Pashto

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Rémy LeBeau

Pashto

Postby Rémy LeBeau » 2008-07-19, 19:59

Okay so, since there is no standard version of Pashto and there are so many variations, I will be going through only the stuff that I have learnt/am learning, but it is by no means definitive!

ä = schwa
_ = retroflex consonants
¯ = long vowels
e = ې
é = ئ
ī = ي and ی
äy = ۍ
oy = وي - when a wāw is followed by a ye, it tends to be pronounced as 'oy', with a short o

Personal pronouns:

Zä زه - I
Tä ته - You
Hagha هغه - He/She
Munz͟h مونږ - We
Tāsō تاسو - You
Haghoy هغوي - We

Possessive pronouns:

Zämā زما - My
Stā ستا - Your
Dä hagha د هغه - His
Dä haghe د هغې - Her
Zämūnz͟h زمونږ - Our
Stāsō ستاسو - Your
Dë haghoy د هغوي - Their

To be in Pashto has no infinitive form, it only has simple present and past forms that should be memorized

Yäm یم - I am
Ye یې - You are
Dé دئ - He is
Da ده - She is
Yū یو - We are
Yäy or Yāst یۍ +‌ یاست - You are
Dī دی - They are

Wäm وم - I was
We وې - You were
Wū وؤ - He was
Wa وه - She was
Wū وؤ - We were
Wäy or Wāst وۍ + واست - You were
Wū وؤ - They were

Yāst and wāst are used when talking to a single person, but referring to them with the plural form of 'you' as a sign of respect.
Last edited by Rémy LeBeau on 2008-08-17, 21:30, edited 3 times in total.

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Re: Pashto

Postby kalemiye » 2008-08-07, 11:34

Keep this updated :D! Did you finally found a good grammar on pashto?

Some cool pashto music (prolly you know it because they are Rahim Shah's):
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d0VY9p1Q8_k
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cdglGFQXJM0&feature=related

by the way, I am surprised on how alike sounds pashto and urdu.
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Re: Pashto

Postby eskandar » 2008-08-08, 10:25

Cool songs Renata! I agree, especially in "Ya Qurbaan" Pashto sounds like Urdu sung with Turkic intonation... What's always surprising to me is how I'm NEVER able to pick out any words in Pashto! Other than the refrain "ya qurbaan" I couldn't understand anything. I've never studied the language, but usually when I hear any language with lots of Persian/Arabic loans, I'm good at recognizing them. Either Pashto has a lot less Persian and Arabic words than other languages in the region, or it's just better at disguising them!
Currently away from Unilang.

Rémy LeBeau

Re: Pashto

Postby Rémy LeBeau » 2008-08-08, 12:53

Verb Conjugation in the Preterite and Imperfect

Keep the infinitive marker (except for hagha (m) where the infinitive marker äl is removed first) and add the following endings…

* Zä - äm / م
* Tä - e / ې
* Hagha (m) - ä / ه
* Hagha (f) - a / ه
* Mūnz͟h - ū / و
* Tāsō - äy / ۍ
* Haghoy (m+f) - e / ې

You can leave the verb as it is and it will be in the imperfect past tense, and to make the preterite past tense add perfective particle ‘wä’ before the conjugated verb. However, to make a complex sentence where someone performs an action to another person or object (with a transitive verb), in either of these past tenses, a different construction must be used with the short form of the possessive pronouns, which in these constructions change meaning from ‘my’ to ‘by me’, ‘your’ to ‘by you’ ect.

Ḏōḏäy-me khwaṟäla / ډوډۍ مې خورله / I was eating bread


This literally translates as: ‘bread / by me / it (f) was eating’. It doesn’t seem to make a lot of sense when literally translated, and the best way I have come up with to explain how it works in English is “The bread was being eaten by me”. As far as I can tell, you can’t say “I was eating the bread”, eg: Zä ḏōḏäy khwaṟäläm / زه ډوډۍ خوړلم: this is totally incorrect!

Another example of this:

Wälīdä-me / ولیده مې / I saw it (something masculine)


The literal translation of this is: ‘it (m) saw / by me’, but again, the English translation of this would be ‘I saw it’ and the construction here would best be described as ‘It was seen by me’. A discrepancy between these two is that in the first example, مې came before the verb, whereas here it is after the verb. The reason for this is that the possessive pronoun always needs something before it to latch on to because it is enclitic.

