Avestan and Middle Persian

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Aryaqk
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Avestan and Middle Persian

Postby Aryaqk » 2013-06-10, 8:28

Image


This topic is for Avestan and Middle Persian lovers! :mrgreen:

Introduction to Young Avestan by P. Oktor Skjærvø: www.fas.harvard.edu/~iranian/Avesta/avestancomplete.pdf

Introduction to Old Avestan by P. Oktor Skjærvø : www.fas.harvard.edu/~iranian/OldAvestan ... primer.pdf

and this is Verahram Yasht, you can practice Avestan alphabet with it:
www.anjomanemobedan.com/Avesta/Verahram-Yasht.pdf
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Re: Avestan and Middle Persian

Postby Aryaqk » 2013-06-10, 8:48

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Re: Avestan and Middle Persian

Postby Itikar » 2013-06-10, 11:41

These sites are very cool! Thanks a lot! :D
Fletto i muscoli e sono nel vuoto!
All corrections are welcome and appreciated.

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Re: Avestan and Middle Persian

Postby Aryaqk » 2013-06-11, 9:33

Words occurring over 500 times in the Avesta:

ahurō = Ahura, the Lord, God (N)
aṣ̌ahe = Of Asha (Truth, Righteousness, World Order) (G)
āat̰ = Then (adv.)
mazdå = Mazda, God, Omniscient (NG)
nōit̰ = Not (adv.)
paiti = (V) m. lord, husband; a leader. 3: (prep.) against; along, back; on, upon; because of;
with regard to, for; in exchange for
vā = Or (encl.); ~ ... ~: either .. or
yat̰ = Who, which, that (n. NAV); when, as (conj.)
yaϑa = As; when; that; (conj.); ~ ... ~: either .... or
yazamaide = We worship, honor, venerate (verb. cl. 1.)
yō =Who, which (pron., mNV)
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Re: Avestan and Middle Persian

Postby Aryaqk » 2013-06-11, 9:44

Animals:

arṣ̌a = bear
bawra = beaver
varāza = boar, wild pig
uštra = camel
gao = cow or bull
kahrpu = crab
span = dog
saena = eagle
masya = fish
būza = goat
sīžaka, dužaka = hedgehog
aspa = horse
anumaya = livestock (small, i.e. goat, sheep, small, cattle)
pasu = livestock
mūš = mouse
udra = otter
aži = snake
karkāsa = vulture
vəhrkā = wolf
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Re: Avestan and Middle Persian

Postby Set » 2013-06-11, 9:48

These words look so nice. It would be cool to see how the language would look now if it hadn't been so influenced by Arabic and had kept these Iranian roots.
Native:[flag=]en[/flag] Good:[flag=]de[/flag][flag=]ca[/flag] Focusing on:[flag=]fa[/flag][flag=]ku[/flag][flag=]ps[/flag] Interested in:[flag=]zza[/flag][flag=]tr[/flag][flag=]sw[/flag]

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Re: Avestan and Middle Persian

Postby Aryaqk » 2013-06-11, 9:53

Time:

satayārə = century
vī-vaŋh = dawn
asarə = day (daytime)
xṣ̌apara = day (i.e. 24 hour period starting at midnight)
uṣ̌aŋh = dusk
måŋh = month
uṣ̌ā = morning
naxtu = night
xṣ̌ap = night
rapiqϑā = noon
zrvān = time
yārə = year
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Re: Avestan and Middle Persian

Postby Aryaqk » 2013-06-11, 9:58

Cardinal numbers:

aēva- = 1
dva- = 2
ϑri- = 3
caϑwar- = 4
paṇca = 5
xṣ̌vaš = 6
hapta = 7
ašta = 8
nava = 9
dasa = 10
sata- = 100
hazaŋra- = 1000
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Re: Avestan and Middle Persian

