Phoenician study group

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Lycurgus
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Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-11-01, 1:00

There is barely any documentation regarding prepositions in Biblical Hebrew resources, in comparison with ἄνα, ἐπί, πρό, κατά.

In one verse, על־פי renders into ἐπί, in other verses shortened into לפי, In Leviticus 25:16, it opens with "According to" (לפי) in accordance to ἐπί "according to, by" (LSJ, Middle Liddell)

טרם, בטרם, מטרם, טרום πρό, πρίν 'before
עם σύν 'with
עבר, מעל, על ὑπέρ, ὁπέρ 'uper
בין יען ביען διά 'through
ביי, עבי, ב־, כ־ ὑπό 'from under, of the object under
כדי,כפי, כ־ κατά 'downwards
את עמדי, עם, אחרי, בין בית אחר μετά/et

כעת καθ ἔτος 'of time, day by day, daily (השנה)
כעת (2) τηνικάδε 'at this time, then (τηνικάδε > κάδε > κάεδ/כעת)
תמול χθές ἡμέρᾳ, אתמול ἐχθές ἡμέρᾳ 'Yesterday hesternus, gestaron

πτῶμα (-μα = מ־)
1.fallen body, carcess (מפלת) (Jud 14:8)
2.fallen tree (מפלת) (Ezek 31:16)

ἵσμα 'seat המסב, המושב, two identical words differently pronounced.

משטמה 'Object of hate' (ἔχθρασμα, ἔχθημα, μίσημα)
אכזר hatred, enmity (ἐχθρά)
אצרר Hate (ἐχθραίνω, ἐχθαίρω, ἐχθέω, ἔχθω)
שקץ object of direst hate (ἔχθος)
אהשיב συνοικέω 'live in wedlock (Ezra 10:18)
ישב ᾤκηκε 'dwelled
אישב οἰκέω 'inhabit'
אושיב οἰκίζω 'found as a colony
אהושיב κατοικίζω 'settle, establish
ממגרות οἰκημάτιον 'chambrette
מגור מושב משכן οἴκημα, 'dwelling place
אערל κείρω 'cut short, shear, clip, esp. of hair
ערלה κουρά 'cropping of the hair, cut-off end
ערלה ἄκουρος 'unshaven
אמול μασχαλίζω 'put under the arm-pits: hence, mutilate a corpse, off the extremities
מולת μασχαλίσματα 'extremities cut off from a corpse
אמעל μολεύω 'cut off and transplant the suckers or shoots of trees (Job 18:16)
אצילה μασχαλιστήρ 'girth, band
אציל μασχάλῃ 'corner, arm-pit (Lt. Axilla)

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Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-11-03, 3:35

בת - Daughter

This as four valid cognates, θυγάτηρ, πάις, γόνος and fīlĭa

The given pronunciation of בת is bath, which can be comparatively produced from θυγάτηρ, the θ drops out like in θέραψ, the γ drops out as a guttural, the ρ drops out as a non rhotic or a terminal.

θυγάτηρ > υγάτη > υάτη > βάτη

πάις, the ις is a feminine ending interchanging with ת and π most often interchanges with β.

fīlĭa, the f interchanges with ב and the feminine ending, ĭa with ת. The l drops out in the singular and interchanges with the ן in בנות hence בן/filius. filius is formed with the Phoenician nominative suffix, the -u- before the terminal -s.

לקח means take, yet the ל drops, for example, אקח "I will take" equating with λέγω, λέξω legō, legam cf. λαγχάνω cf. λάξομαι (λάξω). λ is absent in Mycenaean.

לקחת "To take/fetch (infinitive)
לקחתי "I have taken" (Perfect) cf. εἴληγμαι , lēgī, εἴλοχα
לחבוק "To embrace" (Infinitive) cf. ἄγχειν, ἄγχ᾽
לאמר "To say/saying" (εἰπεῖν, λέγων, λέγειν)
מאמר "That which is said" (ῥῆμα, φῆμα, φάμα)
אמרה "saying, speech" (ῥῆσις)
אמר "word" (ἔπος)
דבר "word" (ϝέπος)

pronoun of first person
אני ἐγώ
אנה ἐγών ה/ν
אנכי ἐγώγε, ἐγώνγα (strengthened)

אפס ὅπως "however"
אפעה ὄφῖς "Serpent" (Doric; ὄφιος)
ארגמן ἁλουργής 'wrought in or by the sea, always in sense sea-purple, i.e. genuine purple dye'
ארגונא ἁλούργημα 'purple clothing'
אריה θήριον 'wild animal
בית החיים ϝοῖκος αἰῶνος "Eternal Home" (poetic for cemetery or Hades)
גליון κύλινδρος 'roller, cylinder, roll of a book' (Isaiah 8:1)
מגלה κυλίνδριον Dim. of κύλινδρος (Jeremiah 36:2) (-ιον > מ־)
אגלל κυλίνδω "roll away" (verb) אהגלל/ἀποκυλίω
גלגל κύκλος "circle"
דת δίαιτα "way of living, mode of life"
אבצר ἀποχυρόω "fortify"
Last edited by Lycurgus on 2019-11-07, 20:10, edited 2 times in total.

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Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-11-03, 19:49

The Phoenician adverb meaning "Suddenly" is comparative.

