Ainu

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Nendûr
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Postby Nendûr » 2007-08-18, 23:10

noir :)

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Karavinka
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Lesson 11: Making a Statement

Postby Karavinka » 2007-08-21, 14:25

Sapporo TV Ainu Radio Lessons
STVアイヌ語ラジオ講座

Broadcasted on June 11 2006

Sentences

タパンペ  プクサ     ネ。
tarpaper  pukusa      ne.
This is ramsons.

トオンペ カンガルー  ネ。
toonpe  KANGAROO ne.
That is a kangaroo.

Words in the Sentences

カンガルー KANGAROO Kangaroo
タパンペ  tapanpe  This
トオンペ  toonpe  That。
ネ     ne     To be (copula)
プクサ  pukusa   Ramsons

Ramsons is a type of plant that is used in Ainu cuisine.

Grammar

The standard Ainu copula is ネ ne, and this is used a lot. In order to say "A is B", the basic Ainu construction would be "A B ne." For example, a statement like "My uncle is a judge" in Ainu would be "クコル アチャポ 裁判官 ネ ku=kor acapo saihankan ne." Ainu has no articles.

Another example, "This is a cell phone that I bought yesterday" would be: "タパンペ ヌマン クホク 携帯電話 ネ Tapanpe numan kuok keitaidenwa ne", literally "this-yesterday-I buy-cell phone-to be."

Note that any complex Japanese word may take place in Ainu if the word is not likely to be used in traditional Ainu life and yet essential in modern days, such as "Saihankan" or "Keitaidenwa." You may just treat them as Ainu words as long as you stick to Roman Ainu, but they may or may not be written in Kanji (characters) in Katakana Ainu, so beware of that. (From what I have seen, Katakana Ainu is more popular)

Practice Sentences

1. This is my school.
2. That is a bear.

 カッコ   kakko   School (Japanese 学校)
 ネ     ne     Copula, to be
 タパンペ tapanpe   This
 クコル   ku=kor  My
 キムンカムイ kimunkamuy Bear
 トオンペ    toonpe    That

Answers from Lesson 10

[spoiler]1.ユク アン yuk an
2.アイヌ ポロンノ オカイ aynu poronno okay[/spoiler]
↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ← → ← → B A
Spoiler Alert: Turkish | -30 Thai | Sink or Zapotec

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Karavinka
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Lesson 12: Topic Marker

Postby Karavinka » 2007-08-21, 15:19

Sapporo TV Ainu Radio Lessons
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Broadcasted on June 18 2006

Sentences

タント アナク リリ ユプケ。
tanto anak   rir yupke. 
Today the sea wave is rough.

タン コタン アナクネ ソンノ フシコ。
tan kotan  anakne sonno husko.
This village is very old.

Words in the Sentences

アナク  anak   Topic marker
アナクネ anakne  Topic marker
コタン   kotan  Village, town
ソンノ   soono  Very, truly, really
タン   tan    This
タント  tanto   Today
フシコ  husko   Old (or, to be old)
ユプケ  yupke  Rough, tough, strong (or to be such)
リリ    rir   Sea wave

Grammar

Anak, anakne mean the same thing and they can be used interchageably. This roughly corresponde to Japanese ~こそ, ~と言えば, ~ならば and they mark the topic of the sentence. In the first sentence "タント アナク リリ ユプケ tanto anak rir yupke", what is strong is the wave, not the day, but still the topic of interest is what the wave is like today. It could be roughly translated into English as "speaking of today, the sea wave is rough" or so. The emphasis is on today, not the sea.

Practice Sentences

1. Ice is cold.
2. This road is good.

ヤム   yam  Cold (or, to be cold)
コンル  konru  Ice
アナク  anak  Topic marker
ル    ru     Road, path
ピリカ  pirka   Good (or, to be good)
アナクネ anakne Topic marker
タン   tan   This

Answers from Lesson 11

[spoiler]1.タパンペ クコル カッコ ネ tapanpe ku=kor kakko ne
2.トオンペ キムンカムイ ネ tapanpe kimnukamuy ne[/spoiler]
↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ← → ← → B A
Spoiler Alert: Turkish | -30 Thai | Sink or Zapotec

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Lesson 13: Saying where in

Postby Karavinka » 2007-08-22, 23:10

Sapporo TV Ainu Radio Lessons
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Broadcasted on June 25 2006

Sentences

テエタ 等じゅ院 アナクネ オコタヌシ タ アン。
teeta TOUZYUIN* anakne Okotanusi ta an.
A long time ago, Touzyuin was in Okotanusi.

ペッ オシケ タ チェプ オカイ。
pet oske ta cep okay..
(There) are fish in the stream. (lit: in the middle of stream)

Words in the Sentences

アナクネ  anakne    Topic marker
アン     an     To be (singular)
オカイ    okay    To be (plural)
オコタヌシ Okotanusi  Okotanusi (place name)
オシケ   oske     In, in the midst of
タ      ta     To, in, at, by: (locative particle)
チェプ    cep     Fish
チエタ    teeta    Olden times, before
※等じゅ院   TOUZYUIN  Touzyuin (proper name of a temple)
ペッ    pet      River, stream

"じゅ" as in "等じゅ院" is supposed to be in an obscure Kanji, 樹 minus 木 plus 水. Don't worry if you can't imagine how the Kanji is supposed to be like. It's just a proper name.

