Uzbek (Ўзбек тили)

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zhiguli
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Uzbek (Ўзбек тили)

Postby zhiguli » 2006-10-14, 10:50

I thought I'd start a thread for Uzbek as I'm doing a (very cursory) study of this language. The book I am using is Ўзбек тилини ўрганамиз ("Let's learn Uzbek") by Р. Юлдашев. I will be adding my notes as I progress through the lessons.

Some background:
Uzbek is the third most commonly spoken Turkic language (after Turkish and Azeri) and the most important member of the Qarluq branch. It is spoken not only in Uzbekistan, but also adjacent regions of Kazakhstan, Afghanistan and Xinjiang province in China.
Though Uzbek officially adopted a new Latin alphabet in 1994, the Cyrillic alphabet is still used in daily life and is not uncommon on the internet (as an example - searching for "ўзбекча" yields about 220,000 hits, while "o'zbekcha" gets roughly twice that number) - some doubt that the Latin script will ever completely replace the Cyrillic one. As for Uzbeks living in Xinjiang, they, like the Uyghurs, use a modified Arabic alphabet.
Though the Latin alphabet uses several digraphs to replace single Cyrillic letters (ch - ч, sh - ш, о' - ў, g' - ғ) the Latin alphabet is pretty much a one-to-one transliteration of its Cyrillic counterpart and one alphabet can be easily "auto-converted" into the other. Keeping this in mind I will be mainly using Latin script in my notes.

Some more facts:
-Uyghur and Uzbek are said to be mutually intelligible. Here is a short text in both languages (in Uyghur Latin transcription):
http://www.uighurlanguage.com/logs/2004 ... ek_com.php
Uzbek also has much in common with the extinct language Chagatay (aka Old Uzbek, whose status could be compared to that of Ottoman Turkish).
-Both languages have a very heavy Persian/Tajik influence, which is reflected not only in the vocabulary but also in some elements of grammar. Tajik has also (allegedly) influenced the phonology of the language - Uzbek lacks the "umlaut" vowels and vowel harmony that exist in nearly all other Turkic languages (though there are some dialects that do have these features). Nevertheless in its grammatical structure it's very much a Turkic language and knowledge of Oghuz languages like Turkish and Azeri can go a long way to understanding the ins and outs of Uzbek grammar.

Like other "minor" Turkic languages, Uzbeks suffers from a lack of good learning material both online and offline (there is a book/cd course called "Marhamat" but it is quite expensive). Some websites:

http://www.oxuscom.com/250words.htm
http://www.sambuh.com/learnuzbek/index.html
http://jones.ling.indiana.edu/~prrodrig ... kpage.html

(dictionaries):

http://www.geocities.com/zangari_kema/izlabtop.html
http://www.ismanov.com/
http://www.uzbek-glossary.com/
http://uzbek.firespeaker.org/
http://online.multilex.ru/uzbek-russian-uzbek/

And a couple for Uyghur:

http://www.uighurlanguage.com/
http://tilachar.uyghurlar.biz/index.php?newlang=rus

This site also has parallel texts in Uzbek/Chagatay/Kazakh (look under «Книги и тексты на узбекском языке с переводом»):

http://www.franklang.ru/uz.html

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Postby Alcadras » 2006-10-14, 11:35

All among Turkic languages, Turks can understand only Azeri.
zhiguli, your links are great. I noticed that, here:
http://www.sambuh.com/learnuzbek/part1.html
"Just a minute" is the same with Turkish, but pronunciation is really different, like Russian. I can understand it but R is so russian. There are a few similar words besides.

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Postby zhiguli » 2006-10-14, 12:13

of course i didn't mean to imply that turks could understand uzbek, only that there are similarities.

more pages:

http://gbarto.com/languages/uzbek1.html
http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%96zbek ... Dilbilgisi
http://ruhelp.com/boards/index.php?mfor ... wtopic=576

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Postby Alcadras » 2006-10-14, 12:15

I've got a teacher friend, he knows and can speak all turkic languages! :shock:

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Postby zhiguli » 2006-10-14, 12:19

Alcadras wrote:I've got a teacher friend, he knows and can speak all turkic languages! :shock:


invite him to the forum! :D

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Postby zhiguli » 2006-10-16, 12:25

well. i changed my mind, and will use the original cyrillic as it is in the book.

so on to lesson 1.

the uzbek alphabet:

а - a
б - b
в - v
г - g
д - d
е - ye/e
ё - yo
ж - j
з - z
и - и
й - y
к - k
л - l
м - m
н - n
о - о
п - p
р - r
с - s
т - t
у - u
ф - f
х - x
ц - ts
ч - ch
ш - sh
ъ - '
ь - _
э - e
ю - yu
я - ya
ў - o'
қ - q
ғ - g'
ҳ - h

most of these are pronounced more or less like their english counterparts, but the following merit further explanation:

е/э - е is pronounced ye at the beginning of a word or following a vowel. in every other position it is pronounced the same as э. э in its turn is only used at the beginning of a word or after a vowel.
ж - usually pronounced j, but in some words, and loans from russian it is pronounced like 'ge' in 'garage'.
и - has two pronunciations, one like 'i' in 'pin' and the other like turkish 'ı'. according to the book it is pronounced 'i' at the beginning of a word, and 'ı' after consonants, but otherwise it gives no clear rules. you'll just have to listen to uzbek speech to hear the difference.
о - is pronounced like the long 'a' in 'hall' in native words, in russian words it is pronounced like а when unstressed, and ў when stressed.
ъ - a brief pause, like arabic hamza (ء).
ь - only used in russian loans.
ў - like the long 'o' in 'hole'.
қ - like arabic qaaf (ق).
ғ - like arabic ghayn (غ).

uzbek naturally has many loans from russian and international words (via russian). some examples: адвокат (lawyer), академик (academic), бухгалтер (accountant), капитан (captain), режиссёр (director), банк (bank), океан (ocean).
apart from this, uzbek has many words from arabic/persian alongside words with turkic roots.
some examples:
arabic: қафас (قفس kafes) cage, қалам (قلم kalem) pencil, ҳуқуқ (حقوق hukuk) law, фарқ (فرق fark) difference, халқ (خلق halk) people, фақат (فقط fakat) only.
persian: дарахт (درخت) tree, уста (استاد) master, каптар (کبوتر) pigeon, гул (گل) flower.
turkic: сув (su) water, уй (ev) house, туз (tuz) salt, турна (turna) crane, узум (üzüm) grapes, туя (deve) camel, сут (süt) milk.

words borrowed from russian up to 1941 underwent some changes in spelling and even stress. the ы and щ of russian words are replaced by и and ш/шч respectively.

the locative suffix is -да. when following an unvoiced consonant, it gets pronounced (but not written) -та:
Тренер қаерда? тренер стадионда. Where is the trainer? The trainer is in the stadium.

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Postby księżycowy » 2006-10-20, 17:09

It has been one of my dreams (for lack of a better word) to learn Uzbek and Kazakh. The major thing stopping me is the price of the english resources I've found (mostly through Schoenhofs.com)

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Postby zhiguli » 2006-10-22, 23:16

Lessons 2/3/4

the prefix -га indicates motion towards an object:
сен қаерга кетяпсан? (to) where are you going?
мен театрга кетяпман. i am going to the theatre.

қаерда? where
қаерга? to where/whither?
қафасга to the cage
дарахтга to the tree
after voiceless consonants it's pronounced (but not written) -ка:
буфетга (pronounced буфетка) to the buffet/snack bar
after a word ending in к, it is written and pronounced -ка:
банкка to the bank
" " " " " " " қ, " " " " " " " " -қа:
қудуққа to the well

the suffix -дан indicates motion from:

қаердан where from/whence?
мактабдан from the school
уйдан from the house
after voiceless consonants it gets pronounced (but not written) -тан
институтдан (pronounced институттан)

the plural suffix is -лар, and is added without any change to a word
врач doctor врачлар doctors
гул flower гуллар flowers

the suffix -чи
is used to form names of professions, people engaged in a certain task, etc
бокс boxing боксчи boxer
бульдозер bulldozer бульдозерчи bulldozer..er

pronouns

мен i, сен you (singular, informal), у he/she/it, биз we, сиз you (plural or polite singular), улар they

the verb "to be" is formed by means of suffixes, attached to the last word of the sentence:

мен врач-ман i am a doctor.
сен врач-сан you are a doctor.
у врач. he is a doctor.
биз врач-миз we are doctors
сиз врач-сиз you (pl.) are doctors
улар врач(-лар) they are doctors

сен кимсан? who are you?
-мен студентман i am a (university) student.

as you can see, third person does not have a suffix of its own. also, if a word indicates a general quality, it does not get pluralized as in english.
since the person is implicit in the ending, it's possible to omit the personal pronouns.

continuous present tense is formed thus:
root+яп+personal suffix
мен кетяпман i am going
сен кетяпсан you are going
у кетяпти he is going
биз кетяпмиз we are going
сиз кетяпсиз you are going
улар о
to negate this, the suffix -ма- is put in between the root and the continuous suffix:
ўқимаяпман i am not reading
ўқимаяпсан
ўқимаяпти
ўқимаяпмиз
ўқимаяпсиз
ўқимаяптилар

сен нима еяпсан? what are you eating?
мен шоколад еяпман i am eating chocolate.

