SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SEPARATE FINNIC LANGUAGES
In the first syllable oo, ee, öö > uo, ie, yö, but other long vowels have remained unchanged (suo 'marsh', tie 'way', yö 'night', maa 'land', pää 'head'). The vowels of syllables further than the first have been preserved well, no syncope or apocope (rauta 'iron', ostamaan 'to buy'). As intervocal h has disappeared further than second syllable there are many long vowels and diphtongs in those syllables (lampaat 'sheep nom. pl.', lampaille 'sheep all. pl.'). There is gradation of stops unless they are not next to voiceless consonant (vako 'furrow', gen. vaon, but uskoa 'to believe', uskon 'I believe'). There is no palatalization of consonants. There is comitative with -ne ending.
Long vowels aa, ää, ee, oo, öö have become diphtongs both in first and contractional following syllables (mua 'land', oštua 'to buy inf.') Intervocal h, also word ending h has been preserved (lambahat 'sheep nom. pl.', veneh 'boat'). The palatalization of consonants is widely spread. š is usually used instead of s (šanon 'I say'). Also compounds of voiceless consonants undergoes gradation (uškuo 'to believe', uššon 'I believe', matka 'trip', gen. matan). Allative and adessive have become formally one (met´š´ällä 'forest all. sg. and adess. sg.). There is a plural marker -loi, -löi (suoloissa 'in the marshes'). Instead of 3. person plural the impersonal is used (hüö šanotah 'they say').
All long vowels have become short (ma 'land', p´ä 'head', ton 'I bring'; ii and uu have been preserved in Onega dialect). Lots of syncope and apocope (roud 'iron', ostmaha 'to buy'). No consistent vowel harmony. Consonants have been preserved well (lidnha 'town ill.' - compare Finnish linnaan but geminate stops have shortened (akad 'old women'). No gradation of consonants (vago 'furrow' gen. vagon). Palatalization of consonants is widely spread. Elative and ablative have joined inessive and adessive respectively and new cases have appeared from postpositions (metsaspäi 'from the forest').
All long vowels have been preserved (maa, pää, toon). There is almost no palatalization of consonants. Difference between nouns with -k and -h ending has been preserved (päreg ~ päre 'splinter', pl. pärriid, veneh ~ vene 'boat', pl. venneehed ~ venneed). Gradation of consonants on same occasions as in Karelian (uskoa : uson, matka : madan). Lots of gemination of consonants (männöö 'he/she goes', mattaala 'low'). At the 3. person plural ending there is no v-element (männööd 'they go').
All long vowels have been preserved. The õ sound is very usual, even in positions where there is o in Estonian (õlla 'to be', õma 'own'). Before front vowels k becomes tš (tšäsi 'hand'). The word initial h is very rare, in the following syllables it has disappeared totally. Instead of ks and ps there is hs (õhsa 'branch', lahsi 'child'), instead of st there is ss, in weak grade s (mussa 'black' pl. musat). In addition to stops also sibilants undergo gradation (isä 'father', gen. izää). There is a comitative with -kaa ending.
Long vowels have been preserved in the first syllable. After the long first syllable vowel of open syllable has disappeared (raud, ostma - compare Finnish rauta, ostamaan). No ä, ö, ü in following syllables, so there is also no vowel harmony. No long vowels in following syllables. h has disappeared further than the beginning of second syllable, usually the word initial h is not pronounced. In addition to the quantity gradation there is also quality gradation, which comprises all long vowels, dophtongs, double consonants and compound consonants (saada 'send imp. sg.' : 'saada* 'to get', 'laine 'wave gen. sg.' : laine 'wave nom. sg.', võta 'take imp. sg.' : võtta 'to take', konna 'frog gen. sg. : 'konna 'frog part. sg.', külma 'cold gen. sg. : 'külma 'cold part.sg.).There is terminative with -ni ending and comitative with -ga ending.
* ' is used here to show overlong syllable
Long ee and oo have changed to ie and uo; short e and o can have been turned to a diphtong which first component is extra short (miez 'man', sjepaa 'blacksmith'). õ exists but there is no change o > õ (võõlga 'debt' but lopuub 'it ends'). No vowel harmony. Apocopes also after short syllable (sug 'gender'). No gradation but there is some kind of quantity changing (mustaa 'black', part. mustõ). There is a broken intonation in some words. Dative with -n ending. Case with -ks ending works both as translative and comitative. 1. person sg. ending is -b like in 3. person.
* I use Finnish/Estonian spelling here.