Haläk-me wälīdä / هلك مې ولیده / I saw the boy


So in short, to be able to use the preterite and imperfect tenses in Pashto, it is necessary to know not only the conjugation patterns but also the short forms of the possessive pronouns.

* Me / مې - My or by me
* De / دې - Your or by you
* Ye / ئې - His, her, its or by him, by her, by it
* Mō / مو - Our or by us
* Mō / مو - Your or by you
* Ye / ئې - Their or by them

In addition to the structures outlined for the preterite and imperfect tenses when dealing with transitive verbs (where the subject of the sentence commits an action which affects the object of the sentence), it is also possible to use the oblique pronouns instead of the enclitic possessive/personal pronouns (me, de, ye ect.). The oblique pronouns are:

* Mā / ما
* Tā / تا
* Hagha / هغه (m)
* Haghe / هغې (f)
* Mūnz͟h / مونږ
* Tāsō / تاسو
* Haghoy / هغوي (m+f)

The construction of setences using these oblique pronouns is essentially the same as with using the enclitic possessive/personal pronouns; the sentence is still structured so that the object becomes the subject, and the verb is being conjugated according what is happening to that object, not what is being done to the object. So here is an example comparing how you can make sentences with the two types of pronouns:

Ḏōḏäy-me khwaṟäla / ډوډۍ مې خوړله / I was eating bread
Mā ḏōḏäy khwaṟäla / ما ډوډۍ خوړله / I was eating bread


The main difference here is quite simple; since the enclitic pronouns are well, enclitic, they will always come after the noun, whereas the oblique pronouns are not, and will always come before the noun. This also holds true when there is only the pronoun and the verb, for example:

Wälīdä-me / ولیده مې / I saw it (m)
Mā wälīdä / ما ولیده / I saw it (m)
Last edited by Rémy LeBeau on 2008-08-13, 18:53, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Pashto

Postby Rémy LeBeau » 2008-08-08, 13:05

Pashto vocabulary is pretty independent, though it does have some loans here and there, mostly Arabic. It does however share a few common roots with Dari for example the verbs 'to eat' Khwaṟäl (خوړل), and 'to want' Ghus͟htäl (غښتل), but the comparative difference in number of loans from other languages (English too) makes learning vocabulary a lot harder than for other languages in the region.

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Re: Pashto

Postby kalemiye » 2008-08-10, 23:31

eskandar wrote:Cool songs Renata! I agree, especially in "Ya Qurbaan" Pashto sounds like Urdu sung with Turkic intonation... What's always surprising to me is how I'm NEVER able to pick out any words in Pashto! Other than the refrain "ya qurbaan" I couldn't understand anything. I've never studied the language, but usually when I hear any language with lots of Persian/Arabic loans, I'm good at recognizing them. Either Pashto has a lot less Persian and Arabic words than other languages in the region, or it's just better at disguising them!


Yes! The pronounciation has so many vowels and the stresses sound so Turkish-like! Yet, all the retroflex consonants and the nasals is so Urdu-like. At first I thought it was Urdu, but I realized I didn't pick up any of the usual words that appear in pop songs, not even any "teri" or "meri" here and there, :lol:. In Yarana I only understood Afghanistan and Pakistan :lol:

@Remy: Pashto is (or at least, was) one of the official languages of Pakistan along with Dari, they never did an effort of creating an official version of it (at least to teach it at schools)? Does it have any classical poet or writer in general? *sorry for being so ignorant*

Keep posting every now and then :), I love knowing more about this, although I can't study it at the moment. It seems to be very complex from every point of view.
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Re: Pashto

Postby Rémy LeBeau » 2008-08-13, 18:58

I don't think Pashto has ever had official status in Pakistan, as far as I know, only Urdu and English are the official languages and the regional languages are very neglected. I think Pashto in particular has been suppressed because of its script, because unlike languages like Punjabi and Sindhi, which can be written with the standard Urdu alphabet, it has an alphabet of its own and the authorities don't want to encourage anything that could lead to separatism.

