This time, I think I'll go over a few different things. In addition to covering the rest of the numerals, I'll also talk about how to make yes/no questions in Malayalam. I'll also start talking about the future tense.
First, let's finish up the numbers. The word for 900 in Malayalam is തൊള്ളായിരം thoLLaayiram
, i.e. 100 away from one thousand. If you want to combine it with another number, you say തൊള്ളായിരത്തി- thoLLaayiraththi
-. For example, 901 in Malayalam is തൊള്ളായിരത്തിയൊന്ന് thoLLaayiraththiyonn(u)
1,000 is ആയിരം aayiram
, so the same as 900 without the thoLL
part at the beginning.
Most of the thousands are formed in a pretty predictable way, but some of them are not entirely predictable, so here are all of the thousands:
2,000 is രണ്ടായിരം raNTaayiram
, just a combination of the words for 'two' and 'thousand'.
3,000 is മൂവായിരം muuvaayiram
4,000 is നാലായിരം naalaayiram
, just formed from 'four' and 'thousand', just like 2,000 was formed from 'two' and 'thousand'. The only other numeral like this is 6,000.
5,000 is അയ്യായിരം ayyaayiram
6,000 is ആറായിരം aarraayiram
7,000- ഏഴായിരം Ezhaayiram
8,000- എള്ളായിരം ellaayiram
9,000- ഒൻപത്തായിരം onpaththaayiram
10,000- പത്തായിരം paththaayiram
11,000- പതിനോരായിരം pathinOraayiram
12,000- പന്തീരായിരം panthiiraayiram
The rest of the thousands are pretty straightforward and regular, although remember the forms for 3,000, etc. (but not 9,000!), which are also used here:
13,000- പതിമൂവായിരം pathimuuvaayiram
14,000- പതിനാലായിരം pathinaalaayiram
15,000- പതിനയ്യായിരം pathinayyaayiram
16,000- പതിനാറായിരം pathinaarraayiram
17,000- പതിനേഴായിരം pathinEzhaayiram
18,000- പതിനെള്ളായിരം pathineLLaayiram
19,000- പതിനൊൻപത്തായിരം pathinonpaththaayiram
20,000- ഇരുപത്തായിരം irupaththaayiram
21,000- ഇരുപത്തിയൊന്നായിരം irupaththiyonnaayiram
22,000- ഇരുപത്തിരണ്ടായിരം irupaththiraNTaayiram
23,000- ഇരുപത്തിമൂവായിരം irupaththimuuvaayiram
24,000- ഇരുപത്തിനാലായിരം irupaththinaalaayiram
25,000- ഇരുപത്തിയയ്യായിരം irupaththiyayyaayiram
26,000- ഇരുപത്തിയാറായിരം irupaththiyaarraayiram
27,000- ഇരുപത്തിയേഴായിരം irupaththiyEzhaayiram
28,000- ഇരുപത്തിയെള്ളായിരം irupaththiyeLLaayiram
29,000- ഇരുപത്തിയൊൻപത്തായിരം irupaththiyonpaththaayiram
30,000- മുപ്പത്തായിരം muppaththaayiram
The words for 31,000, 32,000, etc. are formed just like the ones for 21,000, except instead of conjoining words with ഇരുപത്തി- irupaththi
-, you stick them to മുപ്പത്തി- muppaththi
-. The same goes for all these other numbers:
40,000- നാല്പത്തായിരം naalpaththaayiram
50,000- അൻപത്തായിരം anpaththaayiram
60,000- അറുപത്തായിരം arrupaththaayiram
70,000- എഴുപത്തായിരം ezhupaththaayiram
80,000- എണ്പത്തായിരം eNpaththaayiram
90,000- തൊണ്ണൂറായിരം thoNNuurraayiram
Finally, there's a special word for 100,000 (in all Indian languages, not just Malayalam. In Indian English, it's "lakh" or "lac"). In Malayalam, the word for 100,000 or "one lakh/lac" is ഒരു ലക്ഷം oru laksham
. The word for 100,001 is just ഒരു ലക്ഷം ഒന്ന് oru laksham onn(u)
, because after the word ലക്ഷം laksham
, you can just add any number to that; the word itself doesn't change. 200,000 is രണ്ട് ലക്ഷം raNT(u) laksham
One million is ten lakhs or പത്ത് ലക്ഷം pathth(u) laksham
. There's also a special word for 10,000,000 (ten million), and that's what they call "crore" in Indian English. In Malayalam, the word for ten million/one crore is ഒരു കോടി oru kOTi
. It works just like ലക്ഷം laksham
, so 10,000,001 is ഒരു കോടി ഒന്ന് oru kOTi onn(u)
Finally, the word for 'trillion' in Malayalam is ലക്ഷംകോടി lakshamkOTi
, literally 'one lakh crores' (because one hundred thousand times ten million is a trillion
So by now, in addition to covering the numbers, we've talked about making various verb forms and even some question words, but we never talked about how to make yes/no questions. In this lesson, we can talk about how to do that.
