Phoenician study group

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Lycurgus
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Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-11-14, 8:32

אעדה ἐνδύνω, ἐνδύω, δύω 'of clothes, put on (ד/δ)
אעטה ἐνδύω 'of clothes, put on (ט/δ)
עדן ἐνδυτός 'garment, dress (2 Samuel 1:24)
מעטה ἔνδυμα 'garment (Isaiah 61:3)
עדנה ἡδονή, ἁδονά 'pleasure, delight
מעדן ἥσθημα 'that which is delightful' (Proverbs 29:17)
מעדן ἔδεσμα 'eatables (Lamentations 4:5)
עדן ἀιδωνευς 'nether world

In Lamentations 4:5, ה אכלים means οἱ ἔσθοντες (σ/כ, θ/ל) and the initial א shows up in φαγός/אכלה and φάγημα/מאכלה 'food, victuals'

The following verb in this verse, נשמו is mistranslated, this is ψάω 'crumble away, vanish, disappear' that roots ψωμός 'crumble away, morsel' and שממה meaning ψάμμη 'the sandy desert of Libya' (Exodus 23:29), אשפתות ἀψύχους 'lifeless, inanimate, non animal food'.

Lamentations 4:8-9
זכו διαυγάζω 'translucent, radiant'
צחח διαυγής 'translucent, radiant
נזיריה ἔθειραι αὐτῆς 'Her hair; old reading for γενειάδες 'beard cf. πίνας ' silky beard
שלג χάλαζα, χιών 'snow, hail
חלב γλάγος 'milk
עצם δέμας 'body, bodily frame
אדמו ξανθόω 'become yellow, red, brown
פנינים πίνας (πινν-, πνιν-) 'pearl (2) a long-shaped bivalve, with a silky beard or byssus cf. Venus
ספיר σάπφειρος 'lapis lazuli or sapphire
גזרה σχίσις 'cleavage, parting, of animals cf. σπάραγμα
תאר ὅρασις 'seeing, the act of sight, visage (-σις > ת)
שחור κορός 'dark, black' cf. ἄνθρακος 'charcoal, precious stone of dark-red colour'
חשך σκότος 'darkness, gloom
חשכה Σκοτιά; epithet of Aphrodite in Egypt
אחשיך σκοτίζω 'make dark
חוצות ὁδούς 'a way, path, track, road, highway
צפד σκεπάζω 'cover, shelter' (ד/ζ)
נכר γνωρίζωm, γιγνώσκω 'make known, recognise (נ/MV)
עור χρώς 'skin
עצם ὀστέον 'bone
יבש διψάω 'thirst, dry, parch
כעץ ἰσόξυλον 'like a stick

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Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-11-14, 9:09

Lamentations 4:3 reads "The sea monsters draw out the breast, they give suck to their young ones", thus must be Dolphins encountered by Phoenician merchants on their voyages.

שד μαστός 'generally, of the breasts of all mammalia cf. τιτθός 'nipple
חלצו ἕλκετε 'draw or suck up ; ἑλκ. μαστόν to suck the breast,
תנין δελφῖνος 'dolphin ; δελφῖν > δελῖν > δενῖν > τενῖν > תנין
לויתן ἐλέφαντος or δελφῖνος cf. μέγα κῆτος
גורי κουροῖ 'young ones
היניקו θηλάζετε (ק/ζ, נ/λ) 'of the young animal, suck

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Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-11-14, 10:33

Phoenicians being famous ancient merchants of the Mediterranean, thus they too have parallels with various sea monsters of Greek mythology mentioned in the Odysseus encountered whilst sailing across the Mediterranean.

Ὀδυσσεύς; Ulysses, Οὐλιξεύς, Οὐλίξης cf. עליץ עבא 'safe harbour ‎cf. ἀγλαίζω/עלץ 'splendid, exult cf. ἀγλαός (σσ/ξ/ץ)

Sirens; dangerous creatures, who lured nearby sailors with their enchanting music and singing voices.

שיר ἀοιδή 'song
היענה ἀηδών 'songstress, nightingale cf. φῶνος

The word σειρήν 'Siren appears in the Septuagint in Job 30:29 alongside στρουθός 'Sparrows and also in Micah 1:8
which renders בנות יענה into θυγατέρων σειρήνων 'daughters of Sirens' , בנות means γόος 'weeping, wailing' or ὄρνιθος 'bird, including birds of prey and domestic fowls, Hom., etc.; applied to ostriches, Μοισᾶν ὄρνιχες song-birds', metaph., omen taken from the flight or cries of birds, .

γόον ὄρνιθος ἀηδοῦς 'the nightingale's piteous lament.