Compound past tenses

Besides the preterite and imperfect past tenses, which I will call the ’simple’ past tenses, there are also two compound past tenses that consist of the past participle and the auxiliary verb ‘to be’. As far as I can tell, there exists today no infinitive form of the verb ‘to be’ in Pashto, though it is thought to derive from the now obsolete yäl / یل.

Forming the past participle is relatively straightforward, it is done by adding -ay / ئ (masculine) or ī / ی (feminine) onto the end of the infinitive form of the verb. The key to being able to use these tenses is to know the two forms of ‘to be’ inside out.

* Yäm / یم - I am
* Ye / یې - You are
* Dé / دئ - He is
* Da / ده - She is
* Yū / یو - We are
* Yäy / یۍ - You are
* Dī / دي - They are (m+f)

* Wäm / وم - I was
* We / وې - You were
* Wä / و - He was
* Wa / وه - She was
* Wū / وو - We were
* Wäy / وۍ - You were
* Wū / وو - They were (m)
* Wī / وي - They were (f)

When using these two compound tenses, gender is very important. As with using the present tense in Urdu, gender has to be taken into account when speaking in the singular first person, second person and third person.

Zä rāghälé yäm / زه راغلئ یم / I (a male) have come
Tä rāghälī ye / ته راغلی یې / You (a female) have come
Ḏāktar rāghälé dé / ډاکتر راغلئ دئ / The doctor (a male) has come
Ḏāktara rāghälī da / ډاکتره راغلی ده / The doctor (a female) has come


However, in the first, second and third person plurals (we, you, they), the past participle is always formed in the feminine, regardless of the gender of the group that you are referring to.

Mūnz͟h rāghälī yū / مونږ راغلی یو / We have come
Tāsō rāghälī yäy / تاسو راغلی یۍ / You have come
Haghoy rāghälī dī / هغوي راغلی دي / They have come


Again, with transitive verbs the sentence structure takes the same form as with the preterite and imperfect tenses. This can be demonstrated with the verbs ‘to eat’ (khwaräl) and ‘to see’ (līdäl)

Mā seb khwaṟälé dé / ما سېب خوړلئ دئ / I have eaten the apple
Seb-me khwaṟälé dé / سېب مې خوړلئ دئ / I have eaten the apple

Mā ghrūna līdälé dī / ما غرونه لیدلئ دي / I have seen the mountains
Ghrūna-me līdälé dī / غرونه مې لیدلئ دي / I have seen the mountains

Hagha maṉa khwaṟälī wa / هغه مڼه خوړلی وه / He had eaten the apple*
Maṉa-ye khwaṟälī wa / مڼه ئې خوړلی وه / He had eaten the apple*

Mūnz͟h ghrūna līdälé wū / مونږ غرونه لیدلئ وو / We had seen the mountains
Ghrūna-mō līdälé wū / غرونه مو لیدلئ وو / We had seen the mountains


In these sentences, unlike with transitive verbs where the plural forms take the feminine form of the past participle, the past participle and the auxiliary verb 'to be' agree with the gender of the noun.

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Re: Pashto

Postby kalemiye » 2008-08-22, 15:00

Typo... I meant Afghanistan -_-U. I wonder where is my head at sometimes. I am sorry for the late reply, but I have been busy with my trip :D.
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Re: Pashto

Postby Rémy LeBeau » 2008-08-23, 0:26

Aaaaah yes, it still is an official language there, but at the time when you mentioned, most schools (proper schools in urban areas, not make-shift village schools) taught either in French, English or Russian as they were set up by foreign investors. Unfortunately, Dari and Pashto both have yet to be standardized and have a regulatory body.

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Re: Pashto

Postby Rémy LeBeau » 2008-08-28, 8:35

I haven't really had time to carry on with Pashto lately, but I'll be updating with some more stuff soon hopefully. For now here is a Pashto song that is insanely popular at the moment.

Tahir Shubab - Yāra, Stā Pä Anängo Ke... (Darling, in your cheeks...)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NqQBBgxWRA0

Yāra stā pä anängo ke che dä chā dä wīne rang dé
Zämā dä pākī mīne haqīqat pä ke sargan dé

یاره ستا په اننګو که چې د چا د وینې رنګ دئ
زما د پاکی مینې حقیقت په که سرګن که

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Re: Pashto

Postby eskandar » 2008-08-28, 20:38

Fun song, and FINALLY a cognate I recognize (yāra)! And do I spy some others (rang, pākī, haqīqat)?
Currently away from Unilang.

