Nā kumuhana (The topics):
A. Example sentences.
B. Equational sentence pattern using “He”
(a/an), and the meaning of He aha
? - What?
C. Asking questions.
(this, near me), Kēnā
(that, near you), Kēlā
(that, outside of both of our areas).
E. Ke/ Ka
(singular definite articles).
F. Negation of the He
G. Exercises. Three parts: pt.1, pt.2, and pt.3.
A. Example sentences
1. He aha kēia? What is this?
2. He haumana kēnā. That (near you) is a student.
3. He keiki kēlā. That (away from you and me) is a child.
4. He ka‘a maika‘i kēlā. That (away from you and me) is a good car.
5. He māka‘i au. I am a police officer.
6. He kāne ‘oe. You are a man.
7. He kanaka maika‘i ‘o ia? Is he/she a good person?
8. He kumu ke kanaka. The person is a teacher.
9. He hua‘ai ka mea ‘ai. The food is a fruit.
10. He pia hu‘ihu‘i ka mea inu? Is the drink a cold beer?
11. ‘A‘ole kēnā he haumana. That (near you) is not a student.
12. ‘A‘ole kēnā he keiki. That (near you) is not a child.
13. ‘A‘ole kēlā he ka‘a maika‘i. That is not a good car.
14. ‘A‘ole au he māka‘i. I am not a police officer.
15. ‘A‘ole ‘oe he kāne. You are not a man.
16. ‘A‘ole ‘o ia he kanaka Hawai‘i. He/she is not a Hawaiian person.
B. Equational sentence pattern using He
Equational sentences in Hawaiian are verbless sentences, where the first noun phrase, pronoun, or proper noun equals the second noun phrase, pronoun, or proper noun. There are some determiners, such as Kēia (this), Kēnā (that by you), Kēlā (that away from both of us), which can be used by themselves, that is, without nouns following them; these determiners can function as phrases on their own. The first kind of equational sentence we will learn is the one using the indefinite article He
(a/an). Equational sentences using this indefinite article are formally started with "he" as the first word of the sentence.
1. He aha = kēia?
A what = this
What is this?
* He aha
(literally ‘a what?’) is used to mean “what?”
, but not when asking the proper name of someone, something, or someplace. If you want to ask “what” the proper name of something is, the word that should be used is wai
, which actually is the interrogative pronoun asking “who?”
For example, the following are permissable:
He aha ka waiho‘olu‘u? What is the color?
He aha kou mana‘o? What is your thought?
He aha ke kumu o kona hele ‘ana mai? What is the reason of his coming?
He aha kēlā mea a‘u i heluhelu ai ma mua o ka papa? What was that thing I read before class?
He aha ia iā ‘oe? What is it to you/ What business is it of yours?
kou inoa? What (lit. who)
is your name?
kēia ‘āina? What (lit. who)
is [the name of] this place?
ka inoa o kēia ‘ano pua? What (lit. who)
is the name of this kind of flower?
2. He haumana = kēnā.
A student = that (near you)
That (near you) is a student.
3. He keiki = kēlā
A child = that (away from you and me)
That is a child
4. He ka‘a maika‘i
A car good
= that (away from you and me)
That is a good
* In Hawaiian, modifiers come after the words they modify. For example:
. Run quickly
5. He māka‘i = au
A police officer = I
I am a police officer.
C. Asking Questions
In Hawaiian, the word order of the sentence does not change when asking questions. Hence, saying “He is a good student!”, and asking “Is he a good student?” would have the same word order. However, the inflection changes: the voice rises in the beginning of the sentence and goes down at the end of the sentence.
He kanaka maika‘i ‘o ia.
He is a good person.
He kanaka maika‘i ‘o ia?
Is he a good person?
D. Demonstratives: Kēia, Kēnā, and Kēlā.
, in the area around the speaker. Kēnā
means that (in the area around the addressee)
means that (outside of the area of the speaker and the addressee)
E. Singular definite articles: Ke/ Ka.
There are two singular definite articles: Ke
is used before words beginning with K, E, A, O
. There are some words which are preceded by ke
, but fall outside of this rule. These words usually begin with P
, the glottal stop.
is used before words beginning with everything else.
F. Negation of the He equational sentence.
When negating the He equational sentence, the word ‘a‘ole
(no, not) is used, and the second noun phrase, pronoun, or proper noun is brought to the front of the sentence after ‘a‘ole.
11. He haumana kēnā
. That (near you) is a student.
he haumana. That (near you) is not a student.
12. He keiki kēnā
. That (near you) is a child.
he keiki. That (near you) is not a child.
13. He ka‘a maika‘i kēlā
. That (away from you and me) is a good car.
he ka‘a maika‘i. That (away from you and me) is not a good car.
14. He māka‘i au
. I am a police officer.
he māka‘i. I am not a police officer.
15. He kāne ‘oe
. You are a man.
he kāne. You are not a man.
16. He kanaka Hawai‘i ‘o ia
. He/she is a Hawaiian person.
‘A‘ole ‘o ia
he kanaka Hawai‘i. He/she is not a Hawaiian person.
There are three sets of exercises: pt.1, pt.2, and pt.3, and their instructions are labelled in green.
Pt.1. Translate from English into Hawaiian.
1. He is a fast student.
2. That (near you) is a fruit.
3. What is that (away from you and me)?
4. That is a cold beverage.
5. Is she a police officer?
6. Is that (near you) delicious food?
7. Is this a good teacher?
8. This is a good car.
9. You are a fast person.
10. I am a teacher.
Pt.2. Write the negation of each of the sentences in Pt.1. The sentences in the form of questions in pt.1 are negated in the same way as statements; remember that word order does not change when asking questions. Hence, I could ask: He kumu 'oe? (Are you a teacher); and I could negate it thusly while still keeping the sentence in the form of a question: 'A'ole 'oe he kumu? (Are you not a teacher).
Pt.3. Create ten original sentences using the “He equational sentence pattern.” If you want, you can increase the range of vocabulary in your sentences by using the online dictionary at this link: http://wehewehe.org/
You will notice that there are periods separating stress groups.
1. ‘Ae (inter.) – yes; to say yes; to consent, approve of.
2. Aha (inter.) – what.
3. ‘A‘ole (inter.) – no, not.
4. ‘Ā.wī.wī (vi.)– to hurry; fast, quick.
5. Hau.mana (n.) – student (singular).
6. He (indef. Article) – a/an.
7. Hua ‘ai (n.) – fruit.
8. Hu‘i.hu‘i (nvi.) – cold.
9. Ka‘a (n.)– car.
10. Kanaka (n.) – person (singular).
11. Kāne (nvs.) – man; manly.
12. Kē.ia (demon.) – this.
13. Keiki (n.) – child.
14. Kē.lā (demon.) – that (away from you and me).
15. Kē.nā (demon.) – that (near you).
16. Kumu (n.) – teacher.
17. Mai.ka‘i (nvs.) – good.
18. Mā.ka‘i (nvt.) – police officer; to police, inspect.
19 Mana‘o (nvt.) – thought; to think.
20. Mea ‘ai (n.) – food.
21. Mea inu (n.) – beverage, drink.
22. ‘O ia (pron.) – he/she.
23. ‘Oe (pron.) – you.
24. ‘Ono (vs.) - delicious
25. ‘Ō.pio (nvs.) – youth, youngster; young, youthful.
26. Pia (n.) – beer.
27. Wai.ho‘o.lu‘u (n.) – color
28. Wahine (nvs.) – woman (singular); feminine