אבל
κόπτω 'beat or strike oneself, beat one's breast or head through grief (א/κ, τ/ל)
ἀναβάλλω 'strike up, begin to play or sing
ἀναβολή 'striking up, prelude on the lyre preliminary to singing
ἀμβλύς 'metaphor; of the feelings or mind (Adj.)
πένθος 'grief, sorrow

מספד κομμός 'beating of the head and breast in lamentation, in the Att. Drama, dirge, lament

These are homologue, for κομμός is a variant of κοπετός (κπτ/ספד) since the -μα suffix modifies the ending of κόπτω 'beat or strike oneself, beat one's breast or head through grief, πτω > μμό.

Phoenician language being suppressed for so long, corrupted by all these pseudo Biblical lexicons and theologians monopolizing the language of the Phoenician Merchants of Carthage and Ancient Lebanon.

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Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-11-14, 14:25

צלם ἄγαλμα 'image
שממה θάμβημα 'alarm, terror

צדה, צוד ζητεύω, ζητέω, ζατεύω 'seek for, hunt for'
מצדה ζητησιμος 'to be searched, places to be beaten for game.
מצדה ζήτημα 'that which is sought,
צידה ζητητός 'sought for
צדה σίτησις 'eating, feeding
מצודה ζητητήριον 'question chamber, instruments of torture

In all these homologues the צ exchanges with ζ as digraphs and they are pronounced the Doric way in Hebrew (η > α)

בקש ἐπιζητέω 'seek after, make further search, request

The root incorporates the preposition, ἐπι/ב.

צידן (Sidon) came from ξάνθος (ξουθός), unrelated to the above.
צדה/ζητέω relates the English words, Seek and Sought

buscada, buscat, בקש , بحث (ἐπι-)

Lycurgus
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Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-11-14, 15:39

גבריאל Gabriel

גבר means κῶρος, κόρος, κοῦρος, the ב exchanges with ῶ and ῦ, thus altogether, the word גבריאל means κόρος θεοῦ or κόρος ἡλίου, the name indicates that its bearer was God's gift to his parents or an acolyte.

אבדון Ἅιδωνευς 'Hades or place of departed spirits.

עגליבעל Aglibol
κύκλος ἡλίου/σελήνης 'disk of the sun and moon'

דומה Hades
δῶμ᾽ Ἀΐδαο 'house of Hades (Odysseus 12:21)
الجنة 'al Jana 'τό δῶμα

הניאל ἐλεός θεοῦ or θεογενής
רפיאל θέραψ θεοῦ
مالك‎ (Maalik) πλινθεῖον 'brickworks
צפון 'σκεπαστός 'covered i.e snow covered north mountain of Lebanon

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Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-11-15, 8:36

מגל ζάγκλον : reaping hook, sickle, Sicilian for δρέπανον/דרבן; = ζάγκλη : an ancient name of Sicilian Messene, from the shape of the natural mole which forms the harbour

מגל is pronounced מַגָּל "Maggal > Μεσσήνη (Doric; Μεσσάνα)

Με ⟷ מַ
σσή ⟷ גגָּ
ν ⟷ ל

In Macedonian, the synonym is ἀγκαλίς 'bent arm, bend of knee'

ἀγ ⟷ ἀν ⟷ νἀ ⟷ מַ
κα ⟷ גָּ
λ ⟷ ל

ἀγκαλίς
1. bent arm, bend of knee
2. bights or arms of the sea
3. bundle, sheaf
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/mor ... ek#lexicon

The semantics of this word is important, for they match שבל

שבל
1. bend of knee (Isaiah 47:2)
2. bights or arm of the sea (Psalm 65:15, Isaiah 27:12) *خليج , الخلجان
3. bundle, sheaf (Genesis 41:5) *سنبل

There is a dispute in Judges 12:6 with the pronunciation, שבלת or סבלת, both noun are feminine, as is ἀγκαλίς.

ס as being equated with ϡ, a form of σίγμα, the homologue of σαμπῖ.
σάμπι → σάμιπ → σάμικ → סמך

ש as being equated with σ (σίγμα).
σίγμα → σίμα → σίνα → σίν → שין

In סבלת, the ס replaces the γ in ἀγκαλίς and the κα → γα → βα

סכרγκλείω 'shut in, close
סגר ἐγκλείω

ס also functions as Ξ, the same letter, a digraph of Σκ else the κ drops out.
סמדר Σκάμανδρος = Ξάνθος
אסמר ξανθόω 'become yellow (Verb) (Psalm 119:120)
סנה σκηνή 'tent, booth' (Doric; σκανά)

ἀγκαλίς → ἀνκαλίς → ענקה
εὔογκος → εὔονκος → ענק
ἀγχονάω → ἀνχονάω → אחנק

In Homer, Σκάμανδρος and Ξάνθος are interchanging words.

