Phoenician study group

Moderator: Ashucky

Lycurgus
Posts: 134
Joined: 2019-09-16, 5:28
Real Name: Lee Magee
Gender: male
Country: GB United Kingdom (United Kingdom)

Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-10-22, 11:20

The Arabic word for husband is زوج, the etymological entries derives from ζευκτός, the feminine, زوجة from ζευκτά.

חבוש, סוג/ζευκτός (ز/חב)

ζευκτός and the verb ζεύγνῦμι bears several meanings, of riding horses, saddle, bridle, joint together, join in wedlock, binding, thus the Phoenician bears such meanings.

אחבש־לי את־החמור/ ζεύξομαι τόν ὄνον "I will saddle me an ass" (μαι/לי = middle voice)
ואחבשך/ἔζευξα σε "I girded me"

צמד/συνάορος, συνήορος ' joined in wedlock, communion with' (synonym)
צמד־פרדים/συνωρίς οὐρᾶς "yoke of two mules"
אצמד/συναείρω "raise up together, bind or yoke together' (verb)
ויצמדו לבעל פעור/συνείραν ἐς Ἀπόλλωνα Φοῖβον
"They joined themselves unto Apollo Phoebus

בעל, πόσις, el esposo 'Husband'
בעלה, בעולה, πότνια esposa

The semantics are the same here, על/בעל means yoke.
cf. σύζυξ, σύζυγος, coniuke, 'Yoke with' ( עם על)

بعل = زوج (Yoke)

עם = γάμος 'wedding'
עם = σύν, com- con- 'with'
עם בטח = cōnfīsus "trust with" > confidence
אבטח = fīdō = πιστεύω "trust, put faith in, rely on'
Last edited by Lycurgus on 2019-10-23, 16:48, edited 1 time in total.

Lycurgus
Posts: 134
Joined: 2019-09-16, 5:28
Real Name: Lee Magee
Gender: male
Country: GB United Kingdom (United Kingdom)

Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-10-22, 12:55

פוטי Αἰγύπτιος 'Egyptian' (Adj) פוטי־פרע/Αἰγύπτιος ἔφορος'.
פוט/ὕπτια 'of land, flat, horizontal'
אהקדיש/καθαγίζω 'devote, dedicate, make burnt offering'
א/ω (tense), ה/καθ (preposition), ίζ/יש (hiphil)
טבע ,טבול ,טבל,היטיב/καταβάπτω, καταβαπτίζω 'dip, dye, colour, dip down, submerge, drown'
משיח,משוח/ἐπίχριστος, χρίων 'painted, rouged'

Lycurgus
Posts: 134
Joined: 2019-09-16, 5:28
Real Name: Lee Magee
Gender: male
Country: GB United Kingdom (United Kingdom)

Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-10-23, 14:15

עיני, עין - Eyes, Eye (αὐγαί, αὐγή)

The word is homonym and cognate with the word 'fountain'
מעין - παγά "running water - ἀενάων (adj) "that which is ever-flowing" (-ων/־מ)
מוצא - παγά "the fount of light hence 'the South'. (उत्स)
עין - ἀέναος (adj) "ever-flowing" (2)

ἀγαθός means good, but can also mean goods (of products) hence עזבון/τἀγαθά 'fairs, goods, wealth'

אבקש - ἐπιζητέω "seek after, request, demand"
ברית - ῥήτρα, ϝράτρα 'covenant, a compact between the Law-giver and the People' (ἐρῶ)

ρ (non-rhotic)
אכתב/γράφω "I (will) write"
ואכתב/ἔγραψα "I wrote"
כתבתי/γέγραφα "I have written"
אכתב לי/γράψομαι "I will write" (MV)
כתוב/γραπτός (Adj) 'painted, marked as with letters'
מכתב/γράθμα. γράμμα 'that which is drawn, letter, notes in music'

אכתת, אכתש/κόπτω 'cut, strike, pound, bray in a mortor'
כתות/κοπτός (Adj) 'chopped small'
מכתש/κοπτήριον, κοπτόν, ἴγδισμα, ἰγδίον 'place where grain was beaten out, pounding'

Prov 27:22 (Phoenician proverbs)
Though thou shouldest bray a fool in a mortar among barley with a pestle
אם תכתוש־את־האויל במכתש בתוך הריפות בעלי