Grammar

For those who know Japanese, Ainu タ ta is a particle that roughly corresponds to Japanese に ni. In fact there are more particles that translate as ni in Japanese, but first one first.

A particle is a small grammatical word that is placed after the noun it modifies, and you can think of it either as an add-on to change the case of the word, or a postposition instead of a preposition. The topic markers that we looked at, anak, anakne are particles as well.

More examples:

クコル アチャ チセ ソイ タ アン。
ku=kor aca cise soy ta an.
My-father-house-outside-(locative)-to be.
My father is outside of house.


ニ カ タ チカプ レウ。
ni ka ta cikap rew.
Tree-above-(locative)-bird-to stop
The bird stops on top of the tree.

クコル ウナルペ サッポロ タ アン。
ku=kor unarpe Satporo ta an.
My-aunt-Sapporo-(locative)-to be.
My aunt is in Sapporo.

Practice Sentences

(There) is kombu on the coast
(There) is a big fort on top of the mountain.
 ヤン  yan   To rise
 タ    ta   Locative particle
 ピシ   pis   Shore, Coast
 コンプ kompu  Kombu (a type of edible sea kelp)
 チャシ casi  Fortification, castle
 ポロ  poro  Big (or, to be big)
 カ   ka    Above
 アン  an    To be
 ヌプリ nupuri  Mountain

Answers from Lesson 12

[spoiler]1.コンル アナク ヤム konru anak yam
2.タン ル アナクネ ピリカ tan ru anakue pirka [/spoiler]
↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ← → ← → B A
Spoiler Alert: Turkish | -30 Thai | Sink or Zapotec

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Lesson 14: Saying where to

Postby Karavinka » 2007-08-23, 1:33

Sapporo TV Ainu Radio Lessons
STVアイヌ語ラジオ講座

Broadcasted on July 2 2006

Sentences

クコル アチャ インド エン オマン。
ku=kor aca  INDO  en  oman.
My father goes to India.

ペッ オシケ エン チカプ アフン。
pet  oske en  cikap  ahun.
Bird goes into the river.

Words in the Sentences

アチャ aca  Father
アフン ahun  To enter, to go into
インド INDO  India
エン  en   towards, to .. (locative particle)
オシケ oske  Middle, midst
オマン oman  To go
ク   ku=  I
コル  kor  To have, to hold
チカプ cikap Bird
ペッ  pet  River, stream

インド indo is Japanese name for India. As this is a foreign loanword as well, this is used in Ainu the same way it is used in Japanese.

Grammar

In this lesson we take a look at another particle エン en, which signifies the destination of some kind of movement: where goes, comes, or climbs to. It is permissible to omit this type of particle in Japanese, but not in Ainu.

 ○ サッポロ エン クオマン Satporo en ku=oman.
 × サッポロ クオマン Satporo ku=oman.

Depending on the region, this エン en may become ウン un, エネ ene, or エコタ ekota, particularly in Eastern Hidaka.

Pronunciation

Small in チカ cikap doesn't have the -u sound that full Katakana プ pu has.

Examples:

チプ     cip ship
セプ     sep wide
ポプテ    popte to spend
アプカシ   apkas to walk
シリカプ   sirkap marlin (a type of fish)
イトゥンナプ intunnap ant
タプカル   tapkar dance
タプコプ   tapkop mountain bump

Practice Sentences

Yesterday aunt went to Tokachi.
I climb to the mountaintop.
  エン    en    to, towards (locative particle)
  オマン   oman   to go
  ヌマン   numan   yesterday
  ウナルペ unarpe   aunt
  トカプチ  Tokapci  Tokachi
  ク    ku=   I
  カ    ka    above
  リキン rikin   to climb
  ヌプリ nupuri   mountain

Answers from Lesson 13
[spoiler]1.ピシ タ コンプ ヤン pis ta kompu yan
2.ヌプリ カ タ ポロ チャシ アン nupuri ka ta poro casi an[/spoiler]
↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ← → ← → B A
Spoiler Alert: Turkish | -30 Thai | Sink or Zapotec

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Lesson 15: Saying where from

Postby Karavinka » 2007-08-23, 2:04

Sapporo TV Ainu Radio Lessons
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Broadcasted on July 9 2006

Sentences

ヌプルペッ ワ   クエク。
Nupurpet  wa   ku=ek.
I come from Noboribetsu.

ニ  カ  ワ   りんご トゥイ。
ni  ka  wa   RINGO tuy.
Apple falls from the treetop.

Words in the Sentences

エク      ek     To come
カ       ka     Above, top
ク       ku=     I
トゥイ     tuy     To fall, to drop. To cut something. Or (rain, etc) stops from falling.
ニ       ni     Tree
ヌペルペッ  Nupurpet  Noboribetsu.ヌプル nupur = deep-coloured, ペッ pet = stream.
りんご    RINGO    Apple. A loanword from Japanese.
ワ       wa     From (locative particle)

Grammar

Here we have another particle related to location. Ta "in", en "to", and the next is wa, "from." The usage is same as the previous two: put it at the end of the noun that signifies the place something comes from.

Practice Sentences

I come from Shizunai.
Uncle came outside from the inside of the house.

  ワ      wa   From
  エク     ek   To come
  シピチャル Sipicar  Shizunai
  ク      ku=   I
  ソイネ   soyne   To come outside (not "coming out"!)
  オシケ   oske   Inside, middle, midst
  チセ    cise   House
  アチャポ  acapo  Uncle

Notes on Pronunciation

ッ t as in ヌプルペッ nupurpet is a small "tsu" but it is not pronounced as such. Just pronounce it as a final -t. This is a difficult sound for Japanese as Japanese phonotactics doesn't allow such sound to come at the end (though they can have it in the middle of a word).