Ξάνθος → Σκάνθος → Σκάνδος → Σκάμνδος → Σκάμνδρος → Σκάμανδρος

μ inserted in the middle of the word to facilitate pronunciation.
Last edited by Lycurgus on 2019-11-16, 16:48, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-11-15, 22:31

אגר ἀγείρω 'gather together, of things, collect, gather'
בא βαίνω (βάω) 'walk, step
במה βῆμα, βωμός 'raised platform, stand
גיל γέλως, γέλος 'laughter, metaphor; of waves,
גזרה ξηρός 'dry, of a dried-up river, of body, aridity
דוי δύη, δύιος 'misery, anguish
הר ὅρος 'mountain
סנה δάφνη, laurus 'the laurel, or rather the bay-tree, sacred to Apollo Exodus 3:2, Deu 33:16
צפנת פענח δαφνηφάγος 'bay-eating, inspired' or δαφνηφόρος 'epithet of Apollo at Thebes' (Gen 41:45)
חבט κόπτω 'cut, strike
טף τρυφερός, τρυφηλός 'delicate, dainty, effeminate, voluptuous'
טרף θρύπτω 'break in small pieces, metaphor; enfeeble
טרף τροφή 'nourishment, food, nurture, rearing'
טרף θρύμμα 'that which is broken off, bit cf. מטרף
טרפה τρύφος 'that which is broken off, morsel, lump
יין οἰνός 'wine, fermented juice of other kinds, name of Dionysus (יהוה ניחא)
כלי χήλινος 'vessel
ליש λίς 'Lion
מום μῶμος 'blemish; personified מומה "Momus"
נוף νείφω 'to snow
סמל σμίλευμα 'a piece of carved work
עלז ἀγλαίζω 'to make bright or splendid
ערג ὀρέγω 'reach out, hold out, stretch oneself out, yearn
פאר φᾶρος 'a large piece of cloth, web, mantle
פסל ψιλός 'bare, as a military term, of soldiers without heavy armour
פתן πτηνός 'flying, winged, of birds, of snakes ( ὄφις)
צוד ζητέω 'seek for, hunt for
קרה κυρέω 'hit, light upon, hit the mark'
ראה ὁράω ' to see, look, appear
שור θώραξ 'corslet, coat of mail, scale armour
שור τεῖχος 'wall, esp. city-wall, walled, fortified town or city
תף τύπανον 'drum, tambourine
אכל φαγεῖν 'eat
ברך εὐλογέω 'speak well of, praise
גייה γυῖον 'limb, hands, womb
דם δέμας 'bodily frame, inflorescence of the grape vine
הדום ἕδος 'seat, stool, seated statue of a god
זגים ζιζάνιον 'darnel
חול χορεύω 'dance around, choral dance
טיט θίς 'heap, esp. of sand-banks, beach, shore
כנור φοῖνιξ a musical instrument, like a guitar made from the Delian palm
כנרת λίμνη φοίνικος 'Phoenician lake
בעל שכל πολύσοφος 'very wise
משכיל σόφισμα, σοφισμάτιον 'captious argument, quibble, sophism
שאר στέαρ 'hard fat, suet
טלה φάγιλος 'a lamb, either when it begins to be eatable or to eat alone
פחד Φοῖβος 'bright one, epithet of Apollo
טבה σφαγεύς 'slayer, butcher
ברק ἀμάρυγμα 'a sparkle, twinkle, changing colour and light, flashing'
פקח οἴγω 'open
כד κάδος 'jar
סיס ὗς 'the wild swine, whether boar (hog) or sow
סוס ἵππος 'horse
מלחמה πόλεμος 'war, battle
נפתל πολεμέω, πτολεμέω 'war, battle (verb)
נפתול πτόλεμος 'war, battle
פנים μῆνις, μᾶνις 'wrath
מטר νοτερός 'damp, moist, a storm of rain'
סרר ψάλλω 'pluck, twine, play stringed instrument with fingers, not plectrum
פסנתרין ψαλτήριον - stringed instrument, psaltery, harp
מזמור ὑμνάριον 'hymn, ode, in praise of gods or heroes
משרוקיתא συρίγγων 'shepherd's pipe, Pan pipe
חצצרות τίτυρος 'Shepherds Pipe
מחלת μάγαδις Lydian flute, an instrument with twenty strings arranged in octaves
חבש ὕφασμα 'woven robe, web'
שוט σκῦτος 'skin, hide, esp. dressed or tanned hide, whip, thong
כשף θεσπίζω 'to declare by oracle, prophesy, divine
דודה τηθίς 'uncle cf. ἀδευφιός, ἀδελφιδός
דויד ἀγαπητός 'of persons, beloved “ἀδελφὲ ἀγαπητέ”
פרס γρύψ 'griffin or dragon
קלע γλύφω 'carve, cut out with a knife, note down or write'
אגן ἀγγεῖον 'vessel for holding liquid or dry substances, coffin, sarcophagus'
קלס χλευάζω 'jest, scoff
פוטי ὕπτιος 'of land, flat, horizontal i.e Αἰγύπτιος
לאם λαός 'men, a people, i.e. all who are called by one name
חיל εἴλη, ἴλη 'band, troop of men, at Sparta, subdivision of the ἀγέλα
מסגר κλεῖθρον 'bar for closing a door, boom of a harbour
סל κάλαθος 'basket narrow at the base, wine-cooler, capital of a column'
קנאה φθόνος 'jealousy, envy, ill-will
פרא θήρ 'beast of pray, i.e Lion
גנב κλέπτω 'thief, cozen, cheat
סחרה γερράδια 'mats of plaited work
סחרה γέρρον 'anything made of wicker-work, oblong shield'
תדמר Παλμύρα 'Palmyra
תמר πάλμη 'palm tree, dates
לחיה λόχος 'a place of ambush, place for lying in wait
להיתי μηκέτῖ 'no more, no longer, no further; formed from μή, ἔτι, with κ inserted

