T.A.M. (Tense - Aspect - Markers) are used in New Zealand Māori for verbal sentences.
I - simple past
The 'i' particle is used for simple past constructions. It does not indicate completion of action,
and it does imply that something else has happened afterwards. Read today's story, and note
how it is used.
Kua - completed, perfected past.
This is used for all actions which are in the past and have been completed. It also implies,
that the affects of those actions can still be felt in the present.
E - simple future
This particle, e, is used for the simple future. It means 'will' or 'shall'.
E kai au i te maika - I will eat the banana.
Negator - Kaua e/hei
Kaua e/hei = don't!
The rule for negation in Māori is that the word order must go 'Negative - Subject - Verb phrase - Comment e.g.
Kaua (neg) koutou (subject) e haere atu (verb phrase) ki te ara (noun phrase)
Manner Particles - Rawa - Koa
Manner particles are placed after the words they modify.
Rawa - too (much), very e.g.
Kino rawa = too bad! very bad!
Koa - please
Homai koa i te pene = Please give me the pen.
How questions kei te pēhea....
Kei te pēhea koe? How are you?
Kei te pai au I am good
Kei te pēhea ia?
Kei te māngere ia!
From questions (nō)
Nō hea mai koe?
Nō Ranana (London) au
Nō hea mai a Jack?
Nō Kānata (Canada) a Jack
Story - Journal Entry
I tētahi rā, ka haere atu au ki Hawai`i. He wāhi ātaahua a Hawai`i. Kei te
noho i reira tōku tuakana, ko Tungāne tōna ingoa. Kei te noho ia i te taone nui,
Ka pati atu au ki a ia, kia homai e ia he maika māku (he tū hua whenua). Ka pati pēnei atu au ki a ia -
'E tōku tuakana, homai koa he maika māku. Ka nui tōku hiakai i roto i tōku puku.'
Ka whakaae a ia ki tāku patihanga.
He ākonga tōku tuakana i te whare wānanga o Hawai`i. Ko tā te Hawai`i kupu nō te whare wānanga,
ko te 'Kula Nui'. I ngā wā o mua, he kīngitanga a Hawai`i. Ko Kāmehameha te kīngi tuatahi.
He maha ngā huarahi i Hawai'i.
He maha ngā waka i reira, e haere noa ana.
Ka mea atu au ki tōku tuakana 'kei te hiahia au ki te haere ki Hawai`i, ko tā te Marikena
ingoa, ko te Big Island. Ka mea mai ia 'e kāo'. He nui rawa te utu
He nui te aroha o tōku tuakana ki ōna hoa tata. Ā tētahi rā, ka hiahia
au ki te hoki atu ki Hawai`i, ki O`ahu, ko te wāhi e noho ana tōku tuakana.
Manner particles - Rawa, koa, noa
Noa means 'freely, just, vainly'. The context that this word is postposed to the verb will define what it actually means. Refer to this Cook Islands Māori thread, with regards to it's equivalent `ua.
Ka haere noa au i tēnei whenua - I vainly/just/freely went about this land.
Ka - Aspect marker, consecutive events
Ka, unlike Cook Islands Māori TAM 'ka', can be used in any tense. It is often used for consecutive events in a row, as, repetition of TAM is often avoided in Māori. This is called 'ka' conjunction. After, in listing consecutive events, ā is used as well. Let's look at the following examples for how 'ka' is used -
ka noho au - I will/am/ stay(ed)
ka kai au - I ate/am eating/will eat
I haere au ki Honolulu, ā, ka kai au i te poi.
I went to Honolulu and ate poi.
For more information, please refer to the Cook Islands Māori thread.
Kei te - Present tense
Kei te is the East coast version of the present continuous tense, and has been the form used so far in these lessons.
Kei te pēhea koe? How are you?
E....ana - continuous tense
On the West coast however, e action ana is preferred over kei te. E action ana is the continuous tense, and therefore, can be used in any tense since it is not restricted. For example -
e tangi ana au - I am crying, I was crying, I will be crying
All of the above are legitimate translations. Context will decide whether the e action ana is set in the past, present or future. Generally however, it is set in the present by default. To ask 'how are you' in the West coast variation, you say 'e pēhea ana koe?'. And the appropriate response will replace 'pēhea' in the phrase, for example 'e pai ana au'.In other words, in the present tense, kei te and e.....ana do the same function.
Kīngi - King
Maha - many
Taone nui - City
Hoa tata - Neighbours
Wāhi - place
Whare Wānanga - University
Pati- to request
Patihanga - a request
Last edited by Ariki
on 2007-12-14, 5:09, edited 3 times in total.
Linguicide IS genocide.
He ingoa ōpaki a Riki; he ingoa ōkawa a Ariki.
Riki is an informal name; Ariki is a formal name.