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Re: Pashto

Postby Rémy LeBeau » 2008-08-28, 21:05

Yāra is the feminine version of yār which means darling/sweetheart. Rang / pāk / haqīqat all have the same meanings as in Persian and Urdu.
Last edited by Rémy LeBeau on 2008-10-09, 8:17, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Pashto

Postby Meera » 2008-10-09, 0:17

BBC PASHTO:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/pashto/index.shtml

It has where you can listen to the radio in Pashto.


Also http://virtualafghans.com/ has a radio station of only Pashtun music :)

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Re: Pashto

Postby Meera » 2008-10-09, 0:49

Some Basic Pashto words:


Hello – salám
Goodbye – khudáy pë ámán or pA mAkha mo kha
Excuse me – wabakSHa
Please – lutfan
Thank you – ManAna
You’re welcome – parwá na lari
I understand – poheZHam
I don’t understand – në poheZHam or za në poheZHam
What’s your name? – stá num tsë day?
I am : zmánum … day
How are you? : tsAnga yast?
Are you tired? – táse staRay yëy?
I'm Fine, thanks : Kha Da, ManAna
Goood morning : sahaAr mo pa khayr
Good Afternoon: wradz mo pa khayr
good night: shpa mo pa khayr
yes: Ho
no: na

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Re: Pashto

Postby Meera » 2008-10-09, 1:04

Day Of the Week Da Onay wradz

Monday-dushamba
Tuesday-cesshamba
Wednesday-chaarshamba
thursday-paanjshamba
friday-jum'a
saturday-shamba
sunday-yekshamba


Colors Ranguna
purple-ChUniyya
pink-gulaabi
gray-khAR
orange-naaringi
brown-naaswari
blue-shin
white-spiN
red-sur
black-tor
green-zarghun
yellow-Zher

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Re: Pashto

Postby Meera » 2008-10-09, 1:04

food
grape-anjur
tomato-baanjaan
chicken-da chirg ghwakha
carrot-gaazAra
fish-kab
apple-maNa
pear-naak
cheese-panir
onion-pyaaz
rice-wridji
ice cream- shiryakh
butter-kuchi
bananna-kila
potato-kachaalu

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Re: Pashto

Postby Meera » 2008-10-09, 2:35

Some More useful Pharses and Verbs

Phareses:
Where are you from?: taasi da kum dzaay yaast?
How is your family?: KoranAy mo TsAnga da?
Have a good weekend: dA rukhsatAy wradzi mo nikmArgha.
Where are....? : Chiri.....praatA di?
Where is (it)? : (hagha) chiri day?


Verbs:
Artyaa larAl : To need
ghuKhtAl : To want
kaar KawAL: To work
IwasTAl: to read
Sabak wayAl: To study
zda kawAl: to learn
zang WahAl: to call
raaniwAl: to buy
pohedAL: to know how
pakhawal: to cook
pAlay TiAl: to walk
mrsta kawal: to help
minzAL: to wash
larAl:to have
likAl:to write
lidAl: to see
laambo waHal: to swim
khwaKHedAl: to like
khob kaWAL: to sleep
kaapi KawAL: to copy
istifaada kawAL: to use

Rémy LeBeau

Re: Pashto

Postby Rémy LeBeau » 2008-10-09, 8:20

Pohezham and kha? Are you more familiar with northern or southern Pashto? I noticed you are using a mixture of both pronunciations ;) Kha is northern; in southern Pashto they say "sha" (ښه), and pohezham is southern; in northern Pashto they say "pohegam" (پوهېږم).

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Re: Pashto

Postby Meera » 2008-10-09, 16:51

Rémy LeBeau wrote:Pohezham and kha? Are you more familiar with northern or southern Pashto? I noticed you are using a mixture of both pronunciations ;) Kha is northern; in southern Pashto they say "sha" (ښه), and pohezham is southern; in northern Pashto they say "pohegam" (پوهېږم).



Yeah I hear both :P I don't know Pashto well, i can understand better then speak. :lol:

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Re: Pashto

Postby kalemiye » 2008-10-10, 18:50

Oh Meera, İ really liked your posts. I was looking forward to see words in Pushto, keep up with the good work!!!
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