הריפות/ἁ κριθά 'barleycorns, barley' (feminine)
אויל/φαυλότης, φαῦλος (adj) 'meanness, paltriness, pettiness, badness, of persons and things
תוך/εἴσω, ἐσώτατος 'within, innermost'

חלב חטים/ἄλφιτα 'barley or wheat groats, metaphor; one's daily bread, 'bread and cheese',
חטים/σῖτα 'corn, grain, comprehending both wheat (πυρός/בר) and barley (κριθή/ריפות)
מצא, מצה/μᾶζα 'barley-cake, the bread of slavery in Sparta'
חלה/κόλλιξ 'roll or loaf of coarse bread' cf. κοῖλος (hollow loaf)
אלוש/πλάσσω, μάσσω 'knead bread, press in a mould
דבלה/παλάθη 'cake of preserved fruit
רקיק/φρυκτός (adj) 'roasted; of food
מאפה/ὀπτήσιμος 'for roasting
לחם/λάγανα 'a thin broad cake, of meat and oil'
אפה/ὀπτάω 'roast, to bake bread
עריסה/κάρδοπος 'kneading-trough
לביבות/κλίβανος 'covered vessel, wider at bottom than at top, wherein bread was baked by putting hot embers round it'
Last edited by Lycurgus on 2019-10-23, 16:51, edited 1 time in total.

Lycurgus
Posts: 134
Joined: 2019-09-16, 5:28
Real Name: Lee Magee
Gender: male
Country: GB United Kingdom (United Kingdom)

Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-10-23, 16:15

Phoenicians gave us our writing script, thus their language and culture deserves recognition and restoration.

אפוד (1) ἐπῳδός 'enchanter, charms' (paired with תרפים/τρίποδες)
אפוד (2) ἐπενδύτης 'robe or garment worn over another' cf. ποδήρης 'reaching to the feet'

Strabo Geography 16:20
Their dress is a tunic reaching to the feet, an upper garment of wool
ἐσθὴς δ᾽ αὐτοῖς ἐστι χιτὼν λινοῦς ποδήρης καὶ ἐπενδύτης ἐρεοῦς

שהם/ἀδάμας 'adamant, hard stone, cf. diamond' (δ/ש)
חלמיש/ἀδάμας 'hard stone' (ל/δ)
טיט/θίς 'sand
הבל/ὁ Πάν "Pan" i.e death of Pan. (ν/ל)
הגר/ἡ γραῖα 'old woman, town in Boeotia'
לוט/τελευταῖος, Τελευτίας 'last (طالوت‎)
מגרש/χωρίον (-ίον/־מ) 'place, spot, district'
אדג/τίκτω 'bring into the world, engender'
רעואל/θύραυλος θεοῦ 'friend of God
דרור/ἐλευθερία 'liberty, freedom
דת/ἔθος 'custom
בירה/βρία = πόλις (Thracian) 'City (ρί/ίρ)
הדו/ἄνοδος journey inland, esp. into Central Asia
הלך לי/ἔρχομαι 'start, set out, traverse, walk.
המולה/ὅμιλος 'any assembled crowd, throng of people
דאב, זאב/δάος, δάου 'wolf > Dog (g/ב) cf. בעל=God
פדר/πραπίδες 'midriff, diaphragm
פטיש/τυπάς 'mallet, hammer

Irregular Eleven
עש־תי־עשר εις τε δεκά 'one and ten, Eleven
אחד־עשר ἕεις δεκά 'one + ten > Eleven.

Lycurgus
Posts: 134
Joined: 2019-09-16, 5:28
Real Name: Lee Magee
Gender: male
Country: GB United Kingdom (United Kingdom)

Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-10-24, 0:57

כבד/ἥπατος 'Liver'

A Greek word in the genitive case is nearer to the root then in the nominative, thus the Phoenician constituent preserves the τ, dialectally changed to δ, compare with Yakṛt (यकृत्).

כבד/κωφός "blunt, dull, obtuse'
אכבד/κωφάω "make dumb, silence, numb, deaden"

κωφάω is a derivative of κόπτω which suppresses the τ that is dialectally changed to δ in אכבד

אכבד/καταβαρέω 'weigh down, overload' (כ־/κατα, βρ/בד)
- 'Heavy' (hebig, hofugr, hevich, hevig)

כבוד/κῦδος 'glory, renown, especially in war'
נכבד /ἔνδοξος 'held in esteem or honour'

לב/κόλπος 'Heart'

The κ is preserved in the Arabic, قلب (qalb) 'Heart" and in خليج (khalij) 'gulf', the given root, לבב is homologous with κόλπος in the genitive case, κόλπου (υ/ב).