Generally, the way you make a yes/no question in Malayalam is pretty easy; you just take a statement, and to make it into a yes/no question, you replace the last vowel on the verb with -ഓ -O
. This works with all positive verbs (i.e. verbs that aren't negated). For example, അവർ പോയി avar pOyi
means 'they went', but to say 'did they go?' you'd say അവർ പോയോ? avar pOyO?
Now, if the verb is negated, as we saw earlier, it will end in either അല്ല alla
or ഇല്ല illa
. If you want to make these into questions, you replace the last vowel with -ഏ -E
instead. അല്ലേ? allE?
means something like 'isn't it?' and the negative form for ഇല്ല illa
is ഇല്ലേ illE
So for example, in that clip from Chemmeen
I posted last year, the first thing Pareekkutty asks is വള്ളത്തിലെ മീനെല്ലാം എനിക്കല്ലേ? vaLLaththile miinellaam enikkallE?
'Aren't all the fish in the boat for me?' The എനിക്കല്ലേ? enikkallE?
part means something like 'aren't they for me?' Then when she doesn't say anything, he asks, മിണ്ടൂല്ലേ? miNDuullE?
'Won't you say anything to me?' The -ല്ലേ -llE
there is short for ഇല്ലേ illE
. His next question after that is എന്നോട് ഇഷ്ടമാണോ? ennOT ishTamaaNO?
. Of course, that means 'do (you) like me?'
We've also talked about both the present progressive and the past tense, but we never talked about the future tense, which is pretty much the only tense used in that dialog.
That's because the future tense is a bit complicated in Malayalam. For example, there are a few different ways of saying "I will go" depending on what exactly you mean. Do you mean "I promise
I will go. I'm practically willing to stake my life on this promise!" or do you just mean "well, I'll go
, but don't hold your breath or anything!"? Or do you mean something else like "oh, all right, quit whining! I'll go already"? There's a different verb form for each of those.
So there's one way of expressing that something will definitely happen in the future. To make a verb that expresses this, you add -ഉം -um
to the verb stem. For example, 'to see' in Malayalam is കാണുക kaaNuka
(as we saw earlier), and 'will see' (in this sense) is കാണും kaaNum
. So in the dialog from Chemmeen
, when Karuthamma says, "വല്ലവരും കാണും (vallavarum kaaNum
'somebody will see')," she's saying that somebody will definitely see them together near the pond if they hang around there too long.
This is also the verb form you use for expressing that something happens regularly/habitually in the present tense. For example, if you wanted to say "I always see them," you would say ഞാൻ അവരെ എപ്പോഴും കാണും njaan avare eppOzhum kaaNum
. (എപ്പോഴും eppOzhum
means 'always' and is usually pronounced more like (y)eppuzhum
Next time, I'll talk about making the negated forms of these future tense verbs, such as Pareekkutty's line മിണ്ടൂല്ലേ? miNTuullE?
'Won't (you) talk (to me)?'