Azeri (Azərbaycan dili)

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Sisyphe
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Postby Sisyphe » 2006-09-28, 17:24

It is a matter of where you will use the translation - if it is going to be used in Azerbaidjan, then you would naturally use the Azeri dialect. If your translation will be used in Iran, then you would have it translated into the Iranian dialect of Azeri. There are, of course, other enclaves of Azeri speaking people - Ethnologue describes which dialect is used where though. :wink:
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Postby zhiguli » 2006-10-10, 20:05

i don't think you will find much on azeri either online or offline. these sites are probably nothing new:
http://www.azeritutor.org/
http://www.azeri.org/
http://resources.net.az/phrase.htm (phrasebook)
http://www.polyglot.az/ (dictionary)

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Postby Sisyphe » 2006-10-10, 20:12

Thanks Zhiguli. :wink: Most of these - I knew already - but one or two links can make a difference in a language with scarce resources as this. :wink:
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Postby zhiguli » 2006-11-07, 6:45

kinda dead here...big surprise

what i'd like to know is - how many people would be interested in a language course? i don't pretend to be good in this language but i think i have gotten far enough to start writing my own material.

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Postby Sisyphe » 2006-11-08, 1:27

:y:
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Postby peterlin » 2006-11-08, 18:03

I would be very interested, too. I've been struggling with Azerbaijani for some time, but without much progress.

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Postby Erol » 2007-01-25, 6:38

Here are two newspapers that I've been reading for years in Azerbaijani turkish

This one is not too hard on the president of the country , since the time of the deceased father ex-president; http://www.525ci.com/aze/

But this one is hardcore critical about the both presidents;
http://www.musavat.com/site/

In both newspapers & in others there is always one or two news about Turkey almost everyday.
Unfortunately in Turkish newspapers news about Azerbaijan is very rare.
Last edited by Erol on 2007-01-25, 7:00, edited 2 times in total.

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Postby Erol » 2007-01-25, 6:55

Most Azerbaijanis are at least familiar with the culture or things about Turkey via turkish media to the degree that Istanbulite turkish has been having a great impact on their dialect -as in vocabulary & idiomatically- , which Azerbaijani turkish is very close to the dialects in eastern regions of Turkey.

I remember it was much harder to read even the scarce latin versions of this dialect , like 15 years ago , but now much easier to be able to communicate due to the improved media effect , so much so that they can easily survive in Turkey without learning Istanbulite dialect

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Postby Erol » 2007-01-25, 7:06

If you speak Istanbulite dialect , you can compare your knowledge with this Azebaijani turkish article . It is about Ismail Cem , the deceased Turkey's ex-foreign minister from cancer , which he was the good friend of the ex-foreign minister of Greece , George Papandreu ;

"TÜRKİYƏNİN KEÇMİŞ XARİCİ İŞLƏR NAZİRİ VƏFAT ETDİ
İsmayıl Cem xərçəng xəstəliyinə tutulubmuş



Türkiyənin keçmiş xarici işlər naziri İsmayıl Cem dünən neçə vaxtdır müalicə olunduğu İstanbul Cərrah Xəstəxanasında vəfat edib. Ağciyər xərçəngindən əziyyət çəkən Cem son bir neçə gündə xəstəxananın reanimasiya şöbəsində yatıb. Həkimlər onda xərçəngdən əlavə infeksion xəstəlik də aşkar ediblər. Ancaq keçmiş nazirin müalicəsi səmərə verməyib.
1940-cı ildə anadan olan Cem ixtisasca jurnalist idi. Bir müddət “Milliyet” qəzetində köşə yazarı kimi fəaliyyət göstərib. O, 1997-ci ildə Türkiyədə qurulan koalision hökumətin xarici işlər naziri olub. Bu vəzifədə çalışarkən Azərbaycana da səfər etmişdi. Demokratik Sol Partiyanı təmsil edən Cem beş ilə yaxın Türkiyə xarici siyasətinə rəhbərlik etdikdən sonra 2002-ci ildə partiyasından istefa verib və Yeni Türkiyə Partiyasını qurub. Ancaq onun partiyası siyasi arenada ciddi uğur qazana bilməyib və iki il sonra YTP Dəniz Baykalın lideri olduğu Cümhuriyyət Xalq Partiyası ilə birləşib. Cem isə Baykalın baş müşaviri olub.
İsmayıl Cem xarici işlər naziri olarkən Türkiyənin Avropa Birliyi ilə münasibətlərinin yaxşılaşmasında və Yunanıstanla çoxdankı problemlərin nizamlanmasında mühüm rol oynamışdı. O, Türkiyənin tanınmış dövlət xadimlərindən hesab olunurdu.
F.MƏMMƏDOV"