Bible as בלב־ים meaning ἐν κόλπῳ θαλάσσης "In the bosom of the Sea" and 'בלב ימים' for ἐν κόλπῳ θάλασσαν, this use parallels Homer, θαλάσσης εὐρέα κόλπον (Odysseus 4.435) and is not a metaphor, yet translated in error, 'Heart of the Sea'. Theologians don't know what they are doing with the Phoenician language, Biblical Hebrew is mostly pseudo.

מכפלה/σπήλαιον 'grotto, cave, cavern, grave' (Machpelah) -ιον/מ־
מערה/ὄρυγμα ' excavation, trench, ditch, moat' مغارة (maḡāra)

Herodotus 4.71
The burial-places of the kings are in the land of the Gerrhi (גררי), which is the end of the navigation of the Borysthenes (ממרא). Whenever their king has died, the Scythians (חוי) dig a great four-cornered pit (מערה) in the ground there; when this is ready, they take up the dead man—his body enclosed in wax, his belly cut open and cleaned and filled with cut marsh-plants and frankincense, and parsley and anise seed, and sewn up again—and transport him on a wagon to another tribe.

Lycurgus
Posts: 134
Joined: 2019-09-16, 5:28
Real Name: Lee Magee
Gender: male
Country: GB United Kingdom (United Kingdom)

Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-10-24, 14:21

Homer Iliad 23.351
Then they mounted their cars and cast in the lots
(κλήρους ἐβάλοντο)

Homer Odysseus 14.191
Fates of death bore him away to house of Hades, his proud sons divided among them his substance and cast lots therefor (ἐπὶ κλήρους ἐβάλοντο)

κλήρους ἐβάλοντο/ויפילו־להם גורלות

ἐβάλοντο is in the middle voice, this can be expressed by suffixing ־להם onto ויפילו/ ἐβάλοντο. ἔβαλον + αὐτοῖς = ἐβάλοντο.

גורל/κλῆρος 'lot' (Doric; κλᾶρος)
אחלק/λαγχάνω 'obtain by lot'
וינחל/ἐκληρώθη 'obtain by lot'
אירש/παραδώσω 'give, hand over to another, transmit' > hērēditō/hērēs
מורשה/παραδόσιμος ' 'handed down, transmitted' cf. παράδοσις

Lycurgus
Posts: 134
Joined: 2019-09-16, 5:28
Real Name: Lee Magee
Gender: male
Country: GB United Kingdom (United Kingdom)

Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-10-24, 15:57

טהרה/καθαρά 'physically clean, spotless, purified'
אטהר/καθαρῶ
המטהר/ὁ καθαρῶν

The aspiration in θ is maintained in the ה and the τ in the ט

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/καθαρός
"No Indo-European cognates can be drawn. This only means a borrowing from Pre-Greek" ?

חתנה/ἔκδοσις 'giving in marriage, dowering
חתן/ἐκδότις 'mother in law

אמן/ἦ μέν (Doric; ἇ μάν) 'now verily, full surely, to introduce an oath'
אמת/ἀλήθεια 'truth' (מ/λ) (ת/θ)
אמונה/ἀληθοσύνη (poet. for ἀλήθεια,)
אמון/ἀληθινός (adj)
בטח/πίστις 'trust'
קשט/πίστις 'trust' (Aramaic) (ק/π) (שט/στ) cf. equus/ἵππος

קשת ,קשט/τόξον 'bow (homonym) (ק/τ) (שט/Ξ)

Lycurgus
Posts: 134
Joined: 2019-09-16, 5:28
Real Name: Lee Magee
Gender: male
Country: GB United Kingdom (United Kingdom)

Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-10-24, 20:06

יקר/ἰχώρ
1. Ichor, the juice, not blood, that flows in the veins of gods
2. the watery part of animal juices, serum

This confirmed in Psalm 37:20, יקר כרים/ἰχώρ κριῶν "Juice of the rams"

יקר/δόξα (δ/י)
expectation, after Hom., notion, opinion, judgement, whether well grounded or not, of external appearance, glory, splendour.

An example of a homonym, words written the same, different meaning.