コッ   kot    Hole (in the ground, etc), concave
ハッ    hat    Mountain grapes
ニサッ  nisat   Daybreak
オオワッ oowat   To go back, to return
ポロペッ poropet  Horobetsu
フッネ  Hutne  narrow
マッネシリ Matnesir [url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Y%C5%8Dtei Mount Yotei]
シンリッ  Sinrit  Root, ancestor
アペソコッ Apesokot Irori, a sunken hearth

Answers from Lesson 14

[spoiler]1.ヌマン ウナルペ トカプチ エン オマン numan unarpe Tokapci en oman
2.ヌプリ カ エン クリキン nupri ka en ku=rikin[/spoiler]

More Sentences

タパン 自転車   アナク クホク  ペ  ネ。
tapan  ZITENSYA anak ku=hok    pe  ne.
This-bicycle-(topic marker)-I buy-thing-is.
This bicycle is what I bought.

エイェ    プ  ピリカ。
e=ye      p   pirka.
You say-thing-right.
What you say is irght.
Last edited by Karavinka on 2007-09-15, 9:20, edited 1 time in total.
↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ← → ← → B A
Spoiler Alert: Turkish | -30 Thai | Sink or Zapotec

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Lesson 16: I am...

Postby Karavinka » 2007-08-25, 1:17

Sapporo TV Ainu Radio Lessons
STVアイヌ語ラジオ講座

Broadcasted on July 16 2006

Sentences

ウェンクル クネ。
wenkur   ku=ne.
I am poor.

オンネ   エカシ   クネ。
onne    ekasi    ku=ne.
I'm an old uncle.

Words in the Sentences

ウェンクル wenkur  A poor person. Wen = having a bad, poor life, kur = person.
エカシ    ekasi  "Uncle", a grown-up
オンネ    onne   Old, aged
ク      ku=   I
ネ      ne    Copula (to be)

Grammar

We learned to say "I do ..." in lesson 7 and "A is B" in lesson 11. Here, we combine those two together. The pronominal prefix ku= is the same as before, and the copula ne is used with it. So it gives us ku=ne, for "I am." Pay attention not to say "ク ウェンクル ネ ku wenkur ne" instead of "ウェンクル クネ wenkur ku=ne."

Pronunciation

ウェ we is not pronounced as two distinct syllables. This is another pronunciation that may cause troubles to a Japanese learner, who might say ウエ ue with two distinct syllables. It is more like "whe" as in "where" in English.

Examples:

ウェン    wen   Bad
ハウェ    hawe   Voice
ルウェ    ruwe   Trace
ウェンテ   wente   To break, to invade
ウウェカルパ uwekarpa  To collect

And note that the stress falls on the second syllable in all cases.

kune (X)
kune (O)

Practice Sentences

I am a woman.
I am a college student from Muroran.

  ネ   ne    Coupla (to be)
  ク    ku=   I
  メノコ menoko  Woman
  エク    ek    To come
  モルラン Moruran   Muroran
  大学生  DAIGAKUSEI College student
  ワ     wa    From

Answers from Lesson 15

[spoiler]1.シピチャル ワ クエク Sipicar wa ku=ek
2.チセ オシケ ワ アチャポ ソイネ cise oske wa acapo soyne[/spoiler]
↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ← → ← → B A
Spoiler Alert: Turkish | -30 Thai | Sink or Zapotec

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Lesson 17: Your ... (1)

Postby Karavinka » 2007-08-25, 1:38

Sapporo TV Ainu Radio Lessons
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Broadcasted on July 23 2006

Sentences

エエトゥ   ポロ。
e=etu    poro.
Your nose is big.

エチセ    クヌカル。
e=cise    ku=nukar.
I see your house.

Words in the Sentences

エ   e=   You, your
エトゥ  etu  Nose
ク    ku=  I, my
チセ  cise   House
ヌカル nukar  To see
ポロ  poro  Big

Grammar

We've learned to say "my ..." in lesson 5, and here it's about something that is yours. The pronominal prefix e= is the second person singular. Japanese has many ways of saying "you": anata, omae, anta, kimi, etc but it's much simpler in Ainu and e= is enough for most situations. There is one more word that is more formal, but we'll see that later.

Pronunciation

トゥ tu may be written as ト゜ or ツ゜ depending on the writer, as this is a sound that doesn't exist in normal Japanese. However, this "tu" has been introduced to Japanese through various English loanwords such as "today" or "tonight", and トゥ became the standard spelling for this sound. (TO plus a small U)

Examples:

アトゥイ Etuy Sea
エトゥ  Etu Nose
トゥイマ Tuyma Far
トゥシ  Tus Net, network
トゥプ  Tup Two
トゥク  Tuk To feed, raise (children, etc)
トゥカル Tukar Seal (animal)
トゥルセ Turse To fall down

There is a type of red coloured bird called "puffin" known in Japanese as "エトピリカ Etopirika", but the real Ainu name would be "エトゥピリカ Etupirika." This is an Ainu loanword into Japanese. Here, "etu" means not a rose, but (reasonably enough) a beak.

Practice Sentences

Your hair is white.
I wash your shoes.

