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Re: Phoenician study group

Posted: 2019-11-30, 1:17
by Lycurgus
Sanguis have unknown etymology, but resembles ξανθός.

1. δέμας 'bodily frame, prop. the living body, as a periphrasis, i.e. the vine-shoot, bread.
2. οἰνάνθης ' inflorescence of the grape-vine, bloom on the grape,'
3. αἷμα 'gush, stream of blood
4. δημός 'bodily-fat, of sacrificial meat



Ezekiel 19:10; Thy mother is like a vine in thy blood
אמך כגפן בדמך
ἡ μήτηρ σου ὡς ἄμπελος ὡς ἄνθος (Septuagint)

The Septuagint reads ἄνθος instead of οἰνάνθης and גפן is the homologue of οἰνόπη (a kind of ἄμπελος)

Ezekiel 19:10 offer my bread, the fat and the blood
את־לחמי חלב ודם
ἄρτους στέαρ καὶ αἷμα

דם - δημός '(of sacrificial meat) with fat above and fat below (Iliad 23.243)
חלב - ἄλειφα, ἄλειφαρ 'unguent, anointing-oil, oil, fat, used in funeral sacrifices
לחם - δέμας cf. Δημήτηρ 'as a name for bread i.e “Δημήτερος ἀκτή”
דמה - (Ἀστερίας) δέμας 'a name for the Island of Delos.
שילה - Δῆλος

Ezekiel 27:32 - כדמה בתוך הים "like Delos in the middle of the Sea"

I believe ים maybe homologue with οἰνός as an epithet of the sea, wine-dark or κυανός, this is further evidence in ancient description.

תוך εἵσω 'to within, into'

Re: Phoenician study group

Posted: 2019-11-30, 2:32
by Lycurgus
Ezekiel 27:29
And all that handle the oar, the mariners, and all the pilots of the sea, shall come down from their ships, they shall stand upon the land;

וירדו מאניותיהם כל תפשי משוט מלחים כל חבלי הים אל־הארץ יעמדו

The verb, שוט is the homologue of φοιτάω "To go back and forth" hence משוט "Oar" (φοιτῶν) and תפש is homologue of ἅπτω "grasp, touch, lay hands on". cf. καθάπτω 'lay hold of, take to the sea'.

חבל κωπηλάτης 'rower, nautilus'
חבל ὁπλιταγωγός 'troop-ships, transports
מאניותיהם ἀπὸ τῶν ναῶν αὐτούς
מלחים πλοητόκος 'producing navigation' cf. ἅλματα
ירד κατέρχομαι 'to go down from a place
עמד σταθμός 'like Lat. statio, a station for ships
אני ναῦς Ep. νηῦς , νηός, νηΐ, νῆα 'ship

Phoenician ship.

Re: Phoenician study group

Posted: 2019-11-30, 14:38
by Lycurgus

1. θεός — God, the Deity, in general sense
2. χοίρας — low rock rising just above the sea like a hog's back, the Delian Rock i.e the rocky isle of Delos,
3. κῆρος = κηρίον — honeycomb, mostly in pl. κηρίον καὶ λίβανον; as offerings.
4. τειχίζω — build a wall, fortify.
5. τειχομαχέω — fight the walls, i.e. conduct siege operations

In Deuteronomy 32:4, the Septuagint reads הצור as ὁ θεός, in Doric, θεός is written θεύς and σιόρ/σιός are variants in Laconian dialect. vowel metathesis; σι > ισ > ال‎ (il) "God" .

צור/κηρίον in Psalm 81:16 is wrongly rendered 'Rock'.
Psalm 81:16; honey out of the rock (מצור דבש)

According to theologians, Honey comes from rocks, but in Psalm 81:16, צור means 'Honeycomb' and דבש means Honey', that is the homologue of the Latin, Favus 'honey-comb' and ὀπός and צור with cera. Another honey relating word is צוף, the homologue of ὀπός and σκύφος.