Postby Aryaqk » 2013-06-11, 10:12

Words:

ahe = Of this, of that (mnG)
ahmāi = To (or for) this, to (or for) that (D); we (plD)
ahurahe = Of Ahura, of the Lord, of God (G)
aṣ̌aonō = Of Asha, of Truth, of Righteousness, World Order (G)
aṣ̌avanəm = Ashavan, owning Asha, Asha-sanctified (A)
aṣ̌āum = O Ashavan, O righteous one (V)
aṣ̌əm = Asha, Truth, Righteousness, World Order (NA)
asti = Is (3/1)
avi = towards (adv., prep. with A or G)
ayese = I wish, I desire, I demand (1/1)
dātarə = O Giver; O Maker, O Creator (mV)
fravaṣ̌īm = Fravashi (farohar); guardian spirit or angel (A)
haca = From (prep. with I, Abl)
hē = Of him, to, for him, of her, to her, for her (DG)
mraot̰ = (He) said (inj. pres. act. 3/1)
ratūm = Master, one who is in authority, judge (A)
tat̰ = It (nNAV); then (adv.)
tåscā (tås + cā) = And this, that, he, she, it (GAV f. plN)
vohū = Good (A, nI, plA; GAv NA)
yā = who; which; (I, m.duNV, n.duA, fN, plN, n.pl.NAV); so that (conj.)
yešti = With worship, adoration
yezi = If (conj.)
yim = Who; whom; which (nN, mA)
yōi = Who, which (m.plN)
zaraϑuštra = Zarathushtra, name of the prophet of Zoroastrianism (pr. noun. m.)
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Re: Avestan and Middle Persian

Postby Aryaqk » 2013-06-11, 10:44

Words:

aēṣ̌a = This (NI,fN)
aēṣ̌ąm = This (fA,plG)
aēte = This, that (m.plNA)
ahmāt̰ [azəm] = Us (plAbl); this (Abl)
ahmi [aēm or ah] = This (L); I am (ind. pres. act. 1/1)
ahurā [ahura] = O Ahura, O Lord (V)
ahurəm [ahura] = Ahura, Lord (A)
ahū [ahu] = Lord (mN)
aŋhat̰ [ah] = To be (subj. pres. act. 3/1)
aṣ̌aonąm [aṣ̌avan] = Of the Ashavans, of the righteous (plG)
aṣ̌aone = Ashavan, righteous one (D,fL)
... aṣ̌aonīm = Ashavan, righteous one (fA)
aṣ̌aəa = Ashavan, righteous one
aṣ̌aya [aṣ̌a] = Asha, Truth, Righteousness, World Order (L)
aṣ̌āunąm = Of Ashavans, of righteous ones (plG)
at̰ [-, aem] = then, but, and (adv.)
avat̰ [ava] = that, those (dem. pron); so long, this, that (adv.)
azəm [-] = I (pers. pron. N)
ā = At, to, near, by, up, towards (adv., prep. with A, Abl, G, L)
āpō [ap] = Water (G, plNAV)
āyaptəm = Riches, gifts of grace, blessings, boons (NA, plA)
druxš [druj] = Lie, deceit, deceiver, lier, Druj (a demoness) (NV)
frasastayaēca [frasasti] = And with praise, glorification, satisfaction (D)
fravaṣ̌ayō = Fravashis, guardian spirits or angels (plNA)
hazaŋrəm [hazaŋra] = One thousand (A)
həṇti [ah] = We are (pres. ind. act. 3/3)
hyat̰ = (An indefinite pronoun of the neuter gender, mostly used in the Gatha dialect, implying:) 'that which'; (also used as a participle, which following different meanings:) therefore, consequently; thereby; when; from the time; because; that is, i.e.; (as a connecting particle between a noun and its qualifying adjective, e.g.:) "manascâ hyat vahishtem"; (in several instances, used as an expletive in the Gathas for the purpose of scansion. (Sp.)
mazdā [-] = O Mazda, God, Omniscient (V)
mazdąm = Mazda, God, Omniscient (A)
mā = ! (emph. particle); not, never (do this)! (negative particle/prohibitive); [azem] my (mN, m.plA)
mē [azəm] = For me, mine (encl. DG)
miϑrəm [miϑra] = Mithra; a contract, promise, agreement, friendship, commitment, 7th month of the year (A)
nasuš [nasa] = Dead matter; defilement; demon of corruption (m.f.N)
nąma [nąman] = Name (n. NA, plA)
raϑwe [ratu] = For or to the master (one who is in authority, judge) (D)
raya [raē] = Splendor (see k433), riches, wealthy (see Bailey 10) (I)
spitama [-] = O Spitama, family name of Zarathushtra (V)
tē [ta] = This, that; he, she, it (DG, duA, plNA)
ϑvā [ϑva] = You, your (AI, n.plNA)
upa = Near, towards, by, up, to (adv., prep.); high, much (adj.)
upa-dvąsaiti [upadvąs] = to rush on, to fall upon (pres. act. 3/1)
vahištəm [vahišta] = Best (n.m.A)
vahmāica = Adoration, prayer (D)
vairyō [vairya] = Agreeable, desirable; wish; will; self-commanding (N)
vaŋhuyå = Of good, virtuous; a thing (orig.) goods, a good thing; a gift, creation (fG)
vaŋuhīš = Good (f.pl.NA)
vīspe [vīspa] = All (m.plNAV)
xṣ̌naoϑrāica [xṣ̌naoϑra] = propitiation, satisfaction (nD)
xʷarənō [xʷarənaŋh] = Khwarrah (often untransl.), divine grace or fortune, favor, good things (NA)
yasnāica [Yasna + ca] = And with worship, sacrifice; prayer (D)
yaϑā [yaϑa] = As; when; that; (conj.); ~ ... ~: either .... or (GAv)
yąm = Whom; which (fA)
yå = Who; which (f.plNA)
zaraϑuštrō [zaraϑuštra] = Zarathushtra, founder of Zoroastrianism (N)
ząm [zam, zem] = Earth (fA)
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Re: Avestan and Middle Persian