ירכתי/εἱρκτή
inner part of the house, women's apartments, an inclosure, prison, of the body as prison of the soul

מכוה/καῦμα (-μα/מ־) 'burning heat, that which is hot

Lycurgus
Posts: 134
Joined: 2019-09-16, 5:28
Real Name: Lee Magee
Gender: male
Country: GB United Kingdom (United Kingdom)

Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-10-27, 21:58

א־בטח, πιστεύ-ω, πείθ-ω fīdō
ת־בטח, πιστεύ-εις, πείθ-εις, fīdis
י־בטח, πιστεύ-ει, πείθ-ει, fīdit
נ־בטח־ו, πιστεύ-ο-μεν, πείθ-ο-μεν, fidimus
ת־בטח־ו, πιστεύ-ε-τε, πείθ-ε-τε, fiditis
י־בטח־ו, πιστεύ-ου-σι, πείθου-σι, fidunt

Middle Voice
אבטח־לי, πιστεύομαι, πείθομαι (fīdō mī)
תבטח־לך, πιστεύῃ, πείθῃ (fīdis tibi)
יבטח־לו, πιστεύεται, πείθεται (fīdit sibi)
נבטו־לני, πιστευόμεθα, πειθόμεθα (fidimus nōbīs)
תבטחו־לכם, πιστεύεσθε, πείθεσθε (fiditis vōbīs)
יבטחו־להם, πιστεύονται, πείθονται (fidunt sibi)

The letter ט in בטח is the same as θ in πείθω, this verb appears in Homer, where-as πιστεύω does not, thus πιστεύω is a latter dialectic form of πείθω, the Aramaic is קשט and Arabic, ثقة, note that the Arabic preserve the ι vowel present in πιστεύω, πείθω and fīdō.

The ι vowel is present in בִּטְחָה, there is וּבְבִטְחָה in Isaiah 30:15, the Sept renders ἐπεποίθεις, a second person pluperfect. nouns that begin with the preposition (ב־) are in the ablative case.

בִּטְחָה/fīdūciā, πίστις, , भक्ति (bhakti)
מִבְטַחֹ/πίστευμα, πίστωμα, πεῖσμα, fidēlis

אפתה/ἀναπείθω, διαπείθω, πείθω 'persuade, convince
אפתה/ἀπατάω 'cheat, deceive' (homonym)

Lycurgus
Posts: 134
Joined: 2019-09-16, 5:28
Real Name: Lee Magee
Gender: male
Country: GB United Kingdom (United Kingdom)

Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-10-28, 0:18

קול φωνή sound, tone

φ originated as the letter ק that represented the kh sound before shifting to ph.
ל and ν interchange as a lingual. cf. ἦλθον = ἦνθον
ו interchanges with ω as a semivowel representing wau (Ϝ) or a diphthong of ου.

קנאה φθόνος 'ill-will, envy, jealousy
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/φθόνος
(Etymology missing)

אקרא καλέω κλέω 'call
אקרא χράω 'proclaim (homonym)
אקהל ἐκκαλέω 'call out, summon forth
אקהיל ἐκκλησιάζω 'hold an assembly, debate therein
קהלת ἔκκλητος 'selected to judge
קהל φυλή 'body of men united by ties of blood (Homonym)
מקהל φῦλον 'race, tribe, or class (homonym)

סומפניה סיפניה συμφωνία 'concord or unison of sound, Symphony (Dan 3:5, 10) (Aramaic)
עם־קולה συμφωνία (σύν/עם)

אקו ἄγω 'gather
מקוה ἀγῶν 'gathering

Nouns that terminate -ν in the nominative are prefixed מ־, hence מקהל/φῦλον and מקוה/ἀγῶν.

אקו means 'gather, this verb appears in Genesis 1:9, yet the lexicon couples this with a homonym meaning 'wait or hope for', the homologue of προσδοκάω. Theologians don't understand semantics and homonyms, hence Biblical Hebrew is mostly pseudo.

מקוה/προσδόκημα 'expectation'
תקוה/προσδοκία 'looking for, expectation' (Abstract noun)
Last edited by Lycurgus on 2019-10-28, 14:21, edited 2 times in total.