Jeremiah 52:5 - city was besieged
מצור — τειχομάχας, τειχομαχία 'a battle with walls, i. e. a siege

Habakkuk 2:1 - tower
מצור — τείχισμα wall or fort, fortification. of the wall of Athens

Daniel 1:1 - besieged it
ויצר — ἐτειχομάχει fight the walls, i.e. conduct siege operation

— κεραμεύω 'to be a potter, make earthenware cups
— κέραμος 'potter's clay, earthen vessel'
יצור — κεραμεύς 'potter
*prosthetic μ to facilitate pronunciation

In Isaiah 65:4, there is נצורים meaning νεκρῶν ' in pl., the dead, as dwellers in the nether world, burial place.cemetery' and in Isaiah 14:19, נצר for νεκρός 'corpse' and in Isaiah 11:2, the trunk of a tree, with the boughs lopped of, the homologue of κορμός.

In Proverbs 13:3, נצר means ἐντηρέω 'watch over, take care of, guide' and in Job 27:18, נוצר means τηρητής = τηρήτρια 'keeper, observer, warden'κέραμος#Ancient_Greek
'etymology unknown'

The corruption of Phoenician language also effect the understanding of Ancient Greek, Arabic and Latin.

Re: Phoenician study group

Posted: 2019-11-30, 16:05
by Lycurgus

ϝοικος → ϝοιτος → ϝαιτος → ϝαιτ → בַּיִת "bayith"

The Phoenician includes the omitted ϝ in ϝοῖκος later written οἶκος, that also happens when turned into the verb, οἰκίζω that becomes ישב or the initial י exchanges with ϝ, ש with κ and ב with ζ or ω.

היכל incorporates the ending, οἶκος > οἶκορ > οἶκολ.
معبد "Temple" the homologue of οἴκημα; a temple, fane, chapel, id=Hdt, the -μα/م
مسجد ἁγίασμα = ἁγιαστήριον 'holy place, sanctuary

1. οἰκέτης 'household slave,
2. ὀπαδός 'attendant (cf. the Homeric ὀπάων)

ἀποικία, ἀποικίς; settlement far from home, colony; without a πόλις אפקה Joshua 15:53
ἄποικος; away from home, abroad, of cities אפיק Ezekiel 34:13
διοικέω; keep house, control, manage, govern ישב Psalm 29:10
κάτοικος; inhabitant, esp. of military colonists תושב Genesis 23:4
κατοικισμός; habitation, in pl מושבת Exodus 10:23
κατοικίζω; settle, establish, colonize, people a place הושיב Ezekiel 36:11
μέτοικος, σύνοικος; occupant of the same house with another משכנתה Exodus 3:22, Ruth 4:17
συνοικέω; dwell together, live with in wedlock, of the man מתגורר, השיב Ezra 10:8, 1 Kings 17:20

Re: Phoenician study group

Posted: 2019-12-01, 2:19
by Lycurgus
Ἰουλώ - goddess of sheaves, epith. of Demeter.
Image ... ek#lexicon

This name also resembles Ἰούλιος (Julius) and one of the definitions of Ἰουλώ is "the young hair at the side of the face, the whiskers", through which i found الطولي (al-twly) 'whisker' and the forth definition is earthworm whence תולע.

Demeter was also θεσμοφόρος 'law-giving'.

Θέσμιος (θεσμά) - laws, customs, rites, title of Demeter

The initial מ is a prefix represents the-μά, the root verb, צוה is homologue with κατατίθημι (τίθημι) 'to lay down, ordain'.

ἱρόν Ἰουλώ - Temple of Demeter

οἶκος Δημήτερος - House of Demeter (Bread)

Δημήτηρ - Demeter

Δημήτηρ → Λημήτηρ → Ληήμτηρ → Ληήμ (λεεμ) → לחם
Δημήτηρ → Αμήτηρ → Απήτηρ → Απρτηρ → Απρ → אפרתה → אפר

Demeter very popular among Phoenicians.

Re: Phoenician study group

Posted: 2019-12-03, 1:59
by Lycurgus
The Phoenician naming convention.