нима "what" also has a plural if one is talking about several objects (нималар)

some verbs also require objects to take the definite direct object suffix -ни
сен нимани кўряпсин? what do you see?
мен шоколадни кўряпман i see *the* chocolate
мен шоколад кўряпман i see chocolate/some chocolate

and now, a short conversation on the phone:

алло, ким бу? hello, who is this?
-бу мен, самадовман. it's me, samadov.
қалай, яхшимисиз? how are you, are you fine?
- яхши. термизга сафарга кетяпман (yes, i'm) fine. i'm going to termiz on a trip.
сиз қаердасиз? where are you? (сиз қаердан телефон қиляпсиз - where are you calling from)
-вокзалдаман. хўп, хайр! i'm at the train station. alright, goodbye
хайр! goodbye

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Postby allemaalmeezinge » 2006-10-23, 7:49

if 'what' is нима it seems to me it uses the turkic question particle more consequent than for example turkish :)
I suppose those are semantically related: нима/nima - ne (mi).
where turkish would just use: adınız ne they say isminqiz nima.

and also here we find a hard [k] as in tuvan: ket / gel.

im intrigued of as to how many similarities you yet grasp between all those turkish languages with just a nearly non existant understanding of one of them :D

anyway, rahmat for the efforts
following the course

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Postby zhiguli » 2006-10-24, 11:39

yabba wrote:if 'what' is нима it seems to me it uses the turkic question particle more consequent than for example turkish :)
I suppose those are semantically related: нима/nima - ne (mi).
where turkish would just use: adınız ne they say isminqiz nima.


not sure there's any connection; in turkmen it's näme and in tatar it's нәрсә.

yabba wrote:and also here we find a hard [k] as in tuvan: ket / gel.

im intrigued of as to how many similarities you yet grasp between all those turkish languages with just a nearly non existant understanding of one of them :D


well, it's not so hard as long as you're aware of how the consonants can differ from language to language or group to group - k/g t/d b/p y/j b/m and so on.

yabba wrote:anyway, rahmat for the efforts
following the course


арзимайди))

A song from girl group Setora ("the Uzbek Via Gra!"):

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k-XMFvtsbyg

lyrics:

Har lahza zor bo'lib, so'zingni kutadi,
Dunyo borlig'ini qo'linga tutadi.
Har dam ko'z-yosh to'kib yoningdan o'tadi,
Joni tanda bo'lib, jonim deb ataydi.

Hatto bo'lib qolar begona o'zidan,
Namoyon bo'ladi timsoling ko'zidan.
Lekin bariga sen hech ishona ko'rma,
Yiroq bo'l o'zidan, olis bo'l so'zidan.

Sen unga ishonma, yorim deb atama,
Sen unga ishonma, unga ko'ngil berma

Ko'zlariga qara, unda bir sen emas,
Nigohi senda-yu, hayoli sendamas.
Ko'ngliga yoqasan, ammo seni sevmas,
Senga jon berishi tasavvurga kelmas.

Hatto bo'lib qolar begona o'zidan,
Namoyon bo'ladi timsoling ko'zidan.
Lekin bariga sen hech ishona ko'rma,
Yiroq bo'l o'zidan, olis bo'l so'zidan.

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Postby Alcadras » 2006-10-24, 15:49

I know Setora! I had a song "Sen Borsan".
Do you know what it means?

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Postby zhiguli » 2006-10-25, 0:44


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Postby zhiguli » 2006-10-26, 23:13

for those who like learning languages "in reverse", some lessons teaching uzbeks how to speak english:
http://e-lib.qmii.uz/s3_Uq/f2_k6/0009_U ... ronomy.pdf
the actual lessons are in uzbek/russian but it does offer parallel translations of the example sentences and many useful phrases.

lessons 4/5/6

муаллиф кимга ёрдам беряпти whom is the writer helping? ("to whom is the writer giving help")
муаллиф муҳаррирга ёрдам беряпти. the writer is helping the editor

қўл ёзма кимда? who has the manuscript ("in/on whom is the manuscript")
қўл ёзма муҳаррирда. the editor has it ("it's in/on the editor")

ошпазга нима керак? what does the cook need? ("to the cook what is necessary")
ошпазга қозон керак. the cook needs a pot

**************************************************************

бригадир даладами? is the brigadier in the field?
-ҳа, бригадир далада. yes, the brigadier is in the field
агроном-чи? what about the agronomist?
-агроном ҳам далада. the agronomist is also in the field.

the new words/particles here:

-ми is the question particle and added to the end of a word. with the verb "to be", however, it comes before the second person forms -сан, -сиз (just like in turkish)
мен сотувчиманми/биз сотувчимизми? am i a seller/are we sellers?
but
сен сотувчимисан?/сиз сотувчимисиз? are you a seller/sellers?
у сотувчими? улар сотувчиларми? is he/are they sellers?
though it's also possible to put the suffix at the end as well
сен сотувчисанми?
and even put the question particle before the 3rd person plural ending
улар сотувчимилар? are they engineers?