Lycurgus
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Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-11-16, 16:43

אדרש ἐρωτάω, Ep. and Ion. εἰρωτάω (verb)
used in Att. to supply the defective tenses of ἔρομαι:—ask
ask about a thing, to ask a question
question a person, Passive; to be questioned
in Dialectic, opp. demonstration, question an opponent in order to refute him from his answers
later, = αἰτέω, beg, entreat, solicit
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/morph?l=erwtaw

מדרש ἐρώτημα
that which is asked, question
in Stoic terminology, a question requiring the answer 'Yes' or 'No
in Dialectic, question inviting an answer which may help to refute an opponent
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/morph?l=erwthma

תדרש ἐρώτησις
questioning, interrogation, proposition, matter submitted
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/morph?l=erwthsis

Since Phoenician or Ancient Hebrew words have homologues in Ancient Greek, they can be precisely defined using Ancient Greek lexicons such as Liddell & Scott and Middle Liddell rather then relying on Biblical lexicons.

The homologue is confirmed, an example in Deuteronomy 13:14 that begins with the verb דרשת that the Septuagint renders into ἐρωτήσεις, a future verb in the second person; although aught to be ἠρώτηκας, a perfect verb since the tenses is prefixed in the future as in תדרש.

1 Chronicles 16:11
דרשו יהוה ועזו בקשו פניו תמיד
Seek the Lord and his strength, seek his face continually - KJV
ζητήσατε τὸν κύριον καὶ ἰσχύσατε ζητήσατε τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτοῦ διὰ παντός - LXX

In this verse, they are two different verbs with the same translation, even in all the other translations, KJV, NLT, RSV an example of low quality lexicography.

דרשו ἐρωτήσατε 'ask or question about a thing
בקשו ἐπιζητήσατε 'seek after, wish for, miss, request, demand, require, make further search

The 2nd person plural imperatives end in ־ו, the 2nd person singular usually ־ה, note many English verbs resembles 2nd person imperatives, such was Take, Leave, Make, Made, Have, Agree, Date, Flee, Hate, Joke, Muse, Wake, Dance, Phone, Shave etc.

תמיד is an adverb, the homologue of διαπαντός meaning 'throughout, continually, always'.

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Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-11-17, 23:24

The change of name between Abram and Abraham can be explained through Ancient Greek, one of the problems with אברהם, it can't be defined as if it compounds אב־רהם for רהם is undefined.

The change from אברם to אברהם is the authors desire to revert to classical pronunciation, for people interpret it backwards, אברם is the later form of אברהם.

εὕρεμα , ατος, τό, later form of εὕρημα.
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/mor ... ek#lexicon

אברם εὕρεμα
אברהם εὕρημα

Hebrew pronunciation resembles Doric dialect, /a/ in place of /η/ and εὕ pronounced /eβ/ → /aβ/.

εὕραμα → εὕρααμ → aβρααμ

The Doric affinity with Hebrew was already established.

First Maccabees 12:20
"Arius, king of the Spartans, sends greetings to Onias, the chief priest. It has been found in a writing concerning the Spartans and Jews, that they are a kinsmen, and that they are descended from Abraham. Now since we have learned this, please write us about your welfare. We for our part write you that your cattle and property are ours and ours are yours. So we command them to report to you to this effect."

Ἄρειος βασιλεὺς Σπαρτιατῶν Ονια ἱερεῖ μεγάλῳ χαίρειν
εὑρέθη ἐν γραφῇ περί τε τῶν Σπαρτιατῶν καὶ Ιουδαίων ὅτι εἰσὶν ἀδελφοὶ καὶ ὅτι εἰσὶν ἐκ γένους Αβρααμ

Josephus - Antiquities of the Jews 12:4:10
Areus, King of the Lacedemonians, to Onias, sendeth greeting ... we have discovered that both the Jews and the Lacedemonians are of one stock, and are derived from the kindred of Abraham ... This letter is four-square; and the seal is an eagle, with a dragon in his claws"

βασιλεὺς Λακεδαιμονίων Ἄρειος Ὀνίᾳ χαίρειν ἐντυχόντες γραφῇ τινι
εὕρομεν, ὡς ἐξ ἑνὸς εἶεν γένους Ἰουδαῖοι καὶ Λακεδαιμόνιοι καὶ ἐκ τῆς πρὸς Ἄβραμον οἰκειότητος

εὕρημα
Invention, discovery, thing discovered not by chance but by thought.
That which is found unexpectedly, i.e. much like Ἕρμαιον (q.v.), piece of good luck, windfall
Of a child, a foundling
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/mor ... ek#lexicon

מאמר ῥῆμα 'that which is said or spoken, word, saying (מ/μα)

Exchange between /εὔ/ and /ἀβ/ is supported, εὔδομος is Boeotian for ἕβδομος and ἄϝληρα and ἄβληρα are Doric for εὔληρα.