פתאם, אפתם, פתע
Gk. αἰφνίδιος, αἴφνης, ἄφνω
Lt. subito (Ct. sobte), Ar. فجأة
مفاجئ/ἐξαίφνης

The etymology is unknown in Biblical Hebrew, פתע/From an unused root meaning to open (the eyes) - Strong's and there is no given etymology for αἰφνίδιος, but there is for subito, from subeo * sub- (“under”) +‎ eō (“go”).

הוי οἴ 'exclamation of pity, pain, grief cf. οὐαὶ
הנה והנה ἔνθα καὶ ἔνθα "hither and thither" (Odysseus 2.213/1 Kings 20:40)
מהתלה σκῶμμα 'jest, gibe, joke'
תחבלות βούλευσις 'deliberation, conspiracy' *βούλευ(σ)ις > (σ)βούλευις (p/s)
חידה αἴνη, αἴνιγμα 'dark saying, riddle, taunt'
מליצה λόγισμα 'reckoning, argument' λόγιον 'oracle (μα/ιον > מ־)
חנם κενός ' empty, fruitless, void (Aeol. κέννος) νν/נם
תודה πόθοδος 'solemn procession to a temple with singing and music
תם τέλος 'perfection
תמים σεμνός 'revered, august, holy, of gods or humans
אורים Ἐρινύς 'avenging deities, 2. Ἀραί 'spirits of curses, goddess of destruction
תמותה θάνατος 'death, whether natural or violent, personified. Θάνατος "Death"
אמלט אפלט ἀπαλλάσσω 'set free, deliver from (verb)
שדי, שדין Ζεύς, Ζηνός 'Zeus (שד/Ζ)
אמלל ἀπολαλέω 'blurt out, προλαλέω 'state announce before
מלקוח φάρυγξ 'throat
ניר φᾶρος 'plough
ניר φανός 'torch
מנורה φανάριον (-ιον/מ־) Dim. of φανός/ניר

נקי ἁγνός 'pure, chase, holy'
נקין ἁγνεία 'Chasity, purity'
אי־נקי ἄναγνος 'unclean, unholy, defiled (Job 22:30)
נקיתי ἥγνικα (verb) 'wash off, cleanse away, esp. by water
מנקיה ἁγνιστήριον 'instrument of purification
מנקיה ἀγγεῖον 'vessel for holding liquid or dry substances

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Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-11-03, 20:40

θηρίον is written with the terminal -ίον, thus in Phoenician, the noun would be מאריה hence the name, Μαρία, hence the epithet, Magna Leaena "Great Lioness" (מגדול לביא/μέγαλα λέαιν) > Magdalene i.e Fulvia.

Lion in Ugaritic and Mycenaean

Lion (לב־ו) (rewo > re(ϝ)o > leō)
Image
Image

Lioness (לב־יא)
Image
Image

ל and ב are absent in Mycenaean

־ו was the nominative masculine case ending in Phoenician that fell out of use, but appear in Latin and Greek nominative nouns. cf. θεός < θεύς < θε_ύ Lt. deus. The genitive was ־י cf. dei.

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Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-11-04, 17:56

מקור means κρούνωμα or κρουνίον, both diminish of κρουνός 'spring, well head', an example of prefix suffix metathesis, this is also written ממקור, in which the second מ replaces the ν in κρούνωμα.

The verbal hiphil form, הקיר is κρουνίζω 'discharge liquid in a slender stream' appears in Jeremiah 6:7 and homologue with ἐκρέω 'flow out', hence מקור also homologue with ῥεῦμα 'that which flows'.

מצנפה στεφάνωμα 'that which surrounds, crown, wreath'
אצניף στεφανίζω 'crown' (στ/צ)
עטרה τιάρας, κίδαρις , κίτταρις 'The Persian head-dress worn by the great King'

אשחק - καχάζω 'Laugh aloud' cf. השחיק
אצחק - καγχάζω 'Laugh aloud' ( later form for καχάζω)
משחק - καχασμός 'loud laughter

Hence the two spelling of Isaac יצחק & ישחק, the early form is ישחק confirmed with καχάζω and إسحاق.

שח interchanges with Χ as a double consonant. cf. kʰ, ks, sk

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Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-11-05, 2:50

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/أمر

In Arabic, أمر means 'order, to command, to bid, to instruct' and cognates with Hebrew, אָמַר 'to say, to tell', the semantic difference is corroborated with εἴρω and its associates, ἐρῶ, εἶπον, φημι, ἔπω, דבר.

εἴρω
1. I will say or speak
2. To tell, order one to do (so in Pass, εἴρητό οἱ, c. inf., orders had been given him to do, Hdt)

أَمْر, ῥῆμα - subject of speech, matter

The م is inserted in the middle of a word to facilitate the pronunciation of εἴρω or exchanges with π, ἴ and ב.

A semantic error occurs in Joshua 7:21 with לשון זהב meaning πλίνθος χρυσοῦ "ingot of gold", the לשון confused with the homonym γλῶσσα "tongue".

לשון πλίνθος - ingot (of Gold) π/ν
לבנה πλίνθος - brick π/θ
מלבן, מלכן πλινθεῖον - brickworks

מלבן/πλινθεῖον derives and defines Molech, Milcom and Malcam.