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Postby Erol » 2007-01-25, 8:20

Brilyant (Brilliant) Dadaşeva is also known in Turkey & is one of the most famous singers in Azerbaijan
The name of the song - "Bir sözünle dönerem" = " I come back with your one word" ;
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MD9Qoc8Z ... ed&search=

From Manana - "Səndən ayrı" = " Away or seperated from you " depending on the context;
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cwZlNOlM_m0

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Postby zhiguli » 2007-01-29, 11:18

erol, thanks for your posts on these forums. what other turkic languages do you know/study?

as for the lessons, they will appear at some point in the future (though interest in this language seems to have flatlined...)

in the meantime, enjoy an article about and a video by azeri "singing sexpot" röya.

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Postby Erol » 2007-01-29, 22:39

Xos gelmissen Zhiguli. Necesen?

I studied Azerbaijani Oghuz , Kazan Tatar , Crimean Tatar , Gagauz and some Uzbek. Ofcourse in these turkic languages in different degrees , beginner to intermediate level or some of them in basic knowledge , but then again if I don't practice ; reading & writing in them I loose it quickly. You can tell me which ones you are dealing , also.

I can read different cyrillic alphabets as well. Some letters can have different phonemic values whether they're written in latin or cyrillic script. For example the "gh" Istanbulite turkish is phonologically different than Azerbaijani Turkish or in most other turkic languages. For other turkic languages & foreign languages native speaker this front-velar "ğ" is not easy , even though it is represented with the same letter in Azeri letter.

Even though for the sake of exposure for this Caucasian Oghuz dialect to other members , if you'd like start giving introduction , I would contribute , as well.

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Postby zhiguli » 2007-02-01, 16:10

Erol wrote:Xos gelmissen Zhiguli. Necesen?


salam erol qaqaş, lap əlayam, sən necəsən?

I studied Azerbaijani Oghuz , Kazan Tatar , Crimean Tatar , Gagauz and some Uzbek. Ofcourse in these turkic languages in different degrees , beginner to intermediate level or some of them in basic knowledge , but then again if I don't practice ; reading & writing in them I loose it quickly. You can tell me which ones you are dealing , also.


i'm interested in all turkic languages more or less, and the oğuz (turkish, azeri, turkmen) and kipchak (tatar, kumyk, kazakh) branches in particular, though i've only studied turkish and azeri seriously.

I can read different cyrillic alphabets as well. Some letters can have different phonemic values whether they're written in latin or cyrillic script. For example the "gh" Istanbulite turkish is phonologically different than Azerbaijani Turkish or in most other turkic languages. For other turkic languages & foreign languages native speaker this front-velar "ğ" is not easy , even though it is represented with the same letter in Azeri letter.


many believe that the differences between the various cyrillic alphabets were quite intentional, to hinder communication between the different turkic-speaking republics.

Even though for the sake of exposure for this Caucasian Oghuz dialect to other members , if you'd like start giving introduction , I would contribute , as well.


you are most welcome. if you know of any resources for azeri or other turkic language (in any language) feel free to share them as well.

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Postby Alcadras » 2007-02-01, 16:48

I couldn't get this part: "lap əlayam" :roll:

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Postby zhiguli » 2007-02-05, 12:27

Alcadras wrote:I couldn't get this part: "lap əlayam" :roll:


maybe it's not how natives would say it, but word-for-word:

lap = çox = çok
əla = âlâ

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Postby zhiguli » 2007-03-21, 3:34

so as promised, here is the first lesson. i'm using the old 'teach yourself turkish' by lewis as a rough guide to the order of presentation. as such the lessons themselves will be concerned mainly with grammar. those who want to learn more phrasebooky things can start with these sites:

http://www.azeri.org/Azeri/az_learn/az_learn.html

http://resources.net.az/phrase01.htm

in this lesson we'll cover the alphabet, which, while mostly phonetic, does contain some small irregularities. we will also discuss vowel harmony and related consonant changes.

