Before continuing with the lessons I should make note of something. Earlier I said:
zhiguli wrote:the Latin alphabet is pretty much a one-to-one transliteration of its Cyrillic counterpart and one alphabet can be easily "auto-converted" into the other.
Well, I lied. It isn't an exact one-to-one match. For one thing, Uzbek Latin has introduced some digraphs and gotten rid of some single Russian letters that aren't really suited to a Turkic language.
In addition, the new Latin alphabet, which was obviously put together with English in mind, has introduced some new problems that didn't exist in the older script.
The biggest of these is the confusion over apostrophes, there are 3 different kinds in Uzbek:
1. single opening (or "6") quote ‘ - as a diacritic for the letters o‘ (ў) and g‘ (ғ)
2. straight quote ' - to separate letters that would otherwise be pronounced as a digraph: s'h (сҳ) instead of sh (ш)
3. single closing (or "9") quote ’ - to mark orthographic 'ayn/hamza (ъ in Cyrillic)
There is also some confusion with letters like ц which gets transliterated either as "ts" or "s" depending on its position in a word, but in actual practice the rules are routinely ignored. So the Russian word цех ("workshop) will often be transcribed "tsex" or even "cex" (even though independent "c" does not exist in Uzbek Latin) instead of the correct form, "sex".
Likewise, when transliterating numerous other Russian loan words into Latin you get gems like this:
The present-future tense is formed with the suffixes а/й, а for roots ending in consonants, й for vowels.
ёзмоқ - ёзаман
сўрамоқ - сўрайман
This tense is used for habitual actions. Compare:
У хат ёзяпти He is writing a letter У чап қўлда ёзади He writes with his left hand
Бемор стулдан туряпти The patient is getting up from the chair Мен соат еттида тураман I get up at 7
Negative is formed with the negative particle ма+й
The postposition билан "with" is just placed after the word without any change:
ким билан with whom
нима билан with what
гўшт билан with the meat
In speech it is sometimes pronounced минан - ким минан
Сиз эшикни нима билан очасиз? What do you open the door with? Мен эшикни калит билан очаман. I open the door with a key.
Past tense with -ган эди indicates a short period of time in the past (where a person remembers a particular action and tells someone about it)
Котиб хат олиб келган эди The secretary brought a letter.
The suffix гача "up to a point"
қаердан қаергача from where to where?
уйдан мактабгача from home to school
соат нечадан нечагача? from when (what hour) till when? соат иккидан учгача from 2 to 3
моқчи "want/intend to" (with verbs)
бормоқчиман i want/intend to go
negative: бормоқчи эмасман
it can also be written as one word: бормоқчимасман
моқда, (а)ётир is a present tense form normally used in bookish language. There is no negative form.
Мен ўрганмоқдаман I am studying ("I am in the process of studying")
Мен санаётирман I am counting