זהב מאופז χρυσός ἄπεφθος 'refined gold'
זהב מאופז χρυσόν ἄπο Ἔφεσος 'gold from Ephesus' (2)
כתם פז χρυσός ἑφθὸς refined gold
כתם אופיר χρυσός ἄπυρος 'unsmelted gold'
מופז ἑφθῶν 'be refined' (participle)

חרוץ χρύσεος 'golden' (adj.)

ξάνθος, ξουθός 'Yellow, of Gold.
זהב זוהב צידן אדמוני שמשון דהבה שמש אשכנז
הסמדר < ὁ Σκάμανδρος > الشمندر (al shamandar) 'beet; of its colour

לילה νυκτός 'Night (ל/ν)
לילה Γυγαίη 'nymph of the Gygaean lake (Homonym) > Lilith (י/ו)
דוד Γύγ 'Gyges (ד/γ)
سلام γαλάνη 'Calm (of the Sea) (س/γ)
אבשלום/Εὐγάληνος 'very calm (אב/Εὐ)
שלאנן > שאנן < γαλάνόν 'calm, ease'
Last edited by Lycurgus on 2019-11-07, 20:16, edited 3 times in total.

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Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-11-07, 20:03

סגלה σύγκλητος - Called together, summoned
סגלה σύγκλεισις - shutting up, closing up, locking up, safe storage
אסגל הסגיל συγκλείω - shut close, close the doors, close up the ranks (verb)
שגל συγκλίτης - one who lies with one, companion at table
סגן συγγενής - cousin, represented a title bestowed at the Persian court by the king as a mark of honour (Ezra 9:2)
התערב συγκεράννυμι - mix together, commingle, to be closely attached to, be close friends with
התתרץ συναράσσω - dash together, dash in pieces, crush, of enemies, of wind.
סוד συνέδριον - council (2) σύνοδος - assembly, meeting
אסוד συνεδρεύω - sit in a council (verb)
אסבה συμβαίνω - of events, come to pass, fall out, happen, chance
אסבב συμβιβάζω - to teach, instruct (Deuteronomy 32:10)
התקדיר συσκοτάζω - make dark
התחרה συνερίζω - contend together (Jer 12:5)
התעדן συνήδομαι - rejoice together cf. ἁνδάνω (ν/ן)
התנגש συνεγγίζω - draw near
התרעע συρρήγνυμι - .dash together, fight with, of rivers that meet with a roar
הסיג συγγίγνομαι - associate, keep company with, hold converse with, coitus
התקבץ συγκομίζω - carry or bring together, collect, of the harvest, gather in
התחפש συγκρύπτω - cover up, conceal, disguise (1 Sam 28:8)
התגלל συγκυλίομαι - roll along, roll about, in pantomime,
התבולל συμβάλλω - jumble up together, throw together
התמלא συμπληθύω - help to fill or increase, multiply
התכחש συμψεύδομαι - tell a lie together
התחכם συγγιγνώσκω - think with, agree with, join in a plot with (Exodus 1:10)
התלקח συμφλέγω - burn up, burn to cinders
התבונן συνίημι - bring or set together, take notice of, observe
נשתוה συνισόομαι - to be or be made identical
שולמית, שונמית σύννομος - feeding in herds or together, partner, consort, mate, of soldiers

Herodotus 5.58
These Phoenicians who came with Cadmus and of whom the Gephyraeans were a part brought with them to Hellas, among many other kinds of learning, the alphabet, which had been unknown before this, I think, to the Greeks. As time went on the sound and the form of the letters were changed.

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Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-11-08, 0:29

The most famous Phoenician in Ancient Greek writing was Cadmus (Κάδμος).

The common theory of the meaning is through קדם, this initial letter is Ϙ, this maybe proven if the name is found written Ϙάδμος, the sound of this letter shifted into Φ as in קין/Φοῖνιξ. An example in Bible with פישון also written קישון or קשיון from Σκυθῶν "Scythian" (־ון/-ῶν).

Another idea that i came up with, the name Κάδμος retains the Phoenician Κ, evidence is with κάδος 'Jar or vessel for water or wine' that is כד, this noun appears 18 times in Old Testament, as well as appearing in Ugaritic, Aramaic and Punic.
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/כד

The name Κάδμος as the -μος ending, a variant of -ιον and -μα, in fact, there is κάδιον, Dim. of κάδος, also written κάδδιον and κάδιν. -ιον/-μα are most often turned into the prefix, מ־, then Κάδμος would then be מכד. This may be plausible, by comparison, Jacob was named for κακκάβα 'large pot that sits atop a tripod'

κῆδος (κᾶδος in Doric) means 'care about, anxiety, grief, esp. cares for the dead, mourning, connexion by marriage.
κήδω (κάδω) 'Act., trouble, distress, to be concerned, care for, c. gen, of persons or cities
κηδάζω (καδάζω) = καθαίρω, Hsch. κηδαίνω , collat. form of κήδω Id. κήδαλον: αἰδοῖον, κέρας, σκάλαθρον

Κάδμος /-μος/ might also mean מסדה 'foundation, colony' (κτίσμα)
איסד κτίζω 'of a city, found, build, plant a grove, bring into being cf. καθίστημι 'to bring down to a place'
מיסדה κτισμός 'foundation, “πόλεως”
כדי κατά 'according to

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Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-11-08, 20:57

הת־ exchanges with Greek prepositions, thus התנחם means παραμυθέομαι 'to be consoled, to be comforted' in the passive voice (נ־) and as two other homonyms, ἐπινοέω ' have in one's mind' and μετανοέω 'change one's mind or purpose, repent'.