the latin alphabet:
a b c ç d e ə f g ğ h x ı i j k q l m n o ö p r s ş t u ü v y z
and the cyrillic:
а б в г ғ д е ә ж з и ы ј к ҝ л м н о ө п р с т у ү ф х һ ч ҹ ш '
while the cyrillic is being phased out and is hardly ever seen on the internet, it is still used in printing. since we'll be using latin in this course these are only included for completeness' sake.

vowels:
a (а), e (е), i (и), o (о), u (у). these are more or less the same as the 'pure' vowels of spanish, and don't have any traces of diphthongization like in english.
ә (ә), ö (ө), ü (ү). these are pronounced more or less like the german umlaut vowels ä, ö, and ü.
ı (ы) is the same as its turkish counterpart.
most of these vowels have long equivalents but this is not phonemic, i.e. it does not change the meaning of words. they mainly occur in loan words from persian/arabic, so if you know either of these languages it can help you figure out where the long vowels are.
in russian loans, an unstressed o gets pronounced a - avtomat (автомат) gets pronounced aftamát. again, knowing russian will help you figure out the proper pronunciation of such words.


b (б), f (ф), h (һ), l (л), m (м), p (п), s (с) , y (ј), z (з) are pronounced more or less as in english. l (л) has the same dark/light contrast it has in north american english - with back vowels it sounds like the ll in wall, with front vowels like the l in leaf.
voiceless stops are pronounced aspirated unless they are doubled.
r (р) - not pronounced as breathily as in istanbul turkish, but still very weak, not rolled.
v (в) - is the same as in many european languages (other than english) a sound sort of in between w and v, but tending towards v with front vowels and closer to w with back vowels. at the ends of (back vowel) syllables it gets pronounced w - dovşan (rabbit) > dowşan
coming before voiceless stops in russian loans it can be pronounced like f - avtobus - aftobus
the remaining letters:
dentals d (д), t (т), n (н) are just that, dental (like in french, spanish, etc) and not alveolar as they are in english and german.
c (ҹ) - like j in jail
ç (ч) - like ch in chair
j (ж) - like ge in garage
ş (ш) - like sh in ship

k (к), - like english k, but it tends to get palatized near front vowels and even in some back vowel words (example - bakı 'baku', which sounds almost like bakyı)
x (х) - like german ch or arabic خ.
ğ (ғ) - like arabic غ.
g (ҝ), q (г) - both are pronounced more or less like g, but g is associated with front-vowel words and is more palatized, while q is associated with back vowel words and (in theory at least) does not palatalize even with front vowels. q corresponds to the arabic letter ق in loan words from that language.
at the ends of syllables in words of turkic origin, it gets pronounced like x. when it's found in the same position in arabic loans, it tends to get pronounced like a k.
' - marks an ع in loan words from arabic. in azeri, it has no pronunciation of its own, but it does make preceding vowels longer. while it officially has been removed from the latin alphabet you will still meet it occasionally.

voiced stops b, c, d, get pronounced (but not written) like their voiceless equivalents p, ç, t at the end of a word.

there are some other minor details of pronunciation, which we will not concern ourselves with here ;-)

vowel harmony

those of you who know turkish or another turkic language will be familiar with these rules.

front vowels: e ə i ü ö
back vowels: a ı u o

words of turkic origin can contain only front or only back vowels (exceptions are words like iraq, irmaq - ı can never begin a word in azeri). when adding suffixes any vowels contained in the suffixes have to match the vowels in the root:

də/da ("in")
vağzalda (back vowel) in the train station
məktəbdə (front vowel) in the school

there are two kinds of vowel harmony, 2-way and 4-way.
2-way has only two alternatives, a/ə.
4-way is a bit more complicated, because the choice depends not only on whether a vowel is front or back, but also whether it's rounded or not.

therefore:

roots ending in a/ı get the suffix vowel ı.
" " " e/ə/i " " " " i.
" " " o/u " " " " u.
" " " ö/ü " " " " ü.