  エトピ  etopi  Hair
  レタル  retar  White
  エ    e=    You, your
  フライェ  huraye To clean, to wash
  ケリ    keri  Shoes
  ク     ku=   I, my

Answers from Lesson 16

[spoiler]1.メノコ クネ menoko kune
2.モルワン ワ エク 大学生 クネ Moruran wa ek DAIGAKUSEI ku=ne[/spoiler]
↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ← → ← → B A
Spoiler Alert: Turkish | -30 Thai | Sink or Zapotec

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Lesson 18: Your ... (2)

Postby Karavinka » 2007-08-25, 16:10

Sapporo TV Ainu Radio Lessons
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Broadcasted on July 30 2006

Sentences

エコル  ハポ    ポロンノ  モンライケ。
e=kor   hapo    poronno  monrayke.
Your mother works a lot.

エコル  カメラ    ソンノ  ピリカ。
e=kor   KAMERA sonno  pirka.
Your camera is very good.

Words in the Sentences

エ      e=     You
カメラ   KAMERA    Camera
コル    kor     To have, to hold
ソンノ   sonno    Very, truly
ハポ    hapo     Mother
パリカ   pirka     Good
ポロンノ  poronno    A lot, many, much
モンライケ monrayke   Work, to work

Grammar

Now we see another way of saying "your ..." in Ainu. We saw the "ku=kor" form in lesson 6, and the second person singular form of this is "e=kor", which literally translates as "(something) that you have/hold."

Note that "e=kor" is not used for the body parts such as "エコル エトゥ e=kor etu" (your nose) or "エコル パケ e=kor pake" (your head). Body parts are expressed with simple e= instead.

Practice Sentences

Your earings are beautiful.
Yesterday your aunt danced.

  コル   kor   To have, to hold
  ニンカリ ninkari Earrings
  ピリカ  pirka  Beautiful, good
  エ    e=    You, your
  ウナルペ unarpe  Aunt
  リムセ   rimse  Dance, to dance
  ヌマン   numan  Yesterday

Answers from Lesson 17

[spoiler]1.エエトピ レタル e=etopi retar.
2.エケリ クフライエ e=keri ku=huraye [/spoiler]
↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ← → ← → B A
Spoiler Alert: Turkish | -30 Thai | Sink or Zapotec

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Lesson 19: Your actions

Postby Karavinka » 2007-08-25, 16:22

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Broadcasted on August 6 2006

Sentences

ウポポ エイェ。
upopo  e=ye.
You sing a song.

ピリカ 車     エコル。
pirka  KURUMA e=kor.
You have a good car.

Words in the Sentences

イェ   ye    To say, speak, sing (a song)
ウポポ upopo    Song
エ    e=    You, your
車    KURUMA  Car (Japanese loanword)
コル   kor    To have, hold
ピリカ  pirka   Good, beautiful.

Grammar

The prenominal prefix e= for the second person singular "you" was used to signify the possession before the nouns as we saw in the lessons 17 and 18, and here it is placed before the verb to mark the subject of the sentence. Its usage is same as ku=.

Ainu verbs has no time tense, and when the words denoting the time phrases are used when it is necessary to mention when it happened/happens/or will happen.

Practice Sentences

You see a big mountain.
You will arrive in London tomorrow.

  ヌカル nukar  To see
  ヌプリ nupuri Mountain
  エ   e=   You, your
  ポロ  poro  Big
  ニサッタ nisatta   Tomorrow
  ロンドン LONDON  London
  タ     ta    In, by, to, towards
  シレパ  sirepa   To arrive

Answers from Lesson 18

[spoiler]1.エコル ニンカリ ピリカ e=kor ninkari pirika
2.ヌマン エコル ウナルペ リムセ numan e=kor unarpe rimse [/spoiler]
↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ← → ← → B A
Spoiler Alert: Turkish | -30 Thai | Sink or Zapotec

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Lesson 20: Independent Pronoun "I"

Postby Karavinka » 2007-08-25, 16:34

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Broadcasted on August 13 2006

Sentences

クアニ クオマン。
kuani ku=oman.
I go.

クアニ ポロンノ クアプカシ。
kuani poronno  ku=apkas.
I walk a lot.

Words in the Sentences

アプカシ apkas  To walk.
オマン  oman  To go.
ク    ku=   I.
クアニ  kuani  I. (カニ kani in Saru, Mukawa and Chitose.)
ポロンノ poronno A lot, many, much.

Grammar

Ainu has the independent pronouns beside the pronominal prefixes. The first person pronominal suffix is ku=, and the independent suffix is kuani or its contracted form kani. This is not a very unusual phenomenon, as it happens in French moi or Latin ego as well. The independent pronouns are used in a similar way to emphasise the subject pronoun.

But you can't omit the pronominal prefix even if you have an independent pronoun, just like you can't say Moi suis instead of Moi, je suis in French.

 ・I go.
  ○ クアニ クオマン。Kuani Ku=oman.
  × クアニ  オマン。Kuano oman.
  ○     クオマン。Ku=oman.

 ・I walk a lot.
  ○ クアニ ポロンノ クアプカシ。Kuani poronno ku=apkas.
  × ク   ポロンノ  アプカシ。Ku poronno apkas.
  × クアニ ポロンノ  アプカシ。Kuani poronno apkas.
  ○     ポロンノ クアプカシ。Poronno ku=apkas.