In Bible, it reads 'Barnabas, which is, being interpreted, The son of consolation' which is puzzling to the Biblical etymologists, since the ναβᾶς component does not match any Hebrew meaning 'consolation' and the Βαρ does not necessarily mean 'son of', instead the full name means Παραμυθητός or Παραμυθητικός. cf. βαρναβαζος, Βαραββᾶς.

παραμυθία; consolation, relief from, diversion, distraction'

מנחמם παραμύθημα 'consolation (2) παραμύθιον 'address, exhortation' (3) παραμυθητής 'consoler
תנחום παραμυθία 'encouragement, exhortation' (ת/π) Hom. (μετάνοια/ ἐπίνοια)
נחומי παραμυθητικός (Adj) 'a letter of consolation, such as Plu. wrote to Apollonius (Zec 1:13)

Phoenicians is a very complex language, one cannot simplify the language into three letter roots.

מבנה δόμημα 'building
אבנה־לי δέμομαι 'I build myself'
ויבן ἔδειμε 'built
תבנה δέδμηται 'be built
בנתי δέδμημαι 'I have built

בנה build (נ > l)

The given PIE root for Build, *bhu- "to dwell" or *bheue- "to be, exist, grow" that have matching homonyms in Phoenicia. PIE (Phoenician in Europe) and never consider that the European languages are universally written in Phoenician script.

ἦλθον "I went" in the Dorian dialect is ἦνθον, the stem ἐρχ/ἐλθ equates with הלך
וילך/ἦλθε "He went" (Aorist) ו־/augment ־י־/tense *-i
*Ruth 1:21 - הלכתי/ἐλήλυθα "I (have) came" (Perfect tense)

אמוץ μύζω 'to drink with closed lips, to suck' (ץ/ζ)

Ezekiel 23:34 - Thou shalt even drink it and suck it out. (ומצית)
Psalm 73:10 - waters of a full cup are wrung out (ימצו למו)


מצה μᾶζα 'barley-cake cf. μακτός/מוצה (adj) צ/σσ since the root is μάσσω

There is no linguistic connection between μᾶζα and μύζω, therefore no connection between מצה and מוץ, Phoenicians words are forced into three letter roots regardless of semantics.

אפה ὀπτάω 'bake bread, Herodotus 2.47/Genesis 19:3 = ز خبز/τ
מטבח ὀπτάνιον 'place for roasting food, kitchen' = مطبخ cf. cocina
מאפה ὀπτήσιμος, ὄπτησις 'for roasting
Last edited by Lycurgus on 2019-11-10, 10:37, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-11-08, 23:18

תמוז (Tammuz) cf. תמותה

This name is homologue with Thanos (Θάνατος) cf. θανάσιμος 'belonging to death', which relates to the mourning of Adonis, celebrated yearly by Ancient Greek and Phoenician women. תמוז.

Lebanon is among the oldest sites of wine production in the world, one of the fruits made into wine was Mulberries, the harvest season of the mulberries is the month of תמוז, the mulberry fruit is picked then the women tread the fruits and weeps out the juices hence the association with weeping and lamenting. One of the words for the mulberry is בכא also means weep hence Βάκχος "Bacchus".

دبكة/βάκχη
Dabke is a native Levantine folk dance performed by the Lebanese, Jordanians, Syrians, Palestinians, Israeli-Arabs, and Iraqis

بَـكَّـة‎/βάκχια

Image

satyrs shall dance there (Isaiah 13:21)
עירים ירקדו־שם (Σάτυροι ὀρχήσονται ἔνθα) cf. الرقص/ὄρχησις

ספד κοπετός 'lament; κόπτω 'beat/mourn' a double entendre
מבוסה πατησμός 'treading on, trampling
אבוס πατέω 'tread

עברה παράβασις 'overstepping, transgression' cf. ἁμαρτία
התעבר παραβαίνω 'to pass beside or beyond, to overstep, transgress
עברה πόρος 'means of passing a river, ford, ferry,
מעברה πορθμός 'ferry or place crossed by a ferry, strait, narrow sea
עברי ἠπειρώτης 'landsman, dweller on the mainland

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Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-11-10, 4:51

פתגם φθέγμα 'voice, speech, saying'

φθέγμα without its vowels matches פתגם/φθγμ, this word also paygām in middle Persian and پیغام‎ (peyğâm) in Persian. This noun appears 8 times in Bible, the lexicon gives no root, just 'Of Persian origin, however the roots are in the Phoenician never the less.

φθέγμα is noun with the -μα suffix, the homologue is מצהלה and its verb, אצהל is φθέγγομαι.