אבשלום εὐγάληνος
אבינעם εὔνοος
אביתר εὐίατος
אביאל εὐήλιος
אבישור εὔδωρος, εὐθώρηξ, εὔπους
אביה εὔδιος

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Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-11-18, 1:47

אעצל σχολάζω 'to have leisure or spare time, to be at leisure, have nothing to do, loiter, linger (verb)
עצל σχολερός 'idle (adjective)
עצלה σχολή 'leisure, rest, ease,idleness (noun)

σχ exchanges with צ as a digraph and exchange places with the ο through vowel consonant metathesis.

Ecclesiastes 10:18; בעצלתים ἐν σχολαῖς "idleness"

When the noun is prefixed ב the following noun translates into an ablative in Latin.

עצל "Idle"
- ociós (Catalan)
- ociosa (Spanish
- otiosus (Latin)
- ozioso (Italian)
- ocioso (Galatian)

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Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-11-18, 2:35

Shekel
אשקל σηκόω 'weigh, balance
משקול, משקל σήκωμα 'a weight in the balance, standard weight (Doric; σάκωμα)
בקע משקל διχάς σήκωμα 'half a weight' (Genesis 24:22)

Walking stick
משענה σκάπτον, σκῆπτρον 'a staff or stick used by the lame or age, el bastón.
נשען σκήπτομαι (medium, passive) to prop oneself or lean upon a staff (MV Verb)
מקלה βακτηρία 'staff, cane' cf. βακτήριον, βάκτρον (prose)


מפרקת ῥάχετρον, βράκετον 'the beginning of the spine' (1 Samuel 4:18)

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Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-11-18, 3:42

ארסיס δροσίζω bedew, besprinkle (verb)
רסיס, עסיס δρόσος dew, in Poets, pure water, of other liquids, down on the cheek

Ezekiel 46:1
לרס את־הסלת מנחה
τοῦ ἀναμεῗξαι τὴν σεμίδαλιν μαναα - LXX
'to temper with fine flour a meat offering'

לרס δροσισαι (infinitive)

סלת
πυρός 'wheat, flour
σεμίδαλιν 'the finest wheaten flour
σελήνη ''a moon-shaped wheaten cake'

מנחה is transliterated into μαναα, a verb in -μα which is ἀνάθημα 'votive offering set up in a temple, delights, glories of the feast', prefix suffix metathesis.

Songs 5:2
קוצותי רסיסי לילה
κομίσκη μου δρόσους νυκτός

κομίσκη; Dim. of κόμη : צמה 'hair of the head'

קוצות appears once and the lexicon gives a false root, קוץ, a verb that only appears once in Isaiah 18:6 which reads in Bible translations, 'the fowls shall summer' that is obviously mistranslated here.

קץ עליו העיט

The verb קץ means θοάζω 'move quickly, ply rapidly i.e העיט meaning , ὁ ἀετός "The Eagle", in earlier dialects, written ὁ αἰετός

צמה κόμη 'hair of the hear, long-hair (Songs 4:1)
צמה, צמר κόμη 'metaphor; foliage of trees, of herbs (Ezekiel 31:3)
אצמח κομάω 'let the hair grow long (verb) (Leviticus 13:37)
אצמח κομάω 'metaphor; of trees, plants (verb) (Genesis 2:5)
הצמיח ἐπικομάω 'extended to 'growing' (verb) (Psalm 132:17, Psalm 104:14)

קבצה κομιδῇ 'provision, supplies' (noun)
קבצה κομιδῇ entirely, altogether, quite (adverb)
קבוץ συγκομιστός 'brought together, bread of unbolted meal' (adjective)
אקביץ, אקבץ κομίζω 'gathering of harvest' (verb)

Homonym
אקבץ πυκάζω 'cover closely with notion of protection' Job 5:16, Deu 15:7

הצרעה ἡ ἀνθρηδών, ἡ ἀνθρήνη 'Hornet, Wasp'

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Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-11-18, 9:52

Phoenician words can be categorized, simple, compound, hybrid and mixed.

Simple & Compound words
חשׁב ψηφίζω 'count, reckon, vote for, carry by vote'
חִשׁב καταψηφίζω 'vote against or in condemnation
מחשׁבה ψήφισμα 'proposal passed by a majority of votes'
הִתנחם παραμυθέομαι 'encourage, exhort one to do a thing, speak soothingly to'
נְחוּםי παραμυθητικός 'consolatory
שׁוב στρέφω 'to turn about or aside, turn
הֵשׁיב ἀποστρέφω 'turn back, away' μεταστρέφω 'turn about, turn round
מְשׁוּבה στρέμμα 'hat which is twisted, conspiracy, band of conspirators,
ראה ὁράω 'look, see'
מראֶה ὅραμα 'that which is seen, visible object, sight

Hybrid words incorporate affixes such as ζω or compound more then one word.