Lycurgus
Posts: 134
Joined: 2019-09-16, 5:28
Real Name: Lee Magee
Gender: male
Country: GB United Kingdom (United Kingdom)

Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-10-28, 14:18

ארקא, הארץ, ארעא - τάς ἐρᾶς, ἃ ἔρα 'Earth

γ is pronounced like ν before the palatals

גרון φάρυγξ 'Throat
ענקות ἀγκύλη 'loop, noose'

אאגר ἀγερῶ 'I will gather
תאגר ἀγερεῖς 'You will gather
יאגר ἀγερεῖ 'He will gather
אגרה ἀγορᾶ 'Gathering

Sleep
ארדם - δαρθάνω, dormio 'sleep (תרדמה)
שנה - ὕπνος 'sleep, slumber (نوم)
אישן - ὑπνόω 'put to sleep
תנומה - ὑπνωδία 'sleepiness, drowsiness

أشنه/ὕπνον - lichen

Iliad 2.35 - ἔγρετο δ᾽ ἐξ ὕπνου (Then he awoke from sleep,)
Zechariah 4:1 - ויעירני כאיש אשר־יעור משנתו (Sept. ἐγερθῇ ἐξ ὕπνου αὐτοῦ)
Job 14:12 - ולא־יערו משנתם (οὐκ ἐγερέουσι ἐξ ὕπνου αὐτῶν)
Odysseus 15:44 - ἐγεῖραί τινα ἐξ ὕπνου
Isaiah 51:17 - התעוררי התעוררי / ἠγείρου ἠγείρου

חלום حلم ὅραμα ' vision during sleep, dream

Lycurgus
Posts: 134
Joined: 2019-09-16, 5:28
Real Name: Lee Magee
Gender: male
Country: GB United Kingdom (United Kingdom)

Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-10-28, 19:17

Book of Ecclesiastes have interesting vocabulary, its obvious that Biblical Hebrew relies too much on the Septuagint.

Ecclesiastes 2:13, וראיתי is rendered εἶδον rather then ὤρακα (ἑώρακα, ἑόρακα) "I have seen" and all translations read "I saw", this verse also uses an auxiliary verb, שיש/ἔχω "Have".

It also renders לחכמה into τῇ σοφίᾳ, as if ל equates with the dative article, τῇ, rather then ἐς, a preposition with the accusative, hence ἐς σοφίαν, but the correct reading is ἐς γνώμην/לחכמה

γνώμη/חכמה - Intelligence, thought, judgement, sense, reason
σοφία/שכל - cleverness or skill in handicraft and art, learning, wisdom

תחלת דברי־פיהו (Ecclesiastes 10:13)

תחלת is an abstract noun, this is γένεσις originally γένετις, -τ is converted into the initial ת־
γένε(τ)ις > (τ)γένεις > תחלת (ν/ל)

The strong's entry for תחלת reads "From חָלַל (H2490) in the sense of opening", again, lacks semantics", it confuses homonyms, How does חָלַל (profane, pollute, defile) become an abstract noun meaning 'beginning'.

אחל "I begin" (γεννάω)
להחל "to profane" (ἐξολεῖν or κηλίδων
חליל "pipe, flute, clarionet' (αὐλός)

1 Kings 1:40 - the people piped with pipes (העם מחללים בחללים )
מחללים/ἐνόπλιον (martial' rhythm), בחללים /ἐπαυλέω (accompany on the flute)
נחילות/ἔναυλος- by means of pipes, accompanied by pipes (Psalm 5:1)

Need a proper Phoenician concordance and lexicon to replace pseudo Biblical Hebrew.

There is a Greek book dedicated to Phoenicians, called Euripides, Phoenissa, a Phoenician translation would be nice.
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/tex ... 99.01.0118

"Cadmus left Phoenicia's realm beside the sea and reached this land"

Lycurgus
Posts: 134
Joined: 2019-09-16, 5:28
Real Name: Lee Magee
Gender: male
Country: GB United Kingdom (United Kingdom)

Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-10-28, 20:11

A good example of confused homonym in the Biblical lexicons is נחש with three unrelated meanings, copper, snake and enchantment.