ҳа - yes (cf. azeri hə)
сиз муҳандисмисиз? are you an engineer?
ҳа, мен муҳандисман.

-чи "and"/"what about"? (written with a dash to distinguish it from the noun forming чи)
ҳам - also, too

яшхимисан? how are you (lit. are you good?)
-яхшиман, раҳмат. сен-чи fine, thanks. and you?
ман ҳам яхшиман

to form negatives, the word эмас is used:
сен сотувчимисан? are you a seller?
-йўқ (no), мен сотувчи эмасман. no, i am not a seller
сен сотувчи эмассан
у сотувчи эмас
биз сотувчи эмасмиз
сиз сотувчи эмассиз
улар сотувчи эмаслар

-моқ forms the infinitive
беряпти - бер - бермоқ to give
чиқяпти - чиқ - чиқмоқ to exit, go out
оляпти - ол - олмоқ to take
сўраяпти - сўра - сўрмоқ to ask
removing this suffix gives you the root, which is also the singular ("сен" form) imperative:
бер give!
чиқ go out!
ол take!
сўра ask!
the plural/singular polite (сиз form) imperative is formed by adding the suffix -инг (-нг after vowels):
беринг
чиқинг
олинг
сўранг
this form can also be used to address several "сен":
болалар, ҳовлида ўйнанг children, play in the courtyard
the forms -ингиз and -инглар are used to address many people:
ёзингиз/ёзинглар write
ўқингиз/ўқинглар read
another form of -инглар exists, -ларинг, but according to the book this form can express a negative, "scornful attitude towards the addressee":
кетларинг go away
in colloquial speech -инглар and -нглар become -ила and -йла respectively

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Postby zhiguli » 2006-11-07, 6:17

lesson 7/8

numbers

1 бир
2 икки
3 уч
4 тўрт
5 беш
6 олти
7 етти
8 саккиз
9 тўққиз
10 ўн
20 йигирма
30 ўттиз
40 қирқ
50 эллик
60 олтмиш
70 етмиш
80 саксон
90 тўқсон
100 юз
1000 минг

the suffix -та is used as a counting word
битта (exception - бир+та) one (thing)
иккита two (things)

the suffix -инчи (-нчи after vowels) is used to form ordinal numbers:

биринчи first
иккинчи second
etc.

telling time
ҳозир соат неча? - what time is it (now)?
ҳозир соат бир - it's one o'clock
ҳозир соат бир ярим it's one thirty (one and a half)

the simple past tense

is formed with the suffix -ди+personal endings

мен ўқидим i read
сен ўқидинг you read
у ўқиди he read
биз ўқидик we read
сиз ўқидингиз you (pl) read
улар ўқидилар they read

this tense indicates action in the recent past that was witnessed by the speaker.

in stems ending in a voiceless consonant the д of the past tense marker gets pronounced (but not written) т:

the negative is formed by placing ма between the root and the past tense suffix

ўқимадим i didn't read , ўқимадинг you didn't read, etc

the interrogative particle is always placed at the end:

ўқидимми? did i read? ўқидингми? did you read?

another past tense is formed with the suffix -ган, which corresponds to the english present perfect (and the turkish -mişli zaman):

мен кўрганман i have seen
сен кўргансан you have seen..
у кўрган
биз кўрганмиз
сиз кўргансиз
улар кўрганлар

there are two negative forms:
1 кўрмаганман
2 кўрмаган эмасман

the first one indicates that the action was not accomplished within a short time frame that has been mentioned. the second one indicates that the action did not take place at all:

у кеча келмаган he didn't come yesterday
у (яқин ўртада) келган эмас he didn't come (in the recent past)

in speech (and in writing) the second negative form can be written as one long word:
кўрганмасман
the pronunciation кўрганамасман can also be heard but it is never written this way.

in the interrogative form the question particle -ми is put before the second person personal endings:
ўқиганмисан, ўқиганмисиз.
in the third person plural it can be put before or after:
ўқиганмилар/ўқиганларми?