Hybrid
חלום ὅραμα 'vision during sleep, dream'
חפץ ἀγαπάζω 'treat with affection'
כִּפר καταπραύνω 'to soften down, appease'
כִּתר κατακροάομαι 'listen attentively to'
תותח τὰ τόξα 'bow
אלום ἀλλ' οὖν 'but at all

Mixed words are verbs with built in M.V. and their derivatives

Mixed
נפל πίπτω 'Radical sense, fall down, and (when intentional) cast oneself down'
הִתנפל προσπίπτω 'fall upon a person's neck, embrace, fall down to or before, supplicate'
נחל κληρόω 'appoint by lot'
נחלה κλῆρος 'lot

Simple words from compounds.

ירד παραδίδωμι 'give, hand over to another, transmit, give a city or person into another's hands'
יסף προστίθημι 'add, make additions'
יָפה εὐφυής 'well-grown, shapely, of good natural disposition'
עָקר ἄκουρος 'childless, without male heir'
פַּחד ἐπιγουνίς 'part above the knee, great muscle of the thigh, taken as a sign of strength and vigour'
Last edited by Lycurgus on 2019-11-18, 17:28, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-11-18, 17:21

יער
1. ἀγρός, ἄγριος 'living in the fields, wild, savage, of animals, of plants (Jeremiah 26:18)
2. ἀγορά 'assembly of the people, market-place, forum (Joshua 15:9)
3. κηρίον, κηρός 'Honeycomb (Songs 5:1)

במות יער βοσκήματα ἄγριος "wild animals"

Thus יער can mean Forest or Forum and For- matches יער since the letter F came from י and in the same position of the alphabets. cf. יין = ϝοῖνος = Vinum

Image

שמן
1. ζωμός, δωμός 'common name for fat, greasy fellow, soups made from animals with soft fat'
2. ζαμενής 'very strong, mighty, raging' (Adjective) (Judges 3:29)
3. ὀσμή, ὀδμή 'smell, odour, freq. of foul smell but also of fragrant odours' (Songs 1:3, Ecc 7:1)

בשם Ϝ-/ב ὀσμή, ὀδμή ' scent, perfume

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Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-11-19, 11:22

מופת φάσμα 'apparition, phantom, sign from heaven, portent, omen, vision in a dream

The lexical entry in Strong's read "From יָפָה in the sense of conspicuousness" but that particular word is the compound homologue of εὐφυής.

φάσμα from φαίνω then the root of מופת would be יפע, פאר and איר that are homologous with φαίνω (ν/ר).

תפארת φάντασις = φαντασία 'appearance, imagination, especially of visual images.
This is an abstract noun, in which the ending, -σις converts into ת־.

פאר
1. φάος 'light, as a metaph. for deliverance, happiness, victory, glory
2. φᾶρος 'a wide cloak or mantle without sleeves. drawn over the head (Homonym)

Ezekiel 44:18 פארי פשתים יהיו על־ראשם 'They shall have linen bonnets upon their heads - KJV'

פארי φάρεα (plural)
פשתים βύσσινα (Adjective) "made of βύσσος" (a fine flax, and the linen made from)
יהיו εἰμί; εἰσί, ἔσονται; ־הי־/εἰ-, Lt. er-, es-
על־ראשם ἐπὶ κρᾶσι αὐτῶν "upon their heads"

Homer's Odysseus 8.84
Odysseus grasped his great purple cloak with his stout hands and drew it down over his head
Ὀδυσσεὺς πορφύρεον μέγα φᾶρος ἑλὼν χερσὶ στιβαρῇσι κὰκ κεφαλῆς εἴρυσσε

Exodus 39:28
את־המצנפת שש τούς στεφανώματα ξυστίδος (or βύσσου)

מצנפת στεφανώματα 'that which surrounds, crown, wreath
מ־/-μα, ־ת/-τα (prefix suffix metathesis)

ששי ξυστίς 'robe of rich and soft material reaching to the feet, worn by women of quality, worn by great men (esp. by victorious charioteers in their chariots) as a robe of state, as epith. of cloth, orig. garment made of cut (shorn, clipped) fabric, such as fustian, plush, velvet.

מכנס σινδών 'fine cloth, usually linen' -ών/־מ

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Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-11-19, 17:28

מזון θοίναμα "meal, feast" (מָזוֹן; mazown)

An example of the metathesis, the prefix -μα converts into the suffix, מ־ and is pronounced with the same vowel sound, ־זוֹן "zōn".