Jediael ידיעאל - ἠίθεος θεόῦ 'God's Votary'
Joel יואל - Διός εἴρην 'Young man of Zeus, given by God as a gift of his parents
Abiel אביאל - ἔφηβος Ἥλίου 'a person, when 16 or 18 was dedicated to Helios
Ammiel עמיאל - εἴρην γαμέτου 'granted by the spouse or Baal'
Eliah אליה - εἴρην Διός
Eliel אליאל - θεόῦ εἴρην
Obadiah עבדיה - ὀπαδός Διός 'attendant of Zeus'
Adonijah אדניה - ἠίθεος Διός 'Votary of Zeus'
Ahimelech אחימלך - ἠίθεος Μολόχ 'young man dedicated to Moloch, or his gift'
Abimelech אבימלך - ἔφηβος Μολόχ 'a follower of gift of Moloch'
Abdiel עבדיאל - ὀπαδός θεόῦ
Delaiah דליה - δοῦλος Διός 'a servant of Zeus'
Elishama אלישמע - θεόῦ ἠίθεος
Zedekiah צדקיה - Ζεύς δίκη 'Zeus is truth
Ishmael ישמעאל - ἠίθεος θεόῦ
Mahalaleel מהללאל - ἄγαλμα θεῷ 'pleasing gift to God
Gabriel גבריאל - κοῦρος θεόῦ 'the bearer was God's gift to his parents, acolyte'
Abital אביטל) - ἔφηβος θεόῦ
Reuel רעואל - θύραυλος θεόῦ 'friend of God
Amariah אמריה - μεῖραξ Διός 'Young man of Zeus'
Eliphalet אליפלט - εἴρην Πλούτωνος - granted by Pluto, as the wealth bearer
Eliakim אליקים - θεόῦ ἠίθεος
Meribaal מריב - περί Ἥλίου - associate of Helios
Raphael רפאל - θέραψ θεόῦ 'servant of God or healed by'
Raphiah רפיה - θέραψ Διός 'servent of Zeus or healed by'
Michael מיכאל - μάντῖς θεοῦ 'seer of God
Micaiah מיכיהו - μάντῖς Διός 'seer of Zeus
Jezebel איזבל - ἠίθεος Ἥλιος
Joshua יהושע - Διός ἠίθεος
Ariel אריאל - εἴρην θεόῦ
Ahaziah אחזיה - ἠίθεος θεόῦ
Elkenah אלקנה - θεογενής, θεός ἐγέννησε 'god beget, engendered (the bearer of the name)

Re: Phoenician study group

Posted: 2019-12-03, 20:22
by Lycurgus
μητίομαι, μητίζομαι, μήδομαι = μητιάω 'plan, devise, contemplate'
Image (Aramaic below)

μητίετα, Ep. for μητιέτης, 'counsellor, wise in counsel, epithet of Zeus'

μῆτις, μῆδος 'counsel, plan, wisdom, craft'
Image (Aramaic below)

These homologues conform phonetically and semantically and yield homologues derivatives.

יעץ μητίσατο 'devise, contrive (saiah 14:27
התיעץ συμμητιάομαι 'take counsel with or together' Iliad 10.19, Psalm 83:2
יועץ μητίετα 'counsellor Isaiah 3:3
מועצות μήτιες 'wise counsels' Psalm 81:13
יועץ μητίετα 'counsellor Isaiah 9:6

Isaiah (ἠίθεος Διός, cf. Κτησίας) 9:6
כי־ילד ילד־לנו בן ὅτι βλαστόν ἔβλαστε ἁμίν γένος (King Cyrus)
נתן־לנו ותהי המשרה על־שכמו ἐδόθη ἁμίν καὶ ἔσται ὁ ἄρχων ἐπὶ ὤμου αὐτοῦ

Aeschylus, Persians 73
The fiery lord of populous Asia is leading his wondrous warrior-flock against the whole earth in two divisions, on foot and by the sea, putting his trust in his stalwart and stern commanders; he himself, [80] a god-like hero whose race is sprung from gold

Re: Phoenician study group

Posted: 2019-12-03, 22:48
by Lycurgus
Genesis and Exodus are both Greek words, γένεσις & ἔξοδος and these have homologues in Phoenician.

יצא ἐξοδεύω 'march out, depart
מוצא ἐξοδισμός, ἐξοδία 'marching out, expedition, journey
צאה ἔξοδος 'going out, discharge the bowels' cf. κάκκη

γένεσις is an abstract noun form with -τις which fronts the Phoenician word.