Postby Aryaqk » 2013-06-11, 11:29

akav- = knife (B: Scheere)
asan- = stone, sling-stone
ashtrâ- = a whip (also, a dagger)
cakush- = cross-bow (B575: Wurfhammer, Wurfaxt)
cêlân (Phl.) = dagger
cêlângar (Phl.) = swordsmith
côbag (Phl.) = arrow shaft
dâs (Phl.) = sickle
dashnag (Phl.) = dagger
gad (phl.) =club
ishav- = arrow (B374: Pfeil)
kareta (Phl. kârd = knife) = sword (B454: Messer)
sûra- = weapon, spear
sneh, shamshêr (shafshêr) (Phl.) = sword
tighra- = pointed (K224; B651: spitz, spitzig)
tighray- = arrow (B651: Pfeil)
tigr (Phl.) = arrow
vazra = club (B1392: Keule)
warz (wazr) (phl.) = club
(Vd1.18:) 'That man, neither in that day nor in that night, shall be wounded by the weapons of the foe who rushes Aeshma-like and is Druj-minded; not the knife, not the cross-bow, not the arrow, not the sword, not the club, not the sling-stone shall reach and wound him. =(Vd1.18:) nôit dim nara ainghe ayãn nôit ainghå xshapô aêshmô-drûtahe druxshmananghô avasyât nôit akavô nôit cakavô nôit ishavô nôit kareta nôit vazra nôit vîseñte asânô avasyât.
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Re: Avestan and Middle Persian

Postby Aryaqk » 2013-06-11, 11:30

ABBREVIATIONS.
A. Âtmanepadî
Abl. Ablative.
Adj. Adjective.
Adv. Adverb.
Ag. n. Agentive noun.
Cl. Class.
Caus. Causal.
Com. gen. Common gender.
Dat. Dative.
Du. Dual.
Encl. Enclitic.
F. Feminine.
Gen. Genitive.
Ins. Instrumental.
M. Masculine.
N. Neuter.
N. Pr. Proper noun.
Nom. Nominative.
Num. Numeral.
P. Parasmaipadî.
Part. Particle.
Per. Person.
Pers. pron. Personal pronoun.
Pl. Plural.
P.P. Past participle passive.
Pref. Prefix.
Prep. Preposition.
Pres. p. Present participle.
Pret. Preterite.
Pron. or Prn. Pronoun.
Rel. pron. Relative pronoun.
Sing. or Sg. Singular.
Subs. Substantive.
U. Ubhayapadi.
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Re: Avestan and Middle Persian

Postby Aryaqk » 2013-06-11, 11:36

Since English and Avestan are related, you already know a fair number of words! Here are some Avestan words that are identical or similar to their English equivalent:

Avesta_English
ad_eat
ameretat_immortality
arema_the arm
ashtan_eight (mn octagon)
asti, asta_a bone (L. Os -> mn osteopath, osteoporesis, etc.)
avang_avail (help)
âvish_obvious
bar_to bear
baresman (Pahlavi: barsom)_besom
bish_twice (bis)
daeva_devil
dar_to tear
dishti_finger (mn digit, dexterous)
dughdhar_daughter
erezata_silver (mn argent, argentum)
fra_forth
frasha_fresh
gao_cow
gapa_gape
gaya_life ("Gaya")
he_he
isi_ice
jaini_Genie, Jinni (evil female spirit)
kahrpu_crab
kakahyu_Caucasus (mountain)
kam_love (mn Kama Sutra)
karana_corner, end (akarana = without end)
karapan_garbled
kerefsh, kehrpa_carrion, corpse
mah_moon, month
mananho, mano_mind
mar_to die (mn mortal)
marench_to kill (mn mortal)
mãthra_mantra
me (Acc of azem)_me
nabâ_navel
naeda_neither
nãma_name
nava_new (mn nova)
navaya_navigable
naxturu_nocturnal
nazda_next, (nigh, near)
nmâna_house (mn mansion)
nôit_not
nû_now
padha_foot (mn pedestrian, biped, pedal)
pairika_fairy
panchan_five (mn pentagon)
paoirya_prior
para_before (mn paramedic)
pasu_domestic animal (mn pastoral)
pathan_path
pouru_first
rae_rich
span_dog (mn spaniel)
star_star
tarshna_thirst
tat_that
tauru_torture, torment
thri_three
thwa_thee
udra_otter
upairi_over, super
upara_upper
uta_and (mn et cetera)
vach_voice, word
vahisht_best
van_to win
vaxsh_to wax, to grow (as the moon)
viryãm_men (mn virile)
yare_year
yavan_young
yuzhem_you (pl)
zhnâ_know, gnostic
zhnu_knee
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Re: Avestan and Middle Persian

Postby Aryaqk » 2013-06-11, 13:46

some prayers:

Avestan
ashem vohû vahishtem astî
ushtâ astî ushtâ ahmâi
hyat ashâi vahishtâi ashem.

English
Holiness (Asha) is the best of all good:
it is also happiness.
Happy the man who is holy with perfect holiness!


Avestan
ýathâ ahû vairyô
athâ ratush ashâtcît hacâ
vanghêush dazdâ mananghô
shyaothananãm anghêush mazdâi
xshathremcâ ahurâi â
ýim drigubyô dadat vâstârem!!

English
The will of the Lord is the law of righteousness.
The gifts of Vohu-mano to the deeds done in this world for Mazda.
He who relieves the poor makes Ahura king.
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Re: Avestan and Middle Persian

Postby Aryaqk » 2013-06-12, 6:25

The best website for learning Pārsīg(Pahlavi or Middle Persian)!:

http://www.parsig.org/index.html
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Re: Avestan and Middle Persian

Postby Aryaqk » 2013-06-12, 9:31

First language:[flag]fa[/flag] - Native language:[flag]ku[/flag]
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Re: Avestan and Middle Persian

Postby Aryaqk » 2013-06-15, 8:47

the Old Iranian language of the Avesta. i. The Avestan script. ii. The phonology of Avestan. iii. The grammar of Avestan.

http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/avestan-language
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Re: Avestan and Middle Persian

Postby Viridzen » 2014-01-02, 20:41

(I know this is old, but I'm not starting a new topic)
Oh, Avestan! That's one that I'm going to learn one day. I just wish I could type the script on my computer...or even read the script at all.
Please, correct my errors. S'il vous plaît, corrigez mes erreurs.
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Re: Avestan and Middle Persian

Postby Æren » 2014-01-03, 19:08

Yaaay! Great!
I'm looking forward to this language :D
:<3: [flag=]pt [/flag] [flag=]es-ES [/flag] [flag=]fr [/flag]
:D [flag=]uk [/flag] [flag=]no[/flag] [flag=]lt[/flag] [flag=]de-AT[/flag]
:? [flag=]fa [/flag] [flag=]tl[/flag] [flag=]tr [/flag] [flag=]cs[/flag] [flag=]ja[/flag] [flag=]he [/flag]
:para: [flag=]ir [/flag] [flag=]hu [/flag]

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Re: Avestan and Middle Persian

Postby Viridzen » 2014-01-03, 20:43

Æren wrote:Yaaay! Great!
I'm looking forward to this language :D


Avestan or Middle Persian? Avestan for me, because of cultural and religious reasons (I also want to read the original Avesta and suchlike, but that fits in with religious purposes).
Please, correct my errors. S'il vous plaît, corrigez mes erreurs.
C2: [flag=]en[/flag] B1: Focusing on: [flag=]fr[/flag] (A2), [flag=]got[/flag]


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