שאגה φθογγή 'voice; of men, of the Sirens, of the voice of Orpheus, of birds and animals
עתק φθόγγος 'of speech
نطق φθόγγος 'any clear distinct sound, esp. voice of men. MV = ن


אמנה means nurse, homologue with τιθηνός and κηδεμών 'one who cares for others, protector, guardian' and the verb also, τιθηνέω and κηδεμονεύω. Yet another error in Biblical Hebrew lexicons, confused with homonyms and the word doesn't even have it own lexical entry.

An example, Esther 2:7 'he brought up Hadassah, that is, Esther (יהי אמן את־הדסה היא אסתר), now אמן means τιθηνέω and את־הדסה is not actually a name, but means τήν θέτην, the ה is not even part of the word but a definite article. את־ה modifies the noun into the accusative. דסה/θετός means 'taken as one's child, adopted, This also confirmed in Septuagint, that translates into a synonym, θρεπτή 'adopted foundling'.

הדסה ἧ θετή adopted daughter

The name is pronounced in the Doric dialect of Greek, ἃ θετá > Hadessah.

הדס ἁδύς, ἡδύς 'pleasant smelling i.e myrtle tree or aromatic bush

פור φόρος 'that which is brought in, tribute, such as is paid by subjects to a ruling state, as by the Asiatic Greeks (ἠπειρώτας) to Athens. φορῶν/Purim.

Persians adopted Phoenician language as its official language of trade, hence the usage.

Pseudo Biblical Hebrew needs overhauling, for its the Phoenician language, not fair to have a low quality representations of the Phoenician language since it effects the understanding of Arabic and Aramaic.

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Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-11-10, 8:21

بطيء ἄποδον, βραδύ 'slow
بطة νᾶσσα, νῆττα 'duck
صابون σάπων 'soap
العقرب ὁ σκορπίος 'scorpion
حرب ἁρμάν 'war, battle, fight *ἁρμάν is Phrygian for πόλεμος
حزن ἁσάζειν 'cry, grieve
خمسة πέντε 'five
مفاجئ ἐξαίφνης 'suddenly
غيور φθόνος 'envy, jealous
كرسي κλισία 'chair
غرب ἑσπέρα 'west, evening
الرهن ἀρραβών 'mortgage
ذراع χειρ 'arm
زوج ζευκτός 'husband
زوجة ζευκτά 'wife
دبكة βάκχη 'Dabke
قلب κόλπος 'heart
خليج 'κόλπος gulf
مغارة 'ὄρυγμα 'trench
أشنه ὕπνον 'lichen
رئيس κρᾶς 'head
دلو ἄντλος 'bucket
حليب γλάγος 'milk
ثقة πείθω, πιστεύω 'faith, trust
عَلَف χιλός 'fodder
خبز ὀπτάω 'bake bread
مطبخ ὀπτάνιον 'kitchen
قلم κάλαμος 'pen
ليج العربي Ἀράβιος κόλπος 'Arabian Gulf
اَلْكُحْل‎ ἧ χολή, ἃ χολά 'bitter drink
بارك εὔλογος 'blessed
عبد ال ὀπαδός θεοῦ
نطق φθόγγος 'voice
ملابس ἀμφίασμα, κάλυμμα 'clothing
ناقة γυναικός 'female
بهيمة βόσκημα 'cattle
شعر ἔθειρα 'hair
ملح ἅλμα 'salt
تطهير κάθαρσις 'cleanse (ت/σις)
طلاق ἀποστέλλω 'divorce
عجيب ἀγητός 'wonderful
الظهيرة ἀγορᾷ 'midday
البارحة ἐχθές ἡμέρᾳ 'yesterday
قدس ἁγιστός, ἁγιστεία 'hallowed
محمد ἐπιθύμημα 'desired
الجنة τό δῶμα 'house ; δῶμ᾽Ἀΐδαο 'house of Hades
نبات φυτόν 'plant
غضب ὀργίζω 'anger
اضطرب θορυβάζομαι, τυρβάζῃ 'troubled
لغة λόγος 'language
طبيب παιᾶν 'physician
رعد βροντή 'thunder
الوردة ἃ βῥοδέα 'rose (ϝ-)
كمن οἰκέω 'inhabit
المذاق γεῦμα, ἔδεσμα 'taste (م/μα)
رقم ἀριθμέω 'number
تصل ἵκω 'reach
ظل σκιάς 'shadow
طارة τρόχος 'hoop
قبيلة φῦλα 'clan, tribe
قاضي δικαστής 'judge
طين θίς 'mud
عظم ὀστέον 'bone
غش καταγοητεύω 'cheat
عاقر ἄκουρος 'childless
عدن Ἀθήνῃ 'port of Aden (Athena)
عادي πεδίον 'plain
تاج στέφος 'crown
غراب κόρᾶξ 'raven
فسر φράζω 'explain
مسجد ἁγίασμα, ἁγίστευμα 'sanctuary (م/μα)
كتاب γραφή 'book
الطاووس ὁ ταώς 'peacock
كذب ψεῦδος 'falsehood
مخ μυελός 'marrow, brain
يعقوب κακκάβη 'partridge
ثور ταῦρος 'bull
قتل κτείνω 'slay
قصب σχοῖνος 'rush
أقصى ἔσχατος 'farthest, uttermost, extrem
ثلج χάλαζα 'snow
التلميذ ὁ μαθητής 'pupil
بلع βρογχιάζω 'gulp down
أخ κάσις 'brother
متى ποτε 'when
نعم ναὶ μά 'yes
هؤلاء οἵδε 'these
يد γυῖον 'hand
نيل Νεῖλος 'Nile
عرفة ὀρόφους 'roof (ὀρόφους Φοίβου)
تسع εις ἄπο δεκά 'Nine
أكل φαγεῖν 'eat
كبد ἥπατος 'liver
تلمس ψηλαφάω 'feel
أو ἤ 'or (disjunctive)
إذا εἰ (αἰκ, εἰκ) 'if
ثعلب κυναλώπηξ 'fox
جار πρόσχωρος 'neighbour
حائط τεῖχος 'wall
حامض ὀξίνης 'sour
حرارة πυρετός 'heat
حصيرة ψίαθος 'mat
فراشة πυραύστης 'butterfly
حلم ὅραμα 'dream
عائشة‎ ἠιθέη 'gift
ريح ῥόος 'current
سكب χέω 'poor
الشمندر ὁ Σκάμανδρος 'beet
شكل ἐκδέω 'fetter
شلح 'put off, remove'
أسطول στόλος 'sea-force, fleet'
خنزير τάνυθριξ) 'swine'
رافائيل 'θέραψ θεοῦ
عملاق ανδρογιγας 'giant-man'
خنثى ἀνδρόγυνος 'man-woman'
امرأة ἀνδρίς 'woman'
عذراء ἄνανδρος 'husbandless, of virgins and widows'
ابدي ἐς ἀίδιον 'everlasting'
طالوت τελευταῖος 'Teleutias
عفريت ψιθυριστής 'whisperer, slanderer, epithet of Hermes and Aphrodite'
شيطان ψιθυριστής, ψιδόνες
جمل κάμηλος, μέγα μαλον 'Camel
إبليس διάβολος 'slanderer
عراق πεδίον αργος 'Iraq
شلال ἐκβολή 'mouth of a river
خابور ἔμβολος ''brazen beak, ram, a bolt, bar
منخر μυκτήρ 'nostril
أن ἀναπνοῇ 'nose
جمجمة γόγγυλος 'skull
بطن ὕπτιος 'belly
كف ὕπτιος 'back of the hand
دم αἱμάς ' blood
رجل ἄρθρον 'joint, generally, of limbs'
كعب ἀκρόπους 'extremity of the leg'
فخذ ἐπιγουνίς 'part above the knee, great muscle of the thigh'
لسان, γλῶσσα
اصبع καταπύγων
إذن οὖς 'ear