תחלת γένεσις 'production, generation, coming into being'

Ruth 1:11
they came to Bethlehem in the beginning of barley harvest.
באו בית לחם בתחלת קציר שערים
βᾶτε εἰς οἶκον Δάματρα ἐν γενέσει θερισμοῦ καιρῶν (κριθῶν)

נעמי εὐνομία
Eunomia, minor Greek goddess of law and legislation, as well as the spring-time goddess of green pastures '

Ruth 2:17
she gleaned in the field until even, and beat out that she had gleaned: and it was about an ephah of barley.
ותלקט בשדה עד־הערב ותחבט את אשר־לקטה ויהי כאיפה שערים

לקט λογίζομαι > λέγω 'gather, pick up, reckon'
The ט accounted for by the ζ in λογίζομαι which derives from λόγος, a verbal noun of λέγω

חבט κόπτω 'cut, strike' κ π τ / ח ב ט

איפה κόφινος 'Basket, Boeotian measure, containing nine Attic choenices, i.e. about two gallons, “κ. σίτου”, in later times used specially by Jews. κ/א. ... ek#lexicon


Phoenicians indeed worshiped Demeter in Judea ( Ἰουλώ) = Jerusalem ( ἱρόν Ἰουλώ).

Re: Phoenician study group

Posted: 2019-12-04, 15:22
by Lycurgus
The Septuagint is an important tool in my enquiry, since its basically a Rosetta stone, two texts written in two languages that prove they are homologue languages, but they are semantic problems.

Ezekiel 27:19
Dan also and Javan going to and fro occupied in thy fairs: bright iron, cassia, and calamus, were in thy market.
ודן ויון מאוזל בעזבוניך נתנו ברזל עשות קדה וקנה במערבך היה
καὶ οἶνον εἰς τὴν ἀγοράν σου ἔδωκαν ἐξ Ασηλ σίδηρος εἰργασμένος καὶ τροχὸς ἐν τῷ συμμίκτῳ σού ἐστιν

The Septuagint as συμμίκτῳ here meaning 'commingled, promiscuous', that compounds μικτός "mixed" and σύν "with", thus the semantics do not match and does not account the prefix מ־. A synonym is φύρω "Mix" from which φυρμός/φύρμα 'mixture, confused mass, disorder' that accounts the מ־ = -μός/-μα,

Semantics are crucial, for the goods so-mentioned were brought in by a ship, there is a name for that, Freight and the Greek word is φόρημα that semantically and phonetically matches מערב.

במערבך > ἐν τῷ φορήματι σού
בעזבוניך > ἐν τοῖς ἀγαθοῖς σού

This is similar semantics with the English word 'Good" that is used in a plural for cargo, "goods"

goods of fortune, treasures, wealth
*in pl., ἀγαθά, τά, goods of fortune, treasures, wealth

אוזל ἄντλος 'hold of a ship'
מאוזל ἀντλῶν 'of one who has abundance in store'

Ezekiel 27:12 - Tarshish was thy Merchant תרשיש סחרתך ( Καρχηδόνιοι ἔμποροί σου)
Ezekiel 27:15 - Syria was thy merchant ארם סחרתך (ἀνθρώπους ἐμπορίαν σου)
Ezekiel 27:16 - The men of Dedan were thy merchants בני דדן רכליך (υἱοὶ Ῥοδίων ἔμποροί σου)
Ezekiel 27:18 - Damascus was thy merchant דמשק סחרתך (Δαμασκὸς ἔμπορός σου)
Ezekiel 27:20 - Dedan was thy merchant דדן רכלתך Δαιδαν ἔμποροί

They are two distinct words here translating into Merchant.

סחרת ἀγοραί Lt. fora 'marketplace' (feminine)
רכלי ῥωποπῶλαι 'dealer in petty wares' (masculine)

In Septuagint, 27:12 read "Carthage" for תרשיש (ἀνδροθέα, θάρσος), a name for Athena, Septuagint does not mention Syria in 15 and Deden is listed twice, the first appears to be Rhodes and the latter, of Arabia, so the whole chapter obviously poorly transmitted.

Ezekiel 27:12
Tarshish was thy merchant by reason of the multitude of all kind of riches; with silver, iron, tin, and lead, they traded in thy fairs.

1 Kings 10:22
For the king had at sea a navy of Tharshish with the navy of Hiram: once in three years came the navy of Tharshish, bringing gold, and silver, ivory, and apes, and peacocks.

קפים κέρκωψ 'long-tailed ape' Κερκώπων ἀγορά, at Athens cf. κῆβος 'long-tailed money'
תכיים ψιττακοί 'parrots' also βίττακος , σιττακός

Parrots regularly exported from India.

Pausanias, Description of Greece 2.28
from India alone are brought, among other creatures, parrots.

