=rura wa
I carried

アンポウタリ an=poutari
My children

アンレス カネ オカヤン an=resu kane okay=an.
I was raising.

English translation

I was living in village of Iskar, on the hill of the village.

The place I was living, was village of Iskar, on the hill of the village. I had lots of children, and in order to raise my children, I flied around and walked around here and there.

I collected things (which ought to) feed my children, carried them, and raised my children.

Words

ア    a=   I. Variant of an=.
アワ   awa   Where (not an interrogative)
アン   an=   I
アン   =an   I
イシカル Iskar  Ishikari (石狩)
ウタル  utar  Plural particle. As an independent word, it can mean "People"
エトコ  etoko  Hill side (possessed). Base form is エトク etok. Literally it means "before" or "ahead", but here it means the skirt of the mountain in the village.
エモマシヌ emomasnu To collect, gather
エレ   ere     To feed
オカヤン okay=an   Contracted form of オカイ・アン. (Slept the same in Roman Ainu.)
カネ   kane    ~ing, while
クス   kusu    for, in order to
クン   kun     Should, ought to do
コタン  kotan    Village
コホラリ kohorari  To live in
タアニンマ  taaninma To here (taani+un+wa)
テルケテルケ terketerke To fly around. "Terke" by itself means to jump.
トアニンマ  toaninma  To there. (toani+un+wa)
ハー   ha     (Sound before the beginning of story, "well..")
パイェカイ  payekay  To walk around (pl.)
パウ   paw     (Sound of a dying fox.)
ハエエエエエ haeeeee  (Meaning unknown.)
ペ    pe     Nominaliser (thing which..)
ポ    po     Child
ポウタリ poutari   Children (possessed). Base form is ポウタル poutar.
ポコインネ  pokoinne  To have a lot of children. po=child, ko=to him/her, inne=to be many.
マ    ma     And, while. Variant of ワ wa.
ルラ   rura    To carry.
レス   resu    To raise.
ワ    wa     And, while.

About Tuytak

Tuytak is a form of Ainu literature. This Tuytak was collected by Hiroshi Nakagawa (Chiba University) in 1985 from Ms. Yumi Okamoto. We only introduced the beginning lines here.

Tuytak is a tale where the gods tell their stories in a narrative song. Gods appear as heroes in forms of various animals and birds, such as bear, rabbit, owl and crane. This form of narrative is generally known as shinyou (神謡) in Japanese. In Ainu, it is known as Tuytak in Samani and Urakawa, Kamuy Yukar from Shizunai to Western Iburi, Oyna in Tokachi, Kushiro and Asahikawa. (Generally known as "Yukars" in English.)

The word Tuytak is used in Tokachi, Kushiro and Asahikawa as well but there it means "Olden Tales." "Olden Tales" in Samani and Urakawa is Isoytatki, and Uwepeker in Iburi.

The refrain (Ainu: サケへ・サハ sakehe saha) "パウ パウ ハエエエエエ paw paw haeeeee" is repeated every line, and it is a characteristic of Tuytak. (Some of the lines in the text were combined to facilitate annotation) The refrain differs in different parts of the story.

The hero of this Tuytak is パウセカムイ Pawsekamuy, a fox. This is very similar to the other tale collected by Shigeru Kayano in Biratori, which is published as 『キツネのチャランケ(Kitsune no Charanke)』 and is a well-known tale.

Grammar

So far we have learned the basics of Ainu language. This Tuytak may have been a bit too difficult and it is because the language of the oral literary tradition, Classical Ainu, differs from the Modern Colloquial Ainu.

For example, the first person singular pronominal is アン- an= or -アン =an instead of the familiar ク ku=. "I rest" in Modern Ainu is クシニ ku=nisi, but it is シニアン nisi=an in Classical Ainu. Notice that this =an looks same as the Colloquial =an for the first person plural. The independent pronoun differs as well, Classical pronoun for "I" is アノカイ Anokay instead of Colloquial クアニ kuani.

The plural forms of the nouns (cf. Lesson 10) are used not only for the plural subjects, but singular subject "I" as well in Classical Ainu. "I go" would be クオマン ku=oman in Colloquial, パイェアン paye=an in Classical.


Example: "I go down to the shore and catch fish"

クアニ  アナク ピシ タ クサン マ チェプ  クコイキ。
Kuani anak pisi ta ku=san ma cep ku=koyki.

アノカイ アナク ピシ タ サプアン マ チェプ アンコイキ。
Anokay anak pisi ta sap=an ma cep an=koyki.

Literally: I (topic marker) shore (to) go down-(I) and fish (I)-catch.

Answers from Lesson 45

[spoiler]1.クシンキ クス タネ クホシピ ku=sinki kusu tane ku=hosipi
2.サーフィン チキ クス ハワイ エン パイエアシ ルスイ
  SURFING ci=ki kusu HAWAII en paye=as rusuy[/spoiler]
↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ← → ← → B A
Spoiler Alert: Turkish | -30 Thai | Sink or Zapotec


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