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Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-11-10, 20:25

מפלצה πλάσμα 'anything formed or moulded, image, figure'
תפלצה πλάσις 'moulding, conformation'

The modern word form these is Plastic, from the adjective, πλαστικός, the verb is πλάσσω. The letter צ is a digraph of σσ and στ.

Here is the problem with Biblical lexicons, it gives פלץ which means 'horror, trembling' as its root, this a homonym confirmed with πλήσσω 'struck with terror'.

פלצות πληγάς - a blow, stroke of calamity
הפליא ἐκπλήσσω - drive out of one's senses by a sudden shock, amaze, astound

מרבד ῥάμμα "anything sewn or stitched'

From the verb, ῥάπτω, the consonants match ῥπτ/רבד, another example is γραμμά/מכתם מכתב from γράφω/כתם כתב.

רפסדות ῥαφιδευτός (ῥάπτω/רבד) "boat made of hide stitched together" - 2 Chron 2:16
דברות διφθέρα "prepared hide, piece of leather" - 1 Kings 5:9 (for above)

διφθέρα; prepared hide, piece of leather, esp. as writing-material

Classical Syriac: ܕܦܬܪܐ‎ (dptrʾ, “hide; account book”)
Hebrew: דִּפְתָּר‎ (diftar)
Arabic: دَفْتَر‎ (daftar, “register; notebook”
Middle Persian: dptl (daftar, “register, account book)
Persian: دفتر‎ (daftar, “account book; notebook; office”)
Assamese: দপ্তৰ (doptor)
Hindi: दफ़्तर (daftar)
Mongolian: дэвтэр (devter)
Latin: littera (see there for further descendants)
English: letter
Tibetan: དེབ་ཐེར (deb ther)
Ottoman Turkish: دفتر‎ (defter)
Linear B di-pte-ra cf. דבר

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Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-11-11, 23:00

תרשיש θρᾳκίας (sc. λίθος) stone said to take fire in water (Homonym)
תרשיש ταρσός; a type of ship equipped with a bank or banks or oarsmen (Homonym)

תרשיש θρασώ (θαρσώ); the genitive of which is θράσους (θάρσους) > תרשיש and these are names for Athena. They are two cities of that name, Athens and عدن (Aden).

أشدود‎ אשדוד Ἀτθίς, Ἀτθίδος 'The Attic city, Athens'
غزة עזה Ἄστυ 'Town, i.e. Athens' (Ϝάστυ) (ز/στ)
عدن Ἀθήνῃ
فلسطين Πελασγοί, ἡ πάραλος γῆ 'the people of the coast-land' cf. the coast-land of Attica
إسرائيل ἀνδροθέα 'man-goddess, i.e. Athena

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nora_Stone
Nora Inscription is an ancient inscription found at Nora on the south coast of Sardinia. (בתרשש)

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Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-11-12, 2:12

Cherub (כרב)
Crow (ערב)

These words homologue with κόραξ, the genitive κόρακος indicates that the stem is κόρακ, that becomes κόραγ and the γ exchanges with β, the Latin word is corvus and corbeau in French. in Arabic, κό exchanges with غ as it were γόραβ. or the letter ο exchanges with ع and the guttural drops.