Phoenician merchants reached as far as the Greek Isles, Europe, Asia, and Britain. They traveled the Atlantic Ocean to parts of Africa and went to India and Arabia via the Red Sea, indeed only possible via the Ancient Suez Canal, the first opening of the canal was under Persian king Darius the Great.

Imperial Aramaic (Official language of trade during the Persian Empire) ... nscription

Imperial Aramaic in India


Imperial Aramaic in Egypt during the Persian Empire.

Biased Theologians have stolen, corrupted and covered up all this real history concerning the Phoenician language and its merchant culture that the Persian Empire adopted.

Re: Phoenician study group

Posted: 2019-12-05, 2:21
by Lycurgus

פשע βαδίζω 'to go, march, of armies, of horses' ... ek#lexicon

This is the verb used in Isaiah 27:4 - Fury is not in me: who would set the briers and thorns against me in battle? I would go (אפשעה) through them, I would burn them together., but should of read "I would march through them'

In 1 Chronicles 19:4, it reads 'cut off their garments in the midst hard by their buttocks' and the noun for buttocks is מפשעה with a prefixing מ, the word defined in strong's "hip, buttock, stepping region of body" and gives פשע 'to step, march, step forward' as its root.

This confirms that פשע is the homologue and true cognate of βαδίζω, for βαθμίς (βαθμός, βασμός) is defined as 'step or threshold' and its secondary definition, socket or hollow in a joint confirms the semantics.

פשע ἀθετέω 'set at naught, deal treacherously with, break faith with'

These verbs are homologous, so in 1 Kings 12:19 'Israel rebelled' (ויפשעו ישראל) confirmed through the Septuagint, ἠθέτησεν Ισραηλ, the verb being 3rd person Aorist, for the Hebrew verb is augmented with the ו.


Homer's Odyssey 3.446
Then the old man, Nestor, driver of chariots, began the opening rite of hand-washing and sprinkling with barley grains, and earnestly he prayed to Athena, cutting off as first offering the hair from the head, and casting it into the fire. ... 99.01.0136

Electra 90
I wept and cut off a lock of my hair as an offering and sacrificed over the altar the blood of a slaughtered sheep ... 99.01.0116

Numbers 6:18
Shall take the hair of the head of his separation, and put it in the fire.

Numbers 6 vocabulary
יפלא = ἀπείλει "promise"
נדר = δῶρον "votive gift
שכר = μέθυ, σικερα "strong drink, wine, mead"
חמץ = ζύμωσιν, ζυμόω "fermented, swelling"
ענבים = οἰνόπη "kind of grape-vine"
משרת = στάλαγμα "that which drops"
נזרו : ἐγκρατοῦς "master of oneself, self-controlled, self-disciplined"
גפן : οἴνας "grape-vine with tendrils"
חרצנים: ῥαγῶν "grape"
זג : ἀσταφίδος "dried grapes"
פרע־שער = προκόμιον "forelock"
ראשו = πρόσθιος "foremost"
תער = τό ξυρόν "Razor"
יונה = οἴνας " a wild pigeon of the colour οἰνωπός, the rock-dove"
תרים = τρυγών "turtle-dove, Columba turtur" (τρῡγόνε)
הכהן = διάκονος "attendant or official in a temple or religious guild'
אשם = ἀθέτημα "breach of faith, transgression"
חטא = ἄθετος "without position, rejected, unfit"
שלמים = θυήλημα "sacrificial offering"
חלת מצה = κόλλικα μᾶζαν "role or loaf of barley-bread"
רקיק מצה = φρυκτόν μᾶζαν "roasted barley-bread"
פאה φόβα "lock or curl of hair'

Nestor (Νέστωρ)

Νεστόρεος "of Nestor" (Adjective) > Ναζωραῖος cf. ἐγκρατής

Homer (חמר)

Re: Phoenician study group

Posted: 2019-12-05, 15:04
by Lycurgus
This deity appears to be holding a Partridge in his hand.

Arabic word for partridge is يعقوب ... A8&f=false

An Arabic reader may have noticed that يعقوب is the name for Jacob, this is because Arabic preserves original meanings of Phoenician vocabulary, unlike Hebrew, a faulty reconstructed language.

يعقوب means partridge as a homologue of κακκάβη 'partridge, so called from its cry' Cf. Hitt. kakapan, Akkad. kakkabanu.