נחש ἔχιδνα (ἔχις) 'Viper, constrictor snake'
נחשה κνακός 'pale yellow, tawny, brown (काञ्चनम्)
נחשה καυχός = χαλκός, χαλκοῦς 'copper
נחש γοητεία 'witchcraft, jugglery, magic of nature, finesse, juggling, cheatery.
אחשת γοητεύω, ἐκγοητεύω 'bewitch, beguile, play the wizard, fascinate a snake

אשף, כשף/θεσπίζω, θεσπέσιος 'divine, wondrous, awful' cf. Witch

קסם
- χρησμός 'oracular response, oracle, prophecy'
- χρήστης '.one who gives or expounds oracles, prophet, soothsayer
- χρήζω 'deliver an oracle, foretell

All the words translated into witchcraft, divination, sorcerer in Old Testament are Hellenic words, the negativity towards which is neither Greek or Phoenicians, but Persian, during the achaemenid empire period, in which Persians adopted the Phoenician language and begin to produce propaganda against Phoenicians and Greeks.

Persians also modified the Phoenician script into Imperial Aramaic.

Carthage being outside the Persian sphere, unaffected, hence retained the original Phoenician script and also Tyre, exempt from Persian empire.

Lycurgus
Posts: 134
Joined: 2019-09-16, 5:28
Real Name: Lee Magee
Gender: male
Country: GB United Kingdom (United Kingdom)

Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-10-29, 16:57

χιλός - green fodder for cattle, hay.
χίλιος - thousand

In Phoenician, both these words are אלף hence the misreading in Psalm 50:10 ' cattle upon a thousand hills' (בהמות בהררי־אלף).

This confirmed through the Arabic word, عَلَف (ʿalaf) 'fodder, hay'

בהמות/βόσκημα 'that which is fed or fatted: in pl., fatted beasts, cattle
יער means ἀγριά 'wild' , homonym with ἀγορᾶ/Forum יערים

The complex structure of Phoenician culture and society confused though Biblical Hebrew reading, in which places are read 'Kirjathjearim' (קרית יערים) elsewhere written "Kirjathbaal" (קרית־בעל), as it reads in Josh 15:60 'Kirjathbaal, which is Kirjathjearim' implying both are synonymous, Josh written by victors not Phoenicians.

יערים - ἀγορά, ἀγοραῖν 'assembly, market-place, opposite council of chiefs'
בעל, בלע - βωλά, βούλῃ 'Council of elders, Senate
קרית - πόλις, πολείδιον ' community or body of citizens, their dwellings' ]

'Bela, which is Zoar.' (בלע היא־צער) = βουλῆ ἐστὶν ἀγορά

This concerns the political and social structure of Phoenicians in the Levant, the vocabulary indicates at one time, there were free citizens and popular assemblies as well as popular meetings, the advent of monarchy ended the democratic institutions of Phoenicia.

עצרת/ἄγυρις - gathering, crowd
כל־עצרת/πανάγυρις - a festal assembly in honour of a national god (Atzeret)
אגורת/ἀργυρίς - silver cup or small coin
סחר/ἀγοραῖος - frequenting the market, in, of, or belonging to the ἀγορά,
מסחר/ἀγόρασμα - that which is bought, in pl.goods, wares, merchandise

Metathesis
צער = עצר (ἀγορά)
בלע = בעל (βουλῆ)

Lycurgus
Posts: 134
Joined: 2019-09-16, 5:28
Real Name: Lee Magee
Gender: male
Country: GB United Kingdom (United Kingdom)

Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-10-29, 22:10

An interesting solo word is מצחה, only appears in 1 Samuel 17:6 translated 'Greaves', this is another word in that equates with -μα. Thus the homologue is κνήμα (Dor. κνάμα) 'part between the knee' and the meaning through κνημίς 'a greave or piece of armour from knee to ankle' and confirmed through Josephus

מצחת נחשת : κνημῖδας χαλκέας 'Greaves of Brass'

The Hebrew lexicon says 'From the same a מצח, this is untrue, this word translates into forehead, thus the homologue of μέτωπον 'space between the eyes, brow, forehead' (μετά, ὤψ).

מצות means strife, contention, hence μάχη, from μάχομαι, a verb in the middle-passive voice, therefore the given root is נצה.

נצה means blossom, thus unrelated to the word above, hence ἄνθος 'blossom', this Greek word as a homonym meaning 'bird, perhaps the yellow wagtail' hence נץ in Leviticus 11:16.