The verb only appears once in the Aramaic, in Daniel 4:12 "all flesh was fed of it" (יתזין כל־בשרא) that matches the semantics of θοινάω with its emphasis on flesh.

אזון θοινάω
feast on, eat, feast, entertain, the feast which he gave him upon his son's flesh, Hdt.1.129.
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/mor ... ek#lexicon
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/morph?l=qoinaw

משתה ἑστίαμα 'banquet, an entertainment (Genesis 26:20)
משתה πότημα, ποτόν 'that which one drinks, drink, esp. of wine' (Esther 7:2) (homonym)

ἑστίαμα emphases fire since its root is ἑστιάω 'to receive at one's hearth' that derives Ἑστία 'Goddess of the Heart", the homologue of ἑστίαμα appears in Exodus 29:18 as אשה 'offering made by fire'.

מאכל φάγημα 'food, victuals
מעדן ἔδεσμα 'meat, food, eatables

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Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-11-20, 13:55

מטה φύτευμα 'that which is planted'
מטה στρῶμα 'anything spread or laid out for lying or sitting upon, mattress, bed'
מטה βάκτρον 'stick, cudgel'
מטה παραστροφή 'distortion'
למטה, מטה ἔνερθε, ἔνερθα, νέρθε 'from beneath, up from below' (preposition)

This is a very good examples of homonyms, words that are spelled the same but have different meanings and etymologies.

מטה φύτευμα, thus the root, 'φυτεύω' matches the semantics of נטה 'of the thing planted, plant trees' (Job 26:7)

מטה στρῶμα, the verb form, στρώννυμι 'spread clothes across the bed' , this verb, נטה appears in Jeremiah 14:8.

נטוי στρωτός (adj) 'spread, laid' Ezekiel 1:22, Psalm 102:12
*unlisted adjective in the redundant Strong's lexicon

נטה τανύω, τείνω 'stretch, spread, extend' Psalm 104:2, this word as prepositions.
κατά- 'stretch down' Genesis 24:14 * הטי
ἐκ- 'stretch out' Jeremiah 6:12 * כי־אטה
παρά- 'stretch on a rack, torture' Psalm 27:9 *אל־תט־באף
πρό- 'stretch forth, hold out, offer' Ezra 7:28 *עלי הטה

נטה πήγνῦμι (-μι/נ־) 'stick or fix in, pitch a tent' Genesis 33:19
הטה παραστρέφω 'turn aside, alter, pervert' Exodus 23:2

נטע φυτεύω 'of the thing planted, plant' Genesis 2:9
נטע φυτόν 'plant' Isaiah 5:7
נטיע φυτάριον 'Dim. of φυτόν Psalm 144:12
מטע φύτευμα 'that which is planted' Isaiah 60:12
מטעי, נטעים φυτευτήριον 'layer, nursery or plantation Micah 1:6

ניסן ἄνθιον 'spring, in Orphic phraseology' Esther 3:7 "Nisan"

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Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-11-20, 15:05

נטר τηρέω, ἐντηρέω 'guard' (ἐν-/נ־)
נטרתי τετήρηκα Songs 1:6
נטר τηρητής, τηρός 'keeper, observer' Songs 8:11
מטרה δεσμωτήριον 'prison' Jeremiah 32:2

מטרה θήραμα, θήρευμα 'prey, spoil ' 1 Samuel 20:20, Job 16:12

The strong' lexicon does not distinguish the homonym of מטרה and is listed as H4307 for example 1 Samuel 20:20 reads in KJV 'I shot at a mark', the word "mark" translating from מטרה meaning θήραμα 'prey or spoil' and also in Lamentations 3:12 'set me as prey for the arrow' in Phoenician written כמטרא לחץ meaning ὡς θήραμα ἐς ὀιστόν.

חץ ὀιστός; Homeric word for Arrow, στ > ץ (digraph)

I do not understand why Phoenician language is neglected by linguistics, so much false information surrounding the Phoenician language on the Internet.

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Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-11-21, 1:57

فعل פעל ποιέω 'Used in two general senses, to make and to do.
פעלה ποίημα 'anything made or done

The two initial letters in the verb are unchanged, פע πο فع , perhaps this originates the word "Do" for the shortened form, ποῶ exists.

ποιέω (poiéō) apparently a no definite PIE root.

Through vowel consonant metathesis, πο > οπ, it is the homologue of the Latin verb, operō thus also accounts the ל in פעל exchanging with the r.

The Septuagint version of Genesis 1:1 reads ἐποίησεν which means ויפעל, a 3rd person Aorist, for ברא that is the homologue of φέρω (φάρω) and in Genesis 1:7, Septuagint as ἐποίησεν for ויעש, the homologue of τεύχω.

Phoenician accounts the irregularity of φέρω.

