Lehrbuch des Pashto (Translation)

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Lehrbuch des Pashto (Translation)

Postby księżycowy » 2010-10-03, 15:28

Ok, after a bit of a 'break,' I've decided to restart my learning of Pashto. I'm mainly starting this thread to make sure my 'translation' (via google translate) of Lehrbuch des Pashto (Afghanisch) by Manfred Lornez is correct grammatically and the vocabulary is up-to-date. Plus I figure that my 'translations' may help other people that don't know German that want to learn Kandahari Pashto. If you need the book, look in 'Learning Resources,' Remy has a link to it. Updates will probably be random. For now I'll move the first two lessons that I already translated here.
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Re: Lehrbuch des Pashto (Translation)

Postby księżycowy » 2010-10-03, 15:29

Lesson 1:












Vocabulary
whatڅه
thisدا
thingشی
thisدغه
(masculine name)اڅک
thoseهغه
booklet; notebookکتابڅه
rulerخطکش
yesهو
whoڅوک
color; dyeرنګ
paperکاغذ


Gender of Nouns:
There are two genders in Pashto: masculine and feminine.
Words that denote people are generally the gender of the person.
Examples:



MasculineFeminine
fatherپلارmotherمور
sonزورdaughterلور
brotherورورsisterخور


Masculine nouns tend to end in: [ه], [و], [ی] (in other words: -ay, -ə, -u, or -i)
Examples:



table; deskمېزmanسړی
bookکتابfriend, companionملګری
pencilپنسلarmبازو
penقلمmedicine, drugدارو


Feminine nouns tend to end in: [ه], [ۍ], [ی], [ا], [و] (in other words: -a, -əy, -i, -ā, -o)
Examples:



womanښځهevilبدی
roomکوټهback(wards)شا
chairڅوکۍtalk, conversation, speechوينا
inkpotمشواڼۍwish, desire, aspirationآرزو


Some nouns break these rules, such as the following feminine nouns that end with consonants:




quiltبړستنdayورځ
leatherڅرمنmonth; moonمياشت
needle, injectionستنspanلوېشت
skirtلمنcombږمنځ
cloudاوريځway, pathلار


Third Person Copula:
The third person form of the Pashto verb "to be" is different for masculine and feminine.
دئ is used with masculine nouns (= [he] is)
ده is used with feminine nouns (= [she] is)
Examples:
دا خور ده (fem.)
دا ورور دئ (masc.)

Word Order:
Standard Pashto word order is: Subject - Object - Predicate
The verb usually goes at the end of a sentence.
Questions have the same word order as a standard sentence, but the voice raises at the end (in spoken language)
Questions words (like: څه ,څوک , ect.) go before the verb.
Examples:
دا څو دئ
دغه څه شی دئ
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Re: Lehrbuch des Pashto (Translation)

Postby księżycowy » 2010-10-03, 15:32

Notes For Lesson 1:
-As can be seen, I'm not using any transcription of the Pashto script, I'm assuming your looking at the book for the pronunciation.

-Meera pointed out that though the word for friend is correct, the term دوست [dost] (from Persian) is more common.

-Remy explains the differences between دا and دغه (the words for this) here. Scroll over the blackened text to read it.
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Re: Lehrbuch des Pashto (Translation)

Postby księżycowy » 2010-10-03, 15:34

Lesson 2:
Vocab.








دلتهhereڅنګهhow
آلمانیGermanتورپېکۍmasc. name
هندیHindi/Indianزمريالیfem. name
انګريزEnglishاوand
روسیRussianنجلۍgirl
پاکستانیPakistaniهلکboy
افغانAfghanبريالیmasc. name
پښتونPashto (person)ښهgood, well
پښتانهPashto (pl. form)ايرانیIranian


Grammar:
Personal Pronouns:




SingularPlural
زهIمونږWe
تهYouتاسیYou
دیHeدویThey
داShe


دا is also used as a general demonstrative pronoun (i.e. "it is")
تاسی can also be used in the 2nd person singular/plural as a polite form of 'you'
For general/impersonal pronouns use:
سړیmanخلکpeople


The Verb "to be":




SingularPlural
يم(I) amيو(we) are
یٔې(you) areیٔئ / ياست(you) are
دئ(he) isدی(they) are
ده(she) is


These forms require the personal pronoun.
Sometimes the third person masc. form of 'to be' and the negative particle are written together as: ندئ = he is not
Ex.
ره هندی یم -- I am Hindi/Indian

Negation:
To negate a sentence use نه right before the verb (نه receives the stress).
یه = no
Exږ
یه ، زه انګریز نه یم -- No I am not English.

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Re: Lehrbuch des Pashto (Translation)

Postby księżycowy » 2010-10-03, 15:36

Notes For Lesson 2:

-Meera pointed out that the word for 'no' is now نه [na/nə].