This is also the word for a three-legged pot, which is the metaphor used in the introductory narrative of Jacob, for the sight of the second twin's hand holding the heel of the first twin issuing out, conjured the picture of a three-legged pot.

The partridge metaphor of the character is envisioned in Genesis 27:36 in which Jacob becomes a "Quack", the verse reads 'for he hath supplanted me', the verb being ויעקב־ני meaning ἐφενάκισεν με 'play the φέναξ' cf. κακκαβίζω 'cackle, of partridges. φέναξ is a play on φοῖνιξ (the bird). ... kabi%2Fdwn ... ek#lexicon ... ek#lexicon ... ek#lexicon

Phoenician partridge offering to Demeter (Phoenician sanctuary at Kommos) ... ns&f=false

Rock Partridge stamp, Lebanon.

Lod Mosaic (Palestine)


Re: Phoenician study group

Posted: 2019-12-05, 18:38
by Lycurgus
The Ablative does indeed exist in Phoenician, an example i have found in Ezekiel 33:8.

באמר "In the saying"

The Vulgate renders this into "si me dicente" and "ἐν τῷ εἶπαί με" in the Septuagint (ἐν τῷ + infinitive).

The infinitive in Greek is form by suffixing ἰν᾽ onto the verb stem, λέγε ἰν; the ending itself a derivative of ἐνς (ἐν, ἰν, ἐς, εἰς) the homologue of ל־.

"To give" (infinitive) in Latin would be dedere or dare and לתת in Hebrew, an example of prefix/suffix metathesis, the stem resembles the the 2nd person imperative as do English verbs.

Majority of English verbs resembles the 2nd Person imperative.
Give, Take, Make, Made, See, Ate, Agree, Lie, Bake, Date, Face, Hate, Name, Mime, Tape, Tone, Bathe, Blame, Chase, Dance, Judge, Place, Nudge, Score, Shake, Write, Become, Choose, Denote, Decline, Pollute, Trickle, Whistle, Decrease, Overcapitalize.

2nd Person Imperative (pl = ־ו)
Gen 14:2 - תנה δός
Jeremiah 38:12 - שימה θὲς
Judges 18:19 - לכה ἐλθὲ
1 Samuel 20:7 - דעה γνῶθι
Psalm 25:18 - ראה ἰδὲ
Genesis 23:4 - תנו δότε
Ezra 4:21 - שימו θέτε
Proverbs 9:5 - לכו ἔλθατε
Proverbs 9:5 - לחמו φάγετε
Psalm 34:8 - טעמו γεύσασθε
Psalm 34:8 - ראו ἴδετε
Psalm 46:10 - הרפו σχολάσατε,
Psalm 46:10 - דעו γνῶτε
Psalm 62:8 - בטחו πιστεύσατε
Psalm 66:3 - אמרו εἴπατε
Psalm 66:2 - זמרו ψάλατε
Psalm 66:5 - לכו δεῦτε

Re: Phoenician study group

Posted: 2019-12-06, 5:07
by Lycurgus
צוה διατίθημι 'arrange, distribute'

This appears to be simple three letter root, but it guises the compound verb, δια + τίθημι = צוה and it also as Arabic homologues, نظم‎, وزع .

Leviticus 25:21 - צויתי διατέθηκα 'Arrange
Psalm 78:23 - ויצו διέθηκε 'Distribute
2 Samuel 17:23 - ויצו διέθηκε 'dispose of one's property
2 Kings 20:1 - צו διάθου ' dispose of one's property ... ek#lexicon
B.2. dispose of one's property

Isaeus 3 68 - dispose of his property (διαθέσθαι τὰ αὑτοῦ)
2 Samuel 17:23 - dispose of his household(ויצו אל־ביתו)
2 Kings 20:1 - Set thine house in order - KJV (צו לביתך) ... g=original

B.4 make a covenant with one
Joshua 7:11 - את־בריתי אשר צויתי > τάν ῥήτραν ἣν διατέθηκα "The covenant

III. set forth, of speakers, recite.
Genesis 5:16 - צוה διατέθηκε

ברית ῥήτρα, Ion. ῥήτρη , Elean ϝράτρα , v. infr.: (ἐρῶ, ῥητός)
A.verbal agreement, bargain, covenant
II. in the Doric and Elean dialects, compact, treaty
2. of the laws of Lycurgus, which assumed the character of a compact between the Law-giver and the People
.. later, decree, ordinance, of the Spartan kings