Practice Sentences

I play a lot.
I am very tired.
  シノッ  sinot  To play (as in having fun, not a musical instrument)
  ポロンノ poronno A lot, many, much
  クアニ  kuani  I
  ク    ku=   I
  シンキ sinki To be tired
  ソンノ sonno Very

Answers from Lesson 19
[spoiler]1.ポロ ヌプリ エヌカル poro nupuri e=nukar
2.ニサッタ ロンドン タ エシレパ nisatta LONDON ta e=sirepa[/spoiler]
↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ← → ← → B A
Spoiler Alert: Turkish | -30 Thai | Sink or Zapotec

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Lesson 21: Independent Pronoun "I" (2)

Postby Karavinka » 2007-08-26, 18:35

Sapporo TV Ainu Radio Lessons
STVアイヌ語ラジオ講座

Broadcasted on August 20 2006

Sentences

クアニ アナク テレビ クヌカル。
kuani anak  TEREBI ku=nukar.
I watch TV.

クアニ アナクネ ポロ ウンマ クオ。
kuani  anakne poro umma  ku=o.
I ride a big hrose.

Words in the Sentences

アナク  anak  Topic marker
アナクネ anakne Topic marker.
ウンマ  umma  Horse. Horses aren't native in Hokkaido, and this is a loanword from Japanese 馬 (uma) taken into Ainu a long time ago.
オ    o   To ride
ク    ku=   I
クアニ  kuani  I
テレビ  TEREBI  Television. An English loanword into Japanese which was borrowed again into Ainu.
ヌカル  nukar  To look, watch
ポロ   poro   Big

Grammar

The independent pronoun クアニ kuani may be used by itself, but it is more often used in conjunction with the topic marker particle アナク anak, アナクネ anakne which was introduced in lesson 12. This is used to emphasise the subject of the sentence: in the first example, it means "I" am watching TV (while the others might be doing other things). There is an implied sense of relativity.

Pay attention to the pronominal affix ク ku as well, it has to be used in all cases.

 ・I watch TV.
  ○ クアニ アナクネ テレビ クヌカル。kuani anakne terebi ku=nukar.
  × ク   アナクネ テレビ  ヌカル。ku anakne terebi nukar.
  × クアニ アナクネ テレビ  ヌカル。kuani anakne terebi nukar.
  ○          テレビ クヌカル。terebi ku=nukar.

 ・I ride a big horse.
  ○ クアニ アナク ポロ ウンマ クオ。Kuani anak poro umma ku=o.
  × クアニ アナク ポロ ウンマ  オ。Kuani anak poro umma o.
  × ク   アナク ポロ ウンマ  オ。Ku anak poro umma o.
  ○         ポロ ウンマ クオ。Poro umma ku=o.

アナク anak and アナクネ anakne mean the same thing and they can be used interchangeably. The additional ネ ne is thought to be derived from the copula ネ ne.

Practice Sentences

I am listening to radio.
I come from Sapporo.

  ク   ku=  I
  ラジオ RADIO Radio
  アナク anak  Topic marker
  ヌ   nu   To hear, to listen to
  クアニ kuani I
  アナクネ anakne Topic marker.
  サッポロ Satporo Sapporo
  ワ    wa   From
  エク   ek   To come

Answers from Lesson 20

[spoiler]1.クアニ ポロンノ クシノッ kuani poronno ku=sinot
2.クアニ ソンノ クシンキ kuani sonno ku=sinki[/spoiler]
↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ← → ← → B A
Spoiler Alert: Turkish | -30 Thai | Sink or Zapotec

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Lesson 22: Independent Pronoun "You"

Postby Karavinka » 2007-08-26, 18:44

Sapporo TV Ainu Radio Lessons
STVアイヌ語ラジオ講座

Broadcasted on August 27 2006

Sentences

エアニ チエプ エコイキ。
eani  cep  e=koyki.
You catch a fish.

エアニ アナク アナウンサー エネ。
eani  anak  ANAUNSA  e=ne.
You are an announcer.

Words in the Sentences

アナウンサー ANAUNSA  Announcer.
アナク    anak   Topic marker.
エ      e=    You.
エアニ    eani   You.
コイキ    koyki   To take, catch, annoy, pile.
チェプ    cep    Fish
ネ      ne    Copula (to be)

Grammar

We met the pronominal affix エ e= for the second person singular from lessons 17 to 19. The independent pronoun for this is エアニ eani, roughly corresponding to French toi.

The pronominal affix エ e= must be present even when エアニ eani is used.

Practice Sentences

1. You drink beer.
2. You are a boy.

  ビール BIRU Beer. A Dutch loanword into Japanese.
  ク   ku  To drink.
  エ   e=  You
  エアニ eani You
  ネ    ne    Copula (to be)
  アナクネ anakune Topic marker
  ヘカチ  hekaci  Boy, young man

Answers from Lesson 21
[spoiler]1.クアニ アナク ラジオ クヌ kuani anak RADIO ku=nu
2.クアニ アナクネ サッポロ ワ クウク kuani anakne Satporo wa ku=ek[/spoiler]
↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ← → ← → B A
Spoiler Alert: Turkish | -30 Thai | Sink or Zapotec

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Lesson 23: Connector "wa"

Postby Karavinka » 2007-08-26, 18:56

Sapporo TV Ainu Radio Lessons
STVアイヌ語ラジオ講座

Broadcasted on September 3 2006

Sentences

ルヤンペ アシ ワ   ル テイネ
ruyanpe as  wa   ru teyne.
Rain fell and the road is wet.