נצץ/ἀνθέω ' bloom, be brilliant, shine with colour' (Ezekiel 1:7)
הנץ/ἐξανθέω 'put out flowers, like an efflorescence, bloom forth (Songs 6:11)
צוץ, ציץ, שוש/ἄνθος 'a blossom, flower, ἀνθίζω 'strew or deck with flowers'
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/mor ... ek#lexicon

צוץ/ἄκανθα 'thorn, pickle' > ἀκακία/ἀκανίζω (Homonym)

There is a homonym in Numbers 15:39, ציצה 'fringe, tassle, lock' hence θύσανος, tassel: mostly in pl., tassels, fringe, tassels of the αἰγίς, Hom. (only in Il.) also written σίσυβος (only in pl in OT)
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/mor ... ek#lexicon

ציץ relates to Ziz, a city founded by Phoenicians in Italy, now called Palermo, which was once written Panormus, note the interchange between n and l.

No more division between Phoenician and Greek.

Lycurgus
Posts: 134
Joined: 2019-09-16, 5:28
Real Name: Lee Magee
Gender: male
Country: GB United Kingdom (United Kingdom)

Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-10-30, 1:42

מלך is the word King and is traditionally pronounced malak and the vowels are present in the archaic Greek word, Ϝάναξ (Ϝάνακ), the initial Ϝ as a labial, interchanges with מ and the lingual ν with ל and the terminal guttural, κ with ך.

What cements they are true homologues is by comparing the Phoenician written word with Linear B, in which Ϝάνακ is written with three glyphs, wa-na-ka.

Image

At the top is the word King (wa-na-ka) in Linear B and below is the Phoenician.

The first glyph in wa-na-ka, resembles the glyph meaning Wine, compare with Ϝοῖνος
Image


House is בית originally written בת which is reflected in Linear, written using two glyphs, Wo-ko
Image
Image

Phoenician alphabet post-dates the glyphs of Linear B
The number of glyphs that make up a word in Linear B approximate the number of consonants in Phoenician.
Phoenician telescopes words into smaller entities because they were forced to save precious space of what were

Ugaritic, the prototype of Phoenician is written in cuneiform, Ugarit came to an end with the invasion of the Mycenaean Sea people and the succeeding culture begin writing in the Phoenician alphabet.

Lycurgus
Posts: 134
Joined: 2019-09-16, 5:28
Real Name: Lee Magee
Gender: male
Country: GB United Kingdom (United Kingdom)

Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-10-30, 3:13

א and Α are common in Greek and Phoenician, but א does not function as a vowel and exchanges with guttural consonants.

אי = γῆ 'Island
אח = κάσις 'brother
אשה = γυνή 'Woman
אלף = χιλίου 'Thousand
אלף = χιλοῦ 'fodder
איפה = κόφινος 'Basket
אופן = καπάνη 'Chariot
אדום = ξανθός 'yellow freq. with a tinge of red, brown.
אבק = καπνός 'smoke
אכלה = φάγος 'glutton
אמן = τιθηνός 'nurse
אפר = τέφρα 'ashes
ארב = κρυπτός 'hidden

Lycurgus
Posts: 134
Joined: 2019-09-16, 5:28
Real Name: Lee Magee
Gender: male
Country: GB United Kingdom (United Kingdom)

Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-10-30, 5:41

והיתה - She was
והיה - He was

In the 3rd person, verbs have genders unlike Latin and Greek, erat/ἦν.

A mistake made in Hebrew textbooks, they omit the augment, ו־ indicating past-time in והיתה and והיה, the stem is הי identical to εἰ in εἰμί and es in sum.

The augment ו־ is reflected in English and Norse, Was, Var, Were, Var compare with Am, em, are, er in the present.

תה־והי < והי־תה > She-was
ה־והי < והי־ה > He-was

I thoroughly studied the Septuagint and the most common tense is the Aorist, that are most often augment with the ו־, without this ו־, Septuagint renders future.

ויגש > ἤγγισε 'He came near
יגש > ἐγγιεῖ 'He shall come near

ויאמר > εἷπε 'He said
יאמר > ἐρέει 'He shall say cf. ידבר, λέξει

ויאכל > ἔφαγε 'He ate
יאכל > φάγεται, ἔδεται 'He shall eat cf. Middle Voice = יאכל־לו

וארא > εἶδον 'I saw
אחזה > ὄψομαι 'I shall see (אחזה־לי/ארא־לי)

Lycurgus
Posts: 134
Joined: 2019-09-16, 5:28
Real Name: Lee Magee
Gender: male
Country: GB United Kingdom (United Kingdom)

Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-10-30, 16:32

Its Harvest season, thus some Phoenician vocabulary.