The affinity is with Ἅρπυιαι (Hárpuiai), so that "Hár" dialectally exchanges with כר and ב with π, in Greek Mythology, Harpy are birds depicted with human faces that personify whirlwinds and hurricanes. Compare with Χάρυβδις (Charybdis), the personification of a whirlpool in the Strait of Messina..

The Arabic word for heart is written with an initial ق
قلب κόλπος خليج κόλπος

κρᾶς 'head, the initial κ drops out in ראש or the κ exchanges with the glottal stop, as if κρᾶς was ρκᾶς. The Genitive is κράατος, the ρ drops out hence κράατ > κάατ > κέαδ > Head

ישפה ἴασπις 'Jasper
כבש אלוף ὄις ἀρνειός (ἀρνειὸς ὄϊς) ' young ram (ף/ϝ)
כסיל ξύλον 'block head' (כס/ξ - digraph)
גן κᾶπος 'garden, orchard, plantation; Διὸς κῆποι 'of Heavens
כרם κρεμαστός (κρεμάννυμι) 'hung, suspended, i.e grapes, hanging gardens
לבה, להב 'φλογός 'flame of fire, the blade of a sword, of lightning
שלהבה φλόγωσις 'burning, warming, heating' (Songs 8:6) ש/-σ-
נלוז πλάγιος 'placed sideways, metaph., crooked, treacherous (Isaiah 30:12)
הליז πλαγιάζω 'turn sideways (Proverbs 4:21)
לוח πλάξ 'flat stone, tablet (Exodus 24:12)
מלון αὔλισμα 'lodging (Genesis 43:12) cf. κατάλυμα
אלין αὐλίζομαι 'take up one's abode, lodge, pass the night' (Ruth 1:16) (Isaiah 36:2)
ישעיהו Κτησίας 'Physician to the Achaemenid king Artaxerxes II
קדם καταντίον 'over against, right opposite (Daniel 2:6)
אחקק καταξέω 'polish smooth, carve
התכונן κατασκευάζω 'equip, furnish fully with
את־חניכי τούς ἡνιόχους 'charioteers (Genesis 14:3 / Herodotus 7.40)

Herodotus 7:40; His charioteer, whose name was Patiramphes (Πατιράμφης) the son of Otanes, a Persian.

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Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-11-12, 6:55

Arabic preserve the fuller Phoenician vocabulary in words, for example the word Israel is written إسرائيل, without the diacritics converted into Phoenician, אשראייל or compounds as אשראי־יל and defined through Greek, ἀνδρο-θέα, in which the ν drops out before the δ that is turned into س. ἀνδροθέα is another word for Athena and תרשיש.

عملاق ανδρογιγας 'giant man'
خنثى ἀνδρόγυνος 'man woman'
امرأة ἀνδρίς 'woman'
عذراء ἄνανδρος 'husbandless, of virgins and widows' = ἄνευ ἀνδρῶν, לא־אדם ,לא־איש
ذكر ἁνήρ 'male
آدم ἁνδρός 'man
جسارة ἀνδρεία 'manliness
جريء ἀνδρεῖος 'couragous, stubborn
استرقاق ἀνδραποδίζω 'enslave
رِقّ ἀνδράποδον 'slave'
אשרה ἀνδριάς 'image of a man, statue, of female figures
אשה γυνή, γυναικός, ἀνδρίς 'woman א/γ, ש/κ
זונה γυνή 'woman cf. cwen, queen

זונה developed from γυνή as it designated an unmarried woman presented to the Phoenicians through commerce. Εὐρώπη/רחב (Herodotus 1.4-5, Joshua 6:25)

ἀνδροθέα is the etymological origin of תרשיש (θρασώ, θαρσώ)
ἀνδροθέα > ἀνδροθέας > δροθέας > δραθέας > δρασέας > θρασέας > θρασώς > θρασώ > θαρσώ

عار ἐρημόω 'strip bare, desolate, lay waste
قافلة κεφαλή 'band of men 'Caravan were escorted by a body of troops
ארחה ὀρχηδόν 'n a row, one after another, man by man i.e Caravan (Genesis 37:25)

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Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-11-13, 6:47