ヘリコプター エク  ワ   ヘカッタル ウウェカルパ。
HERIKIPUTA  ek  wa   hekattar  uwekarpa.
A helicopter came and the children gathered.

Words in the Sentences

アシ     as     To fall.
ウウェカルパ uwekarpa  To gather.
エク     ek     To come.
テイネ    teyne    To become wet.
ヘカッタル  hekattar  Children
ヘリコプター HERIKOPUTA Helicopter.
ル      ru     Road, pathway.
ルヤンペ   ruyanpe   Rain
ワ      wa     "And"

Grammar

ワ wa connects two sentences, and it is best translated as "and" in English. The more literal translation of the first sentence would be "The road became wet as it was raning" and there is an implied sense of spontaneity.

ワ wa can become マ ma after ン・ム(n・m).

サク アン マ シリセセク。
Sak ann ma sirsesek.
Summer came and it became hot.

メアン マ クテケ ヤム。 
Mean ma ku=teke yam.
It became cold and my hand is cold.

Practice Sentences

Wind blows and the wea wave is rough.
Father is angry and the daughter cries.

  ワ   wa   "And"
  ワリ  rir   Sea wave
  アシ  as   To blow
  レラ  rera  Wind
  ユプケ yupke  Strong, rough
  チシ   cis   To cry
  アチャ  aca   Father
  マッネポ matnepo Daughter
  イルシカ iruska  To be angry

Answers from Lesson 22

[spoiler]1.エアニ ビール エク eani BEER e=ku
2.エアニ アナクネ ヘカチ エネ eani anakne hekaci e=ne[/spoiler]
↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ← → ← → B A
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Lesson 24: Connector "wa" (2)

Postby Karavinka » 2007-08-29, 14:11

Sapporo TV Ainu Radio Lessons
STVアイヌ語ラジオ講座

Broadcasted on September 10 2006

Sentences

コンドル ホプニ ワ  オマン。
CONDOR  hopuni wa  oman.
Condor flew and went.

トノト クホク  ワ   クエク。
tonoto ku=hok  wa   ku=ek.
I bought alcohol and came.

Words in the Sentences

エク   ek   To come
オマン  oman  To go
ク    ku=   I
コンドル CONDOR Condor
トノト  tonoto Alcoholic drink
ホク   hok   To buy
ホプニ  hopuni To fly, to wake up (from sleep)
ワ    wa   "And"

Grammar

ワ wa was used to connect two sentences in a sequence in lesson 23, and it is best translated as "and" in English. Here, the same ワ wa is to describe the sequential actions: a condor first flies up and goes somewhere, and I buy alcohol and comes back, etc.

Note how the examples are both translated in the past tense. Ainu verbs mark no time tense, and they are usually translated in the past tense into other languages unless it is signified that it happens now.

Practice Sentences

Uncle rode the car and went.
I walked a lot and became tired.

  ワ    wa   "And"
  オマン  oman  To go
  オ    o    To ride
  アチャポ acapo  Uncle
  車    KURUMA  Car, automobile
  ク    ku=    I
  アプカシ apkas  To walk
  ポロンノ poronno A lot, many, much
  シンキ  sinnki  To be tired

Answers from Lesson 23

[spoiler]1.レラ アシ ワリリ ユプケ rera as wa rir yupke
2.アチャ イルシカ ワ マッネポ チシ aca iruska wa matnepo cis[/spoiler]
↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ← → ← → B A
Spoiler Alert: Turkish | -30 Thai | Sink or Zapotec

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Lesson 25: Imperative

Postby Karavinka » 2007-08-29, 14:25

Sapporo TV Ainu Radio Lessons
STVアイヌ語ラジオ講座

Broadcasted on September 17 2006

Sentences

エムコタ オマン。
emkota  oman.
Go quickly.

ワッカタ ワ   エク。
wakkata wa   ek.
Ladle water and come.

Words in the Sentences

エク   ek    To come
エムコタ emkota  Quickly, early
オマン  oman   To go
ワ    wa    "And"
ワッカタ wakkata  To ladle water. Wakka (water) + ta (ladle)

Grammar

There are no special verb forms for the imperative in Ainu, and the imperatives are formed by the basic form of the verb without the pronominal affix.

Practice Sentences

Go to the railway tomorrow.
Get up quickly and wash the face.

  クスル  kusur  Railway
  オマン  oman   To go
  エン   en    "to"
  ニサッタ nisatta Tomorrow
  エムコタ emkota Quickly, early
  ホプニ  hopuni To wake up, to rise
  ワ    wa   "and"
  ヤシケ  yaske To wash face.

Answers from Lesson 24

[spoiler]1.アチャポ 車 オ ワ オマン acapo KURUMA o wa oman
2.ポロンノ クアプカシ ワ クシンキ poronno ku=apkas wa ku=sinki[/spoiler]
↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ← → ← → B A
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Lesson 26: Negation

Postby Karavinka » 2007-08-29, 14:40

Sapporo TV Ainu Radio Lessons
STVアイヌ語ラジオ講座

Broadcasted on September 24 2006

Sentences

フチ    ヘンネ モコル
huci    henne mokor.
Grandmother doesn't sleep.

タパンペ シタ ヘンネ ネ。
tapanpe sita henne ne.
This is not a dog.