מחרשה ἄροτρον, ἄρατρον, aratrum 'plough
In the nominative ἄροτρον terminates with -ον thus the Phoenician begins with the prefix מ־

אחרש ἀροτρεύω 'plough (verb)
חרש τρύξ 'wine not yet fermented and racked off, lees of wine, dregs (Homonym)
אקציר θερίζω 'do summer-work, mow, reap, reap a good harvest
אהקציר ἐκθερίζω 'reap or mow completely, of a crop
מ־)קציר) θερισμός ' reaping-time, harvest
קציר־חטים θερισμὸς σίτων 'wheat-harvest
בראשית ἀπαρχαί 'firstlings for sacrifice or offering, first-fruits cf. πρῴ σῖτ̀
בכורי ἐξαίρετοι 'picked out, chosen, choice
אעולל ἐπιφυλλίζω 'glean grapes in a vineyard (Verb)
עללות ἐπιφυλλίς 'small grapes left for gleaners
אדיש δαίζω, δαίω 'to cleave asunder, cleave, thresh'
עמר ἄμαλλα 'bundle of ears of corn, sheaf
אשבת καππαύω 'to lay to rest, put an end to (at Harvest time)
אסיף ἀθροίζω 'to gather together (ἀθοίζω > אסיף)

Phoenician uses a special calendar for agriculture that divided the year into seven, each with 50 days, hence totals 350 then extra days added to fulfill the year, that are the period of rest, the Sabbath/shappatum, hence the Phoenician new year hymn (Genesis 1).

Temple scroll -11QT=11Q19, 20, 4Q365a - XVIII-XX
…You shall count-seven complete Sabbaths from the day of your bringing the sheaf of [the wave-offering. You shall c]ount until the morrow of the seventh Sabbath. You shall count [fifty] days. You shall bring a new grain-offering….it is the feast of Weeks and the feast of Firstfruits, an eterna[l] memorial.
You [shall count] seven seeks from the day when you bring the new grain-offering… seven full Sabbaths [shall elapse un]til you have counted fifty days to the morrow of the seventh Sabbath. [You] shall [bring] new wine for a drink-offering…

….[You sha]ll count from that day seven weeks, seven times (seven days), forty-nine days; there shall be seven full Sabbaths; until the morrow of the seventh Sabbath you shall count fifty days. You shall then offer new oil…"


This all concerns the agriculture of the Phoenician Levant, in regards to the Levant, the snow mountains of Lebanon are extremely important, since the snow melts into rivers and irrigate the vineyards and fields, they personified the snow as the Phoenix, pun with χιονικός "of snow" = “σημεῖον/שמים' cf. φοίνικος

Herodotus 2:73 - Once in five hundred year the Phoenix comes [i](500 / 50 = 10)

*Noah was five hundred years old: and Noah begat Shem (שם = φοῖνιξ = χιόν)
A great eagle with great wings which had divers colours, came unto Lebanon (Ezek 17:3)

Lycurgus
Posts: 134
Joined: 2019-09-16, 5:28
Real Name: Lee Magee
Gender: male
Country: GB United Kingdom (United Kingdom)

Re: Phoenician study group

Postby Lycurgus » 2019-10-30, 21:27

חלצים γλουτοί 'the buttocks, Glutes
חלב γλάγος 'milk

חלב
- ἄλειφα 'unguent, anointing-oil, oil, fat, used in funeral sacrifices
- ἀλοιφή 'grease, hog's-lard
- λίπος 'animal fat, lard, tallow

Since ἀλοιφή and γλάγος are not cognates, then the two homonyms of חלב cannot derive from each other, this is
reflected in Hebrew diacritics.

גלם Golem
- ἄγαλμα 'sculpture, statue in honour of a god
- γλύμμα 'engraved figure

Through prefix suffix metathesis, ἄγαλμα is מהלל 'glory, pleasing gift especially for the gods'

מהללאל = ἄγαλμα θεῷ (Homer, Odyssey 8.505 - ἄγαλμα θεῶν)
הלולים = ἄγαλμα, ἀγαλμάτων (pl) 'pleasing gift to god
תהלה = ἄγαλσις 'rejoicing

מהללאל refer to a man who had been, notionally at least, dedicated to the deity by, or granted to, their parents

זעזע τοκίζω 'lend on interest, to practise usury


Return to “Ancient, Classical and Extinct Languages”

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 1 guest