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Karaj tili - Irusia

Posted: 2017-08-30, 18:43
by aaakknu
I will write here everything I learn in Karaim. I'm learning the Halych dialect. There are very few resources, so I try to use everything I can find.

At the moment I have:
1. "Грамматика караимского языка" by Musayev
2. "Karaj sez bitigi" (Karaim-Polish-German dictionary) by Aleksander Mardkowicz
3. "Караимско-русско-польский словарь"
4. "Krótki wykład gramatyki języka zachodnio-karaimskiego (narzecze łucko-halickie)" by Ananiasz Zajączkowski
5. "Синтаксис караимского языка" by Musayev
6. "Język Łach-Karaitów. Narzecze południowe (łucko-halickie) by Jan Grzegorzewski
7. Magazines "Karaj awazy"
8. Some short books in Karaim published by Aleksander Mardkowicz

I hope to find somewhere "Zwięzła gramatyka języka zachodniokaraimskiego (z ćwiczeniami)" by Michał Nemeth, because it's the most recent Karaim grammar published (2011). I could find it neither in a library nor in the internet unfortunately.
Most of the books I'm using are quite old.

Re: Karaj tili - Irusia

Posted: 2018-03-03, 13:49
by aaakknu
Some vocabulary:

ата (ata) - father - батько
кара (kara) - black - чорний
ара (ara) - middle - середина
кайра (kajra) - to where - куди
куртик (kurtik) - worm - хробак
ат (at) - horse - кінь
эт (et) - meat - м'ясо

Re: Karaj tili - Irusia

Posted: 2018-03-03, 14:07
by aaakknu
кой (koj) - sheep - вівця
кағыт (kağyt) - paper - папір
ивретивци (iwretiwci) - teacher - вчитель
эсик (esik) - door - двері (pl. esikler)
иц эсик (ic esik) - three doors
темир (temir) - iron - залізо
кум (kum) - sand - пісок
кимис (kimis) - silver - срібло
кол (kol) - hand (?) - рука
кыз (kyz) - girl - дівчина
тил (til) - language - мова
йел (jel) - wind - вітер
ит (it) - dog - собака
йырак (jyrak) - far - далекий, далеко, далечінь
йаксы (jaksy) - good - добрий, добре, добро

Note: I write the words in Cyrillic, because that's how they're written in the grammar book I use. The transliterations are mine. Later I'll also add the Latin orthography as it is used in most of the books in Karaim I have.

Re: Karaj tili - Irusia

Posted: 2018-03-03, 14:37
by aaakknu
Formation of plural

There are two variant of the plural affix: -lar and -ler.
The choice of a correct variant depends on the vowel harmony: if a word has back vowels [a, o, u, ɯ]* the affix -lar should be used; if a word has front vowels [i, e]* the affix -ler should be used.

*I'm not sure about the IPA symbols for the vowels, because the book I'm using doesn't have IPA. Instead, somewhat vague comparisons with the Russian sounds are used there.

A noun without the prural affix can mean either one object or a group of objects in general.

For example:
эсав (esaw) - a Polish person; Polish nationality
карай (karaj) - a Karaim; Karaim nationality

эсавлар (esawlar) - Polish people
карайлар (karajlar) - Karaims

Other examples:

кез (kez) - an eye - око
кезлер (kezler) - eyes - очі

кас (kas) - an eyebrow - брова
каслар (kaslar) - eyebrows - брови

кулак (kulak) - an ear - вухо
кулаклар (kulaklar) - ears - вуха

кол (kol) - a hand - рука
коллар (kollar) - hands - руки

айак (ajak) - a leg (?) - нога
айаклар (ajaklar) - legs - ноги

When a noun is used with a numeral, either plural or singular can be used, but the plural is used more often.