when harmonizing suffixes, there is also a kind of 'consonant harmony' involving the letters k/q y/ğ.

words ending in q turn this into ğ when followed by a vowel initial suffix: bıçaq (knife) - bıçağı (his knife)
" " " k " " " y: ürək (heart) - ürəyi (his heart).
there is no change when adding consonant-initial suffixes: bıçaq > bıçaqlar (knives)

in suffixes containing one of these consonants, however, all four variations are possible:
çatacaq he will arrive (-caq - future tense forming suffix)
çatacağam i will arrive (-am first person ending)
gələcək he will come
gələcəyəm i will come

***the end***
Last edited by zhiguli on 2008-01-21, 15:08, edited 1 time in total.

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Postby zhiguli » 2007-04-13, 11:43

1. Gender
There is no grammatical gender in Azeri. The pronoun o and endings associated with it can mean he/she/it.

2. Articles

There are no articles, although the word bir ("one") can be used as an indefinite article - bir kitab "a book".

In other cases, the definite- or indefiniteness of an article has to be guessed from the context:
çay ucuzdur - the tea is cheap *or* tea is cheap

3. Plural

The plural suffix is -lar for back-vowel words, and -lər for front vowel words.

kitab-lar - book-s
ev-lər - house-s

When a singular word stands for things in general, such as in the expressions reading books, writing letters, etc the plural noun in english is translated as a singular in Azeri:
kitab oxuyuram - I am reading books/a book
məktub yazıram - I am writing letters/a letter
(another example from google: mən bütün oğlanlara məktub yazıram. - I am writing letters to all the boys)

Similarly, when preceded by a number or other quantity word, the noun is in the singular:

iki qələm two pens
çox kitab oxuyuram i read many books

4 Noun cases

There are six cases in Azeri: Nominative, Genitive, Dative, Accusative (or definite direct object case), Locative, and Ablative. These will be covered in more detail below, but for now the endings:

Nominative - (no ending)
Genitive -(n)ın (possession - kişi-nin maşını the man-'s car)
Dative -(y)a (motion towards - ev-ə to-the house)
Accusative -(n)ı (definite direct objects məktub-u yazdı he wrote the letter)
Locative -da (shows where an object is located - ev-də in the house)
Ablative - dan (motion away from - ev-dən from the house)

Nominative case generally marks the subject or an indefinite object in a sentence. To mark a definite direct object, the case ending -(n)ı is used (from now on 4-way harmonizing suffixes will only be given with "ı", and 2-way harmonizing suffixes with "a".)

çay içirəm - i am drinking tea.
çayı içirəm - i am drinking *the* tea

After nouns ending in a consonant, the ending is simply tacked on:

kitab-ı (the) book
ev-i the house
top-u the ball
gül-ü the flower

For words ending in a vowel, the buffer consonant -n- is added:

meyvəni yeyirəm - i eat *the* fruit
lampanı alıram - i am buying the lamp

etc

There is one major exception - the word su "water" which takes the buffer consonant -y-
suyu içdim i drank the water.

Other "exceptions" are nouns where a final vowel disappears when a case ending beginning in a vowel is added:

şəkil picture > şəkl-i
burun nose > burn-u

These will be noted as they appear.

5 Pronouns

mən i
sən you (familiar singular)
o he/she/it
biz we
siz you (polite singular or plural)
onlar they

Since verbs conjugate according to person, personal pronouns are often not used.

(Mən) kitab oxuyuram. I am reading a book.

The definite direct object case of the pronouns is formed just like other nouns:

məni, səni, onu, bizi, sizi, onları

məni gördün you saw me
səni çağırdım i invited you

etc

6 Locative Case -da

As the name suggests, this case shows where an object is located:

stolda on the table
məktəbdə at the school
evdə in the house/at home

As you can see, this single prefix takes the place of the various locative prepositions in English.

The plural suffix always comes before other suffixes, so:

ev-lər-də in (the) houses
maşın-lar-da in the cars

Exercises

1. Put the correct plural ending on the nouns below:

1. quş (bird) 2. daş (stone) 3. üzük (ring) 4. ev (house) 5. bıçaq (knife) 6. ürək (heart) 7. stol (table) 8. mənzil (apartment)

2. Do the same with the locative suffix.

3. Complete the sentences below by putting the nouns in the definite direct object case:

mən_ çağırdı - He invited me.
maşın_ satdıq - We sold the car.
şəkil_ çəkdim - I took the picture (exception).
alma_ yedim - I ate the apple.