خدع ἀπάτη, ἀπατάω 'cheat, deceive' (פתי)
كفارة ἄποινα haplology for ἀπό-ποινα 'atonement, compensation, penalty' (ر/ν)
مسح ἀπομάσσω, μάσσω 'wipe off (מחה)
شحذ ἀποξύνω 'bring to a point, make sharp
اختنق ἀποπνίγω 'choke, throttle
سلب ἀποσυλάω 'strip off spoils from a person
نقص ἀποφθινύθω 'diminish
فتن ἐκγοητεύω, γοητεύω 'bewitch
حل ἐκλύω 'dissolve, unloose
تخليص ἐξέλκω 'rescue
عالج ἐπαλθέω 'heal, cure
على ἐφοράω 'oversee
خطبة καταίνεσις 'betrothal
خطب καταινέω 'betroth
شلال καταρρακτήρ 'waterfall
تجسس κατασκοπέω 'spy
جبهة جبين μετώπιον 'forehead
قلادة περιδέραιον 'necklace
صلح συναλλαγή 'conciliation
صدر συνθήκη, θήκη 'case, chest
ميثاق σύνθημα 'anything agreed upon, covenant (م/μα)
خادم ὑποδμώς 'servant
قبل ὑπό πρό 'before
كبريت (θεῖον) ἄπυρος 'native sulphur, apyron sulpur, virgin-sulphur
مشمش ἁμαζανίδες 'apricots
منح νεμῶ 'bestow (م/μ)
ميناء λιμήν 'harbour
تعويض ἀνταπόδοσις 'repayment
سيف σκίφος 'sword
طيران πτέρυξ 'flight
عصفور στροῦθος 'sparrow, ruler

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Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-11-14, 3:32

אחסר χρεώ (χρεία, χρῄζω, χρῆ) 'Want, Need
מחסור χρῆμα 'need, a thing that one needs or uses.
חמדוה πένθος 'grief, sorrow (Aramaic)

חלק
- φαλακρός 'bald headed
- φαλακρότης 'baldness on the crown
- μαλακός 'soft, fair

חלק is an homonym to above, a word meaning 'obtain a lot' , hence λάχος and its verb, λαγχάνω. As usual, Biblical lexicon confuse the homonyms.

מחלפה πλόκαμος lock or braid of hair, wicker baskets

In Ezra 1:9 מחלפה is mistranslated into knives, rather then 'wicker baskets (πλόκαμοι)

אחכם γιγνώσκω; come to know, perceive, distinct from οῖδα 'know by reflection' (Verb)
התחכם συνγιγνώσκω; to think with, agree with, join in a plot with
התחכם ἐπιγιγνώσκω; find out, look upon, witness, discover
חכם γνώμων; 'one that knows or examines, an interpreter
חכםה γνώμη; 'Intelligence, means of knowing, sense, reason

The prepositions are very important, an example in Ecclesiastes 7:16, with the verb תתחכם which is generically mistranslated, but the verb is homologue with συνγιγνώσκω ' to be privy to a thing, join in a plot', later this verb is written συγγνωμονέω.

The verb is translated as if it were σοφίζω 'to make wise' which is אשכיל in Phoenician, note the comparison with Hiphil stem and the -ίζω suffix.

What have they done to the Phoenician language.

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Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-11-14, 4:02

Diacritics take over prepositions in Hebrew

Exodus 5:21 - תִּתֵּֽנּוּ (Tit-ten-nu) ἀποδίδοτε 'give an account or definition of a thing., interpret'
Leviticus 25:24 - תִּתְּנוּ (Tit-te-nu) δίδοτε ''grant, assign'

The diacritic preserve the ί in δίδω and τιθῶ (תִּת).

מְשַׁלֵּחַ "me-shal-le-ach" = ἀποστέλλεις
שָׁלַח "Sha-lach" = ἀπέστειλε
שִׁלַּח "Shil-lach" = ἐξαπέστειλε
הַֽתְשַׁלַּח "Hat-shal-lach" = ἐπιστέλλεις
תִּשְׁלָֽח "Tish-lach" = ἀποστελεῗς
וַיִּשְׁלַח "Vai-yish-lach" = ἀποστείλας
וַיְשַׁלַּח "Vay-shal-lach" = ἐξαπέστειλε

The noun incorporates the preposition.

משלחה ἀποστολή 'sending forth on their journey i.e Apostle

Semantics
שלחי ἀποστολαί 'parting gift (Songs 4:14)
משלוח ἀποστολή dispatch (Esther 9:19)
משלחת ἀπόστολος 'expedition (Psalm 78:49)
שלח στολή 'equipment, armament (2 Chronicles 32:5)
לשלחה ἐξαποστεῗλαι 'divorce a wife (Deuteronomy 22:19)

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Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-11-14, 4:39

שקמות συκαμίνους 'Sycamore trees (plural) cf. σῦκα μορέας 'figs of the mulberry tree'
תאנה σῦκον, τῦκον 'fruit of the fig tree' ; the א exchanges with κ
ענבה οἰνόπη 'a kind of grape vine, of its color → σινάπεως, Σινωπεύς, Σινωπική
חרצנים ῥαγῶν "grapes" Lt. racēmus, Pr. رز‎
אשישי ἀσταφίς 'dried grapes
אשכולה σταφυλά 'bunch of grapes'
דודאי ζιζάνια 'a weed that grows in wheat
דודה τιθός 'of plants, cultivated cf. תוּת ,שָׂדֶה
אדם σάρδιον 'the Sardian stone (Ezekiel 28:13)
לענה λάχανον 'garden herbs, potherbs'

שרק χάραξ 'vine-prop, cultivated vines were propped by means of poles hence כרם meaning κρεμαστός from κρεμάννυμι 'hanging' i.e hanging gardens.

This probably led to semantic confusion creating the allusion of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon.

Πάν πόλις > πάμπολις > πάπολις > βάβολις > בבל "Babylon"


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