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Re: Lehrbuch des Pashto (Translation)

Postby Meera » 2010-10-03, 20:37

This is great! Keep this up :)
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Re: Lehrbuch des Pashto (Translation)

Postby księżycowy » 2010-10-03, 21:23

Yeah, this time I'm hoping to stick with it!

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Re: Lehrbuch des Pashto (Translation)

Postby eskandar » 2010-10-04, 5:11

księżycowy wrote:خلک people
This is interesting--it's not a typo for خلق is it? I couldn't find it in Raverty's dictionary online...
Currently away from Unilang.

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Re: Lehrbuch des Pashto (Translation)

Postby księżycowy » 2010-10-04, 12:11

eskandar wrote:This is interesting--it's not a typo for خلق is it? I couldn't find it in Raverty's dictionary online...


I just doubled checked in in the dictionary over at qamosona and the textbook, and it's correct.
خلک [xalk] = people

Rémy LeBeau

Re: Lehrbuch des Pashto (Translation)

Postby Rémy LeBeau » 2010-10-04, 13:15

This is one of those phoneticisations of Arabic words that has become widely accepted in Pashto. Another major one is وخت. Of course, you can use either spelling and people will no doubt know what you mean. I guess it's kinda like the common replacing of ئ in Arabic words with ی in Farsi.

Rémy LeBeau

Re: Lehrbuch des Pashto (Translation)

Postby Rémy LeBeau » 2010-10-04, 20:40

Another common one that just came to my mind is کميس (shirt).

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Re: Lehrbuch des Pashto (Translation)

Postby Meera » 2010-10-05, 0:19

eskandar wrote:
księżycowy wrote:خلک people
This is interesting--it's not a typo for خلق is it? I couldn't find it in Raverty's dictionary online...


No Eskander, خلک is the word for people in Pashto.
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Re: Lehrbuch des Pashto (Translation)

Postby ILuvEire » 2010-10-10, 5:04

This is awesome! I've been browsing this book when I have some down time (lord, I love Pashto <3) and it's great that you're doing this for people who can't read the German :)
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Re: Lehrbuch des Pashto (Translation)

Postby księżycowy » 2010-10-10, 16:11

I like to help when I can! :D

Hopefully this week I'll be able to post another lesson, but we'll see how it goes.

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Re: Lehrbuch des Pashto (Translation)

Postby księżycowy » 2010-10-20, 15:41

Another lesson in a day or two. I'm going to start translating it soon.

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Re: Lehrbuch des Pashto (Translation)

Postby Meera » 2010-10-20, 18:42

księżycowy wrote:Another lesson in a day or two. I'm going to start translating it soon.

that would be wonderful
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Re: Lehrbuch des Pashto (Translation)

Postby księżycowy » 2010-10-23, 22:02

Sorry about the wait.

Lesson 3:
The Infinitive
The infinitive form of the verb ends in ل-
For example:











کولto do
لیکلto write
تللto go
لوستلto read
چښلto drink
خوړلto eat
اخستلto take
لرلto have
پوهېدلto understand
وهلto hit/beat
لیدلto see
ویلto say/tell


In sentences the infinitive is used like a noun.
It is understood grammatically as a plural form. For example:
لیکل ګران دی خوړل آسان دی.
Writing is difficult, eating is easy.

In order to get the form that one needs to use in order to conjugate the verb, you simply
take off the ل- ending, for example:
پوهېد
وین
لر
ect.
One exception:
خور for the stem of to eat, note it is ر and not ړ

Indicative Present Tense
the following are the personal endings for the present tense of Pashto verbs:



PersonSing.Plural
1stمو
2ndېئ
3rdیی


Thus we get:
کوم I do
چښم I drink
کوې you do
ect.
The pronoun is not needed, as it is part of the verb form.

Some forms accent the vowel of the stem. This is usually done with 'ā' or 'e'
vowels in the stem.
Such as:
wā́jǝm
pohéǵǝm
[Using the transcription system from the book for the above]

Vocabulary:















ګرانhard, difficult
آسانeasy
کارwork, job
قهوهcoffee
غوښهmeat
شرابwine, liquor, alcoholic drink
مالګهsalt
چایtea
همalso, too
ډوډۍbread; meal
لوستreading; lesson
شیدېmilk
کوچیbutter
پنیرcheese
ماهیfish
هګۍegg

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Re: Lehrbuch des Pashto (Translation)

Postby Meera » 2010-10-24, 16:14

thank u this is very much apprecatiated :mrgreen:
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Re: Lehrbuch des Pashto (Translation)

Postby księżycowy » 2010-10-24, 17:09

I'll try to make the interval between lesson postings shorter . . . . :whistle:

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Re: Lehrbuch des Pashto (Translation)

Postby księżycowy » 2010-11-03, 19:46

It seems I'm making you guys wait again . . . Sorry!
I have a question for anyone following this though, do you want me to translate the exercises too?
If so, I'll do that for the three lessons I've posted thus far. If not, I'll just go on to lesson four.


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