Joshua 9:6
Joshua unto the camp at Gilgal, and said unto him, and to the men of Israel, We be come from a far country: now therefore make ye a league with us (אכרות־לכ ברית) LXX. σοι διαθῶμαι διαθήκην

Here the Septuagint uses forms of διατίθημι, but the wording in the Phoenician differs, ברית means ῥήτραν and אכרות means ϝρητάομαι 'make a treaty or covenant with', the verb form of ῥήτρα.ϝρητάομαι

In this verbal form, the second ρ in ϝράτρα drops out and in Low diacritics, written βρητάομαι, the true verbal form ברית and affirms the Doric affinity.

Semantics is so crucial and important in the understanding of the Phoenician language and its very much non-existent in Biblical Hebrew, for example with the word ברית that i have semantically defined.

Here is an example of pseudo-Phoenician
"So how is fattened choice meat related to the word for "covenant"
In the case of the word ברית (b'riyt) we found that it was derived from the root verb ברה (B.R.H), but also derived from this verbal root are the nouns ברות (barut, Strong's #1267) meaning "choice meat" and בריה (bir'yah, Strong's #1274) meaning "fattened." - Jeff A. Benner

ברות βορά 'food, prop. of carnivorous beasts
אברה βιβρώσκω, βοράω 'to eat, eat up
בריא βαρύς 'heavy in weight, fat' cf. βορός 'gluttonous

Here is another example of pseudo-Phoenician, defining words from a non-existent pictographic script
The word דור (dor) is a child root derived from the parent root דר (dar), which in the ancient pictographic script was written as . The first letter is a picture of a tent door and has the meaning of an in and out or back and forth movement. The second letter is the head of a man meaning man. When combined these mean "the movement of man,"

דור دور διαδοχῇ (διαδέχομαι) 'taking over from another, succession'

The Hebrew word for a thorn is שמיר (shamiyr, Strong's #8068) and derived from the verb שמר (shamar, Strong's #8104), which literally means to guard and protect

שמיר ἀδάμας (δαμάω) 'adamant,
c. כשמיר חזק מצר "Like an adamant harder then flint' (Ezekiel 3:9)
שמיר Σμηριγξ 'a thorn which sticks to the wool of sheep. (Lyc 37)
שמר, השתמר φυλάσσω 'keep watch and ward, keep guard, defend'
שמר φύλαξ (φυλακός) 'watcher, guard, sentinel
אשמרות φυλακτήρ = παννυχίς 'Night-festival, vigil

. The Hebrew word פנים (paniym, Strong's #6440), means "face," but is always written in the plural form

פנים πρόσωπον the face, countenance. Hom. mostly in pl., even of a single person
פנים μῆνιν, μᾶνιν 'wrath, of the gods' Iliad 1:1.

Psalm 34:6 - The Wrath of Zeus is against them that do evil (פני יהוה/μῆνις Διός)

Homer, Iliad 1:1 (μῆνιν ἄειδε θεὰ ...)
The wrath sing, goddess, of Peleus' son, Achilles, that destructive wrath which brought countless woes upon the Achaeans ... ek#lexicon

Re: Phoenician study group

Posted: 2019-12-06, 19:59
by Lycurgus
The word for "One" is irregular in Greek, εἷς, μία, ἕν, μίη, ἕεις, ἕνς, ἧς.

אח ἕν "one" Ezekiel 18:10
אחד ἕεις Zechariah 14:9
האחד ὁ εἷς, ἡ μία Genesis 19:9
מאה μία "one" (hundred) Genesis 17:17
עשתי εἷς τε "and one" Exodus 26:7
איש־איש εἷς ἕκαστος "each one" Exodus 36:4
פה־אחד ἄπο μιᾶς "with one accord" Joshua 9:2
באחת ὑφ ἕν "at once" Proverbs 28:18

The Greek word for Nine and Eight are compounds.

ἕν + έκα = ἐννέα "ten minus one"
έκα + τω = ὀκτώ "ten minus two"

תשעה "Nine"

The first syllable (תש) stands for εἷς and the second (עה) for -κα in δέκα, in which the δ drops out and κ exchanges with ע.

שמנה "Eight"

The first syllable (ש) stands for δύο "two", מנ for ἀπό "from" and the last letter (ה) for -κα in δέκα.