Words in the Sentences

シタ   sita   Dog
タパンペ tapanpe  This
ネ    ne    Copula (to be)
フチ   huci   Grandmother
ヘンネ  henne   Negation (not)
モコル  mokor   To sleep

Grammar

The word ヘンネ henne is used to denote the negation, whether something does not do something or is not something. ヘンネ henne comes before the verb it negates, and this is one of the major syntactical differences from Japanese, in which the verbs are negated by -shinai after the verb.

ヘンネ henne doesn't affect the pronominal affixes. The two sentences above show no pronominal affixes because Ainu has no affixes for the third person, singular or plural. They will be visible the subject of the sentence is first or second person, such as ヘンネ クオマン henne ku=oman (I don't come) or ヘンネ エヌカル henne e=nukar (you don't see).

ヘンネ henne can be used in a manner similar to English prefixes like "un" (as in undo) or "im/in" (as in impossible). ヘンネ ピリカ henne pirka would mean something is "not good."

Practice Sentences

My father isn not having a meal.
You are not a man.
  イペ  ipe  To have, eat a meal
  ク   ku=  I
  アチャ aca  Father
  ヘンネ henne Negation (not)
  コル  kor  To have, to hold
  エ    e=   You
  ネ    ne   Copula (to be)
  エアニ  eani  You
  アナク  anak  Topic marker
  オッカイ okkay  Man, male

Answers from Lesson 25
[spoiler]1.ニサッタ クスル エン オマン nisatta Kisur en oman
2.エムコタ ホプニ ワ ヤシケ emkota hopuni wa yaske[/spoiler]
↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ← → ← → B A
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Lesson 27: Genitive (1)

Postby Karavinka » 2007-08-29, 21:42

Sapporo TV Ainu Radio Lessons
STVアイヌ語ラジオ講座

Broadcasted on October 1 2006

Sentences

タパン ケル アナク クケリヒ ネ。
tapan ker  anak  ku=kerihi ne.
These shoes are my shoes.

エナエフ  ソンノ ピリカ。
e=nanuhu  sonno pirka.
Your face is very beautiful.

Words in the Sentences

アナク anak  Topic marker
エ   e=   You
ク   ku=   I
ケリヒ kerihi Shoes (of someone)
ケル  ker   Shoes
ソンノ sonno  Very, truly
タパン tapan  This
ナヌフ nanuhu Face (of someone)
ネ   ne   Copula (to be)
ピリカ pirka  To be beautiful, good

Grammar

The word ケル ker in the first sentence mean a pair of shoes in its base form, and the word ケリヒ kerihi is the genitive form of it to show that it belongs to someone. With the pronominal suffix such as ku= or e=, they become ku=kerihi or e=kerihi, not ku=ker or e=ker. When the possessor is a third person, either ker or kerihi may be used: ウナルペ ケリ/ケリヒ unarpe ker/kerihi," "aunt's shoes."

Some Ainu nouns change the form when it belongs to someone, and such nouns include body parts, items wore on the body, animals, plants, and tools. マキリ ニチヒ makiri nicihi means "the grip of a small blade" where nicihi is the genitive of ニッ nit.

ナヌフ nanuhu in the second sentence means "face of", and the base form is ナン nan.

More examples:


キサル kisar ear キサラ,キサラハ kisara, kisaraha ear of..
アサム asam bottom アサマ,アサマハ asama, asamaha bottom of..
エトプ etop hair  エトピ,エトピヒ etopi, etopihi hair of..
シク  sik eye シキ,シキヒ siki, sikihi eye of..
レク rek beard レキ,レキヒ rek, rekihi beard of..
ピリ pir wound ピリ,ピリヒ piri, pirihi wound of..
クル kur shadow クリ,クリヒ  kuri, kurihi shadow of..
フム hum sound フミ,フミヒ humi, humihi sound of..
マッ mat wife マツ,マツヒ matu, matuhi wife of..
ナン nan face ナヌ,ナヌフ nanu, nanuhu face of..
ラプ rap wing ラプ,ラプフ rapu, rapuhu wing of..
カプ kap skin カプ,カプフ kapu, kapuhu skin of..
ハム ham leaf ハム,ハムフ hamu, hamuhu leaf of..
テク tek hand テケ,テケヘ teke, tekehe hand of..
ハウ hau voice ハウェ,ハウェヘ hawe, hawehe voice of..
アタイ atai price アタイェ,アタイェヘ ataye, atayehe price of..
チャル char mouth チャロ,チャロホ charo, charoho mouth of..
オソル osor hip オソロ,オソロホ osoro, osoroho hip of..

Practice Sentences

Your eyes are small.
My legs are slim.

  シキヒ sikihi Eye of..
  エ   e=   You, your
  ポン  pon   To be small
  アネ   ane    To be slim, narrow
  チキリヒ cikirihi Leg of..
  ソンノ  sonno   Very
  ク    ku=    I
↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ← → ← → B A
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Lesson 28: Genitives (2)

Postby Karavinka » 2007-08-30, 18:20

Sapporo TV Ainu Radio Lessons
STVアイヌ語ラジオ講座

Broadcasted on October 8 2006

Sentences

クコル    アチャポ エトゥフ ポロ。
ku=kor    acapo   etuhu   poro.
My uncle's nose is big.

クマッネポ エトピ フレ。
ku=matnepo etopi  hure.
My daugter's hair is red.