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Postby zhiguli » 2006-11-10, 7:08

celcar has podcasts for their uzbek course online:

http://www.indiana.edu/~celcar/media/uz ... poduz.html

hear other foreigners butcher the uzbek language!

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Postby gothwolf » 2007-02-10, 22:16

Hm... I didn't see anywhere to be mentioned how to form the plural forms of adjectives and nouns... Is there someone here who's able to explain this, please ?!? :roll:

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Postby zhiguli » 2007-02-11, 7:52

i haven't been studying for awhile so i don't know how much use i can be, but:

the plural suffix is -лар, and is added without any change to a word
врач doctor врачлар doctors
гул flower гуллар flowers


afaik, adjectives only decline as independent words, i.e. not modifying a following noun.

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Postby zhiguli » 2007-03-03, 13:35

as mentioned above, i've put my uzbek studies on hold. but i did get up to lesson 32 (of 80) and will post whatever notes i have, depending on the response.
those who might want to practise their uzbek on real live uzbeks can try at this forum. some threads about uzbek and other turkic languages can also be found in the language corner.

lessons 9/10

the suffix -дан has the general sense of "from".

сиз рецептни кимдан оляпсиз? from whom do you get the prescription?

recapping the case endings learned so far:

ким who
кимни who(m) (definite direct object)
кимга to whom
кимда in/on whom
кимдан from whom

when adding -ни the pronouns мен and сен the final -н of the pronoun drops off: мени, сени.
when adding -га/-да/-дан to the third person pronoun у a buffer -н- is inserted between the suffix and the pronoun: унга, унда, ундан.

some more examples:
ким кетяпти? -мен кетяпман. who is coming? -i am coming.
қиз кимни чақиряпти? -қиз мени чақиряпти. who is the girl inviting? the girl is inviting me.
қиз кимга нон беряпти? -қиз менга нон беряпти. to whom is the girl giving bread? -the girl is giving bread to me.
кимда ручка бор? -менда ручка бор. - who has a pen (lit. on whom is there a pen)? i have a pen.
қиз кимдан ручка оляпти? -қиз мендан ручка оляпти. from whom does the girl take a pen? -the girl takes a pen from me.
қиз кимга қараяпти? -қиз менга қараяпти. who is the girl looking at? -the girl is looking at me.

the present-future tense.
is formed with the affixes а/й. а is used after roots ending in consonants, while й is used after vowels:
ёзмоқ - ёз-а-ман
сўрамоқ - сўра-й-ман
the first and second persons use the same personal suffixes as the present tense, while the third person uses -ди(лар)
мен бораман i (will) go
сен борасан
у боради
биз борамиз
сиз борасиз
улар борадилар
the present-future tense indicates an action that occurs regularly:
мен ўқийман i read (usually)
as opposed to the present, which indicates an action that occurring at the time of speaking:
мен ўқияпман i am reading (right now)
in this sense it is similar to the turkish aorist "okurum".

compare:
у хат ёзяпти. he is writing a letter.
бемор стулдан туряпти. the patient is getting up from the chair.

у чап қўлда ёзади. he writes with (his) left hand.
мен соат еттида тураман. i get up at seven.

to form the negative -май- is used:

мен бормайман
сен бормайсан
у бормайди
биз бормаймиз
сиз бормайсиз
улар бормайдилар

the question particle is simply added to the end:

мен ёзаманми?

in spoken language abbreviated forms борасми (instead of борасизми) артасми (instead of артасизми) may be encountered.

some phrases:

ассалому алайкум. -ваалайкум ассалом (the muslimically correct greeting and response)
яхшимисиз? -раҳмат, яхшиман. how are you? -i'm fine.
тузукмисиз? how are you feeling? (asked of someone who returns to work/school after an illness)
responses:
тузукман i feel fine.
бир оз тузукман. i feel a bit better.
ўртача so-so (middling)
зўр excellent.

zhiguli
Posts: 688
Joined: 2003-12-13, 8:36
Real Name: zhiguli zhiguli
Gender: male
Country: CA Canada (Canada)

Postby zhiguli » 2007-03-03, 13:39

and for those who want to tackle the entire verb system at one go:
http://students.washington.edu/cwei/res ... _verbs.pdf

Drochfhuaimniú
Posts: 1191
Joined: 2005-03-12, 15:30
Real Name: Thomas
Gender: male
Country: US United States (United States)

Postby Drochfhuaimniú » 2007-04-10, 2:23

zhiguli wrote:celcar has podcasts for their uzbek course online:

http://www.indiana.edu/~celcar/media/uz ... poduz.html

hear other foreigners butcher the uzbek language!


The teacher keeps saying something that sounds like "yaksha'. Do you know what this means?


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