Thus ἐννέα consists of ἐν-νέ-α → ἕν ἀπό δέκα (One from ten) where-as ὀκτώ → ὀκ τώ → δέκα δώ, an order of words on the prefix suffix pattern to avoid confusion with δώδεκα "twelve" like δυοῖν δέοντα εἰκόσι "twenty save two".

εἰκόσιν "twenty"

The ν at the end of this word is not a movable ν but part of the word (Aristotle) and the homologue with the duel noun, עשרים "two tens", thus the δ in δέκα is prosthetic → έκα → עשר

εἷς τε δέκα "One and ten" → עשתי־עשרה "eleven"

In Exodus 26:7 one will find עשתי־עשרה "eleven" and עשתי is undefinable in Strong's lexicon. ... 6249&t=KJV


Re: Phoenician study group

Posted: 2019-12-07, 2:07
by Lycurgus

It is interesting to note in passing that among the Phoenicians, mortgage affected movable property and was in the nature of a pledge effected by way of deposit.

עבוט—ὑποθήκη pledge, deposit, mortgage
ערבה—ῥύσιον surety, pledge

Alike Greeks, they used to give their hand as a pledge, actually using the expression תקעת כפך, literally ἐτίθεις χεῖρα. Sophocles, however, has : προσθείς χεῖρα δεξιάν (Philoctetes 942). When European Greeks adapted to their own pronunciation the Asiatic Greek ערבה—pronouncing it ἀρραβών, which was itself an adaption to the Asiatic pronunciation of their own word, ῥύσιον and they developed ἀρραβών into ἀρραβωνίζεται when centuries earlier the Phoenicians had turned the begetter of ῥύσιον, the verb ἐρύω (2)— into ערב (Gen 43:9)

Deu 24:10 - thou shalt not go into his house to fetch his pledge
Gen 43:9 - I will be surety for him; of my hand— אנכי אערבנו מידי — ἐγώγε ἐρύσσομαι αὐτόν ἐκ χειρός μου ... ek#lexicon

الرهن ἀρραβών 'mortgage Lt. arrha, arrhabo

vatiexe "pledged" [az96] עבוט—ὑποθήκη
vatimi "pledge" [az96] אעבט־לי—ὑποτίθημι ... ek#lexicon ... ek#lexicon

Re: Phoenician study group

Posted: 2019-12-07, 20:22
by Lycurgus
בקר—ἀποκρίνω 'separate, set apart, distinguish, choose
בקרה—ἄποκρισις 'separation, decision, answer, defense'

This is listed under Strong's H1239 as a primitive root, even though the verb compounds ἀπο (ב) and κρίνω (קר).

ἐπικρίνω in the middle means 'choose for oneself, pick out' appears in Numbers 35:1—הקריתם לכם—ἐπικρίνεσθε. לכם—σε δε→ -εσθε "to yourselves" i.e MV. ἐπι (ה) κρίνω (קרי).

The Septuagint here as διαστέλλω, the Hebrew of which appears in 2 Kings 15:37, להשליח—διαστέλλειν "command expressly, give express orders", note the poor translation in the KJV 'Lord began to send against Judah Rezin the king of Syria - KJV', since the translator does not account the preposition.

Re: Phoenician study group

Posted: 2019-12-07, 21:17
by Lycurgus
ἐκκαλέω—קהל 'call out or summon forth'
ἐκκλησία—קהל 'assembly duly summoned'
ἐκκλησιάζω—הקהיל 'hold an assembly, debate therein
ἐκκλησιαστής —קהלת 'member of the ἐκκλησία selected to judge or arbitrate

ויקהל משה את־כל־עדת—ἐκκάλεσεν Μωυσῆς πᾶσαν ἔθνος [i](Exodus 35:1)
דברי קהלת—ῥήματα Ἐκκλησιαστοῦ (Ecc 1:1)
*מלך/βασιλεύς 'as a title of magistrates, at Athens, the second of the nine Archons'

καλέω—קרא 'call, summon' Aeol. κάλημι (נקרא).
עם־קרא—con_calō → conciliō → Council cf. συγκαλέω

ἀνδροθέα → إسرائيل i.e Athens

ἀνδροθέα appears on the Nora Stone dating late 9th century to early 8th century BCE, the oldest Phoenician inscription found in Sardinia.