Words in the Sentences

アチャポ acapo  Uncle
エトゥフ etuhu  Nose of..
エトピ  etopi  Hair of..
ク ku=   I
コル kor   To have, to hold
フレ   hure   To be red
ポロ poro   To be big
マッネポ matnepo  Daughter

Grammar

エトゥフ etuhu in the first sentence is the genitive of エトゥ etu and it means "nose of.."

Some nouns such as body parts can be possessed without being in genitive as well, so エエトゥ e=etu and エエトゥフ e=etuhu are both acceptable. Also for the family members, so マッネポ matnepo in the second sentence becomes either クマッネポku=matnepo (base form) or クマッネポポku=matnepopo (genitive) with the pronominal prefix ku=.

エトピ etopi is the genitive form of エトプ etopu and this is an example of the vowel change in the genitive.

フラ hura smell / フラ, フラハ hura, huraha smell of...
ケラ kera taste / ケラ, ケラハ kera, keraha taste of...
トゥサ tusa sleeve / トゥサ, トゥサハ tusa, tusaha sleeve of...
パ pa year / パ, パハ pa, paha year of...
チンキ cinki lower end of a clothing / チンキ, チンキヒ cinki, cinkihi lower end of a clothing of..
ホク  hok husband / ホク, ホクフ hok, hokuhu husband of...
エトゥ  etu  nose  / エトゥ, エトゥフ etu, etuhu nose of...
チセ  cise house /  チセ, チセヘ cise, cisehe house of...
パケ  pake head / パケ, パケヘ pake, pakehe head of...
レ  re name / レ, レヘ re, rehe name of...
ポ  po child, son / ポ, ポホ po, poho child, son of...
マッネポ  matnepo daughter / マッネポ, マッネポホ matnepo, matnepoho daughter of...
ミッポ mitpo  grandchild  / ミッポ, ミッポホ mitpo, mitpoho grandchild of...
ト  to   day  ト, トホ  to, toho  day of...

The genitives ending with p, t, k, s, m, r, n, y, w, or in Katakana, small ク, プ, ッ, シ, ム, リ, ル or ン, イ, ウ undergo vowel changes in genitive, as they were presented in the last lesson.

The other words that end with a vowel get genitive affixes after them. ハ ha after the nouns ending with -a, ヒ hi after -i, フ hu after -u, ヘ he after -e and ホ ho after -o.

Practice Sentences

The smell of ramsons is strong.
My dog is smart. (lit. "to have a good head.")

  アナク anak  Topic marker
  ルイ  ruy   To bes trong
  プクサ puksa  Ramsons (plant)
  フラハ huraha  Smell of...
  ク   ku= I, my
  ピリカ pirka To be good
  パケ  pake  Head
  シタ  sita  Dog
  コル  kor  To have, hold

Answers from Lesson 27

[spoiler]1.エシキヒ ポン e=sikihi pon
2.クチキリヒ ソンノ アネ ku=cikirihi sonno ana[/spoiler]
↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ← → ← → B A
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Lesson 29: Nominaliser

Postby Karavinka » 2007-09-04, 2:06

Sapporo TV Ainu Radio Lessons
STVアイヌ語ラジオ講座

Broadcasted on October 15 2006

Words

アナク anak Topic marker
イェ ye To call itself
エ e= You
ク ku= I
自転車 ZITENSYA Bicycle
タパン tapan This
ネ ne Copula (to be)
ピリカ  pirka Good, beautiful, right
プ p Nominaliser
ペ pe Nominaliser
ホク hok To buy

Grammar

ペ pe and プ p are called nominalisers because they make nouns. They are roughly equivalent to the English affixes like -ness (after noun), -ing (after verb), -ity (after adjective), -er (after person) etc. Ainu nominalisers are still more general, they are used to make a place name (place where ... occurs) as well.

ペ pe is used after words that end with a small Katakana, or p, t, k, s, m, r, n, y or w in Roman Ainu. (Or, anything else than a, e, i, o, u.)

Examples:

イタク ペ Itak pe "thing that speaks"
アプカシ ペ Apkas pe "thing that walks"
イサム ペ isam pe "thing that doesn't exist"
レタル ペ retar pe "thing that is white"
ポン ペ pon pe "thing that is small"
オカイ ペ okay pe "things that are"

is used after the words that end with a big Katakana (including イェ or ウォ) or a, e, i, o, u in Roman Ainu.

シニ プ sini p "thing that rests"
ピリカ プ pirika p "thing that is good"
テルケ プ terke p "thing that jumps"
リムセ プ rimse p "thing that dances"
ワッカ ク プ wakka ku p "thing that drinks water"
クイェ プ ku=ye p "I"

Practice Sentences

1. There are lots of tasty things.
2. This obon is a thing that my uncle carved.

  ポロンノ    poronno A lot, much, many
  ケラアン    keraan  Tasty
  オカイ     okay   To be (pl.)
  ペ       pe    Nominaliser
  アチャポ acapo Uncle
  ネ ne Copula (to be)
  タパン tapan This
  プ p Nominaliser
  アナク anak Topic marker
  ヌイェ nuye To carve
  イタ  ita Obon (a Lantern festival, or a lamp that is used in the festival)

Answers from Lesson 28

[spoiler]1.プクサ アナク フラハ ルイ puksa anak huraha ruy
2.クコル シタ パケ ピリカ ku=kor sita pake pirka[/spoiler]


The show must go on, even on the moving day. 8)
↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ← → ← → B A
Spoiler Alert: Turkish | -30 Thai | Sink or Zapotec


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