Kia orāna tātou kātoatoa i roto i te aro`a ma`ata o te Atua
Now, that I am more organised I can start posting lessons for you all to do
The vowels in Cook Islands Māori are pronounced the same as the vowels in New Zealand Māori, Hawai`ian, Tahitian, Tongan and Sāmoan.
Cook Islands Māori is divided in to a number of island dialects. They mostly comprise of two groups, which are -
Manihiki-Rakahanga and Tongarevan, the northern dialects.
The Manihiki-Rakahanga dialects have the letters 'h' and 'f'. In some words, they are more conservative than New Zealand Māori, retaining proto-Polynesian 'f'. Compare NZ Māori hoki (to return) to Manihiki-Rakahanga 'foki'.
On Tongareva, the letters 's' and 'h' are used. Words that have the letter 's' generally become 'h' in NZ Māori, as the 's' is another proto-Polynesian letter. Compare NZ Māori 'horoi' (to wash, with water) and Tongarevan 'soroi'.
In both northern dialects, the letter 'r' is pronounced as a 'l'.
The southern group of dialects include Aitutaki, Mangaia, Atiu, Miti`āro and Rarotonga. There is no 'h', 'f', 's' or 'wh', all being replaced by the glottal stop marked by ` . So, let's compare the Southern group dialects with the northern group, as well as the Māori dialects of New Zealand -
fare (Manihiki-Rakahanga), hare (Tongareva), whare (NZ Māori), `are (southern group).
vai (Manihiki-Rakahanga), vai (Tongareva), wai (NZ Māori), vai (southern group)
In perspective with the rest of the Polynesian languages, we find the word for house to be -
fale (Sāmoan, Tongan), hare (Rapa Nui), hale (Hawai`ian), fare (Tahitian).
The Cook Islands Māori language is highly mutually intelligible with Tahitian, NZ Māori and Hawai`ian, and thus makes it a handy language to know if you plan on visiting all of these archipelagoes.
The Pukapukan language, which is spoken on Pukapuka, closely resembles the Sāmoan language - it is not a Māori dialect.
The dialect used for teaching Cook Islands Māori for this course will be the Rarotongan dialect. The correct name for the language in English is Cook Islands Māori, not Rarotongan. Rarotongan is only one of the 15 islands that make up the Cook Islands.
For those of you who have done some of the other Polynesian language courses here, you will undoubtedly immediately recognise some of the words used below. It is a good idea, to study two Polynesian languages at once, as, it will help you with learning and understanding the different dialects that are spoken throughout Polynesia.
Tāne: Kia orāna. Pē`ea koe?
Va`ine: Kia orāna. Meitaki au. `Ē koe?
Tāne: Meitaki au. Te `aere atu na koe ki `ea?
Va`ine: Te `aere atu nei au ki te `are toa, `oko kaikai ei. Te `aere atu na koe ki `ea?
Tāne: Te `aere atu nei au ki te moana, kaukau ei. Ka kite!
Va`ine: Ka kite!
Word Order - VSO
Cook Islands Māori uses the exact same word placement as NZ Māori. So, for example -
Te `aere atu na koe ki `ea?
is glossed as
v.p. to go d.p. p.p. you to where?
Where are you going?
v.p. = verbal particle
d.p. = directional particle
p.p. = positional particle
Mai - Atu (Directional particles)
Mai and Atu mean 'towards the speaker' and 'away from the speaker' respectively and are not easily and readily translated in to English. They work the same way in all Polynesian languages
Nei, Na, Ra (Positional particles)
These particles are used to show the distance between the speaker is from an object. Nei is used for objects immediately near the speaker, while na is used for objects near the person they are speaking to. Ra is used for objects that are far away from both of them.
Ei - Ai - Anaphoric particles
Ei~Ai is used when the location has been focussed. For example -
Te `aere atu nei au ki te `are toa, `oko kaikai ei.
I am going to the store, to buy food.
The original, underlying sentence for it was -
Te `aere atu nei au ki te `oko kaikai i te `are toa.
I am going to buy food, at the store.
If the last vowel of the word preceeding ei is 'a', then the 'ei' is changed to 'ai'. For example, te kaukau atu nei au kiāia, tuatua ai.
These are exactly the same as NZ Māori.
Au - I, me
Māua - us two (exclusive)
Mātou - us three +(exclusive)
Tāua - us two (inclusive)
Tātou - us three + (inclusive)
Koe - You (singluar)
Kōrua - You two
Kōtou - You three +
ia - he, she, it
rāua - they (two)
rātou - them
Continuous present tense
Te + action + positional particle (pp)
Tei te + action
E action ana
The continuous present tense in Cook Islands Māori is normally expresed as 'te action pp.' For example - te `oki atu nei au ki tōku `are - I am going back to my house'.
It can also be expressed using the same constructions as NZ Māori. For example -
Tei te `oki au ki tōku `are
E `oki atu ana au ki tōku `are
To use the te+action+p.p. model, you need to know which positional particles go with which pronouns. Nei is only used with au, tāua, tātou, māua, mātou, because you are talking about something that includes yourself. Na is used with koe, kōrua, kōtou. Rā is used with ia, rāua, rātou and all personal names. Refer back to the positional particles part of the lesson.
Translate the script used for this lesson.
Kia orāna - greetings
Ka kite - see you
`Aere - to go, to walk
`Oki - to return
`Are - house
`Are toa - Store, shop
`Oko - to buy, to trade, to barter, to sell
`Ea - where
Pē`ea - How
Meitaki - Good
Moana - ocean
Kaukau - to swim
Kaikai - food
Tuatua - to talk