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Postby eskandar » 2007-11-20, 23:27

Zhiguli, çox təşəkkür edirəm! I intend to begin studying Azeri in earnest. I'm particularly interested in Iranian Azeri, as my aunt and her family speak it. I hope you'll continue posting lessons; I really appreciate what you've posted thus far. Below, I've completed the exercises you gave. My answers are in blue, and my questions are bold.

zhiguli wrote:Exercises

1. Put the correct plural ending on the nouns below:

1. quş (bird) - quşlar
2. daş (stone) - daşlar
3. üzük (ring) - üzüklər
4. ev (house) - evlər
5. bıçaq (knife) - bıçaqlar
6. ürək (heart) - ürəklar
7. stol (table) - stolar? or stolılar?
8. mənzil (apartment) - mənzilər? mənzililər?

Question: mənzil is clearly a loan from Perso-Arabic 'manzel.' I believe (though I'm not really certain) that in Persian it can mean "house," "home," or "apartment," though in Arabic it generally means "apartment" exclusively. In Azeri does it mean "apartment" exclusively, or can it also be used to mean "house" or "home" ?

2. Do the same with the locative suffix.

1. quş (bird) - quşda
2. daş (stone) - daşda
3. üzük (ring) - üzükdə
4. ev (house) - evdə
5. bıçaq (knife) - bıçaqda
6. ürək (heart) - ürəkda
7. stol (table) - stolda
8. mənzil (apartment) - mənzildə

3. Complete the sentences below by putting the nouns in the definite direct object case:

məni çağırdı - He invited me.
maşını satdıq - We sold the car.
şəkli çəkdim - I took the picture (exception).
almanı yedim - I ate the apple.

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Postby zhiguli » 2007-11-21, 14:36

eskandar wrote:I'm particularly interested in Iranian Azeri, as my aunt and her family speak it.


This would best be learned from your relatives. There are books for Tabriz dialect (including this excellent one which is long out of print and quite hard to find). Though AFAIK there should be no problems learning North Azerbaijani to speak with southerners, it will be less "authentic".

eskandar wrote:I hope you'll continue posting lessons;


I can't make any promises as I haven't been studying this language for awhile, but I'll see what I can do. Feel free to post your questions in any case.


eskandar wrote:6. ürək (heart) - ürəklar
[...]
6. ürək (heart) - ürəkda

ürəklər/də - ə is a front vowel

eskandar wrote:7. stol (table) - stolar? or stolılar?
8. mənzil (apartment) - mənzilər? mənzililər?

stollar, mənzillər - no exceptions. everything else looks about right.

eskandar wrote:Question: mənzil is clearly a loan from Perso-Arabic 'manzel.' I believe (though I'm not really certain) that in Persian it can mean "house," "home," or "apartment," though in Arabic it generally means "apartment" exclusively. In Azeri does it mean "apartment" exclusively, or can it also be used to mean "house" or "home" ?


Looking at http://www.polyglot.az/ and other dictionaries it would seem that it's only used for apartments (house/home would be rendered as "ev")
According to an Iranian Azeri I asked "mənzil" can only mean "house" and the Persian(French?) word "apartman" is what they use for apartments.

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Postby eskandar » 2007-11-22, 23:16

zhiguli wrote:stollar, mənzillər - no exceptions. everything else looks about right.


Is stollar pronounced any differently than *stolar? For instance, is the 'l' lengthened or anything, or is the doubling merely orthographical?

zhiguli wrote:Looking at http://www.polyglot.az/ and other dictionaries it would seem that it's only used for apartments (house/home would be rendered as "ev")
According to an Iranian Azeri I asked "mənzil" can only mean "house" and the Persian(French?) word "apartman" is what they use for apartments.


So in Northern Azeri, ev is used for houses and mənzil for apartments, whereas in Southern mənzil is used for houses and apartman for apartments? Is ev also used in Southern Azeri, or just understood?


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