אשא οἴσω "I will bear" (Micah 7:9)
נשאתי ἐνήνοχα (ἐνεγκ-) (ἐν-/נ־)
הרה φέρω 'of a pregnant woman (Iliad 6.55, Genesis 13:10)
שאו ἐνέγκατε/φέρετε (Psalm 96:8)
ולשאת ἐνέγκαι/φέρειν 'to bring forth' (of trees and plants) (Ezekiel 17:8)

An example of ἐν-/נ־ is ἐντηρέω, the archaic form of τηρέω, this ἐν- was added in very ancient time to indicate the reflexive character of the verb, a function now performed by MV terminations, -μαι/μοι/לי -σαι/σοι/לך

MV prefix
נהג ἁγέομαι 'to go before, lead the way, .to lead an army or fleet,
נטה πήγνῦμι 'pitch' (a tent)
נתן δίδωμι 'give'
נטש προδίδωμι 'deliver up, give-up, forsaken'
נשק ἀσπάζομαι 'to welcome greet, to embrace, kiss'
נגד διηγέομαι 'set out in detail, describe', מגיד/διήγημα 'tale'
נגע ἱκνέομαι 'come, arrive'
נוד ἀλάομαι 'wander, roam'
נאק μυκάομαι 'low, bellow, groaning, of cattle'
נחם παραμυθέομαι 'to be consoled' הת־נחם

MV termination
קניתי לי ἐώνημαι, κέκτημαι, "I have purchased for myself
קנית לך ἐώνησαι, κέκτησαι, "You have purchased for yourself
קנה לו ἐώνηται, κέκτηται, "He purchased for himself"

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Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-11-22, 11:58

מרגמה ἀραγμός
clashing, clattering, rattling, ἀ. πετρῶν crashing shower of stones
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/morph?l=ἀραγμός

Thus the verb, ארגמ would then be homologue with ἀράσσω, for one of its definitions being 'strike with a shower of stones' and also with the dialectic variant, ἀράγειν (ἀράσσειν).

מרגל παράγγελμα 'message transmitted by beacons'
ארגל παραγγέλλω 'pass on or transmit a message'
לפיד λαμπάδος 'torch, beacon'

παρά- is incorporated into the root, ר־.
רגל ἄρθρον "foot" ρθρ/רגל (Homonym)

רגע παραψυχή 'cooling, refreshment, consolation' Psalm 30:6 *παρά-/ר־.
מרגעה παραψυκτήριον 'that which is refreshing' Isaiah 28:12
הרגיע παραψύχω 'console, soothe' Jeremiah 50:34
ארגיע ἀστράπτω 'flash, light, illuminate' Isaiah 51:4
רגע meaning ῥάγα 'fissure, break or burst forth'
רגע ἀκμή 'of Time, like καιρός, the time, i. e. best, most fitting time,'

רגע = ῥάγα = ἀκμή, βία, ὁρμή, Hsch.; but ῥαγή is similarly glossed in Erot.Fr.31.
http://perseus.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/phi ... p.66:0.LSJ

רחיט φρυγανίς 'firewood, undershrub' Songs 1:17

רץ τρόχις 'courier, messenger' Job 9:25
רמכה δρόμαξ 'good at running Esther 8:10
מרוצה τρόχιμος 'running, hastening' 2 Samuel 18:27
ארצה τρέχω 'run' Genesis 18:2


הריע συρίζω 'play the pipe or panpipe, make any whistling or hissing sound Numbers 10:9
תתריע σύριγξις 'playing on the syrinx' Joshua 6:5
משרוקיתא, שרוק συρίγγων, σῦριγξ 'Syrinx, pan pipe.
תריע κροτέω 'clap in sign of applause' Micah 4:9
תתריע κρότησις 'clapping, striking, as a sign of grief' 1 Samuel 4:5 Ezra 3:11

רננה θρῆνος, θρήνημα 'lament, dirge'
ארנן θρηνέω 'to sing a dirge, to wail, lament, Pass. to be lamented'
התרנן ἐπιθρηνέω 'lament over'
ארעם βρέμω, βροντάζω 'roar, of thunder Psalm 18:14
רעם βρόμος 'any loud noise, roaring of thunder, of sea, of earthquake Job 39:25
רעם βροντή 'thunder Psalm 77:19

ארנה βρέμω 'roar, of arms; clash, ring Job 39:23
אשפה ἀσπίς 'shield' Job 39:23 (affirms the homologue, the shield did duty for the quiver and also housing arrows hence Isaiah 49:2)

ברק φλόξ, βόστρυχος 'of lightning, flash'
ברקן (ϝ-) ῥάφα, ῥαφανίς, ῥάφανος raphanus 'a large kind of radish' Judges 8:16

Hence ברקן does not derive from ברק yet another error in Strong's lexicon.

In ancient Athens, adulterers used to be punished by having a radish thrust up their fundament (Rhaphanidosis)

Aristophanes, Clouds 1083
But what if he should suffer the radish (ברקנים/ῥαφανίδων)

מורג τρυγάνη = τυκάνιον tribula, a threshing sledge with sharp pieces of flint or with iron teeth'
אדוש δαίζω 'to cleave asunder, cleave'


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