Kous Kreyòl Ayisyen (A Haïtian Créole Course)

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Kous Kreyòl Ayisyen (A Haïtian Créole Course)

Postby Sisyphe » 2007-08-25, 18:25

Byenvini nan Forum Kreyòl Ayisyen nan!


I’m not expecting for anyone to follow this course, but I would like to have it here for present and/or future reference’s sake. I must make a disclaimer though: Although I am a Creole by blood, I was not born in Haïti, nor have I lived there or travelled there. Although I speak Creole with much of my family by default, code-switching [with English here in the States, and with French in Québec], both in vocabulary and grammar is the rule, not the exception, in the Diaspora – my family is certainly not one of the exceptions. Therefore, I will do my best to answer your questions to the best of my ability, or to ask a relatve, but you have been warned. :twisted:

A short introduction and grammatical sketch of Haïtian Créole:
Haïtian Créole, along with French, is the official language of the first Black republic – Haïti. By learning Haïtian Créole, you will be exposed to a vibrant culture that has adamantly defended itself from the encroachments of Western imperialism with fierce pride and dignity. This language is one that is spoken by over 12 million speakers. Surprisingly, almost a fourth of these speakers are scattered throughout the world in what we know as the Haïtian Diaspora. Most Haïtians that live abroad reside in France, in metropolitan Francophone Canada, in the United States [primarily Miami, New York and Boston – no other American cities exist to many Haïtians :P] or work to eke out a living in the surrounding Caribbean countries. Within Haïti, the role of the language is the epitome of a contradiction. While few Haïtians ever learn French fluently, French is the language that is associated with sophistication and the one that is largely used to determine social class, as well as to interact with the world – the language of global relations, in effect. Haïtian Créole, on the other hand, is a ‘low’ language, fit for being spoken in the home, but undesirable in the public sphere of daily life. Ironically, the ‘French’ of the elite of Port-au-Prince would be mostly incomprehensible to your average French or French-Canadian. - In many parts of the Caribbean, it suffices to know enough French to convince everyone else that you have a mastery of French.
What is a Creole? – A creole can be defined in this way : a language that has come into existence through the attempts of speakers of two different languages to communicate – the result is often a language that is simple in vocabulary and in grammar. In our case, Haïtian Créole is primarily a fusion of French and several African languages that arose from the communication of African slaves with their French masters. The ideology that Creoles are inferior is common even amongst Creoles themselves, but foreign learners make grammatical mistakes, just as in any other language, testifying to the fact that simplified does not translate into easy, and the so-called ‘simplistic’ vocabulary does not by any means leave speakers who must use only Haïtian Créole lacking in any words that would be used in the language’s natural environment. French speakers may notice several grammatical oddities that blatantly depart from that of French, but one must keep two points clearly in mind a) the grammar of the French Creoles is heavily influenced by that of African languages, including Yoruba, Ewe, Fon and Igbo and b) French in the Caribbean had already meshed with that of the native Amerindians of the Caribbean island – it was this dialect of French and these African languages that meshed to form Haïtian Créole, and all of the other Caribbean French Creoles as we know them. Clearly, there should be no questions in anyone's mind that Haïtian Créole is its own language, and not a dialect of French. Indeed, it is as Aimé Césaire said, “Creole is a language whose body is French, but whose soul is African.”
The contemporary role of Haïtian Créole is larger than it has ever been in history. :D It now has an official orthography, which although is not often strictly adhered to, has promoted the growth of literature and of the daily media in Haïtian Créole, both in Haïti and abroad. The Diaspora has, in fact, been able to promote the usage of Haïtian Créole in ESL programs in the United States, as well as the development of radio and television programs in Haïtian Créole – even movies have been produced in Haïtian Créole!
In modern times, there are three distinctive dialects spoken in Haïti. Despite the various regions in Haïti being relatively isolated due to the topography, the differences are primarily in lexicon, having taken different borrowings from French than other dialects, as well as in idiomatic expressions (proverbs) - the combination makes noticeable differences, but certainly not enough to hamper intelligibility. The standard dialect is spoken in the capital Port-au-Prince; there are also two dialects spoken in the north and in the south. - The dialect that I speak is from the far north. In addition to the dialects of Haïti, the language is also highly mutually intelligible with the Antillian Créoles and with Louisiana Créole – we can usually understand each other almost 100%, excepting certain idiomatic expressions that just sound ‘quaint’. :lol: Mauritian Créole, Réunion Créole and Seychellois Créole are also close enough to Haïtian Créole to be highly mutually intelligible with it. One can accurately say that there is, to some extent, a pan-Creolophone identity – this stems from the sharing of a common bloodline, a common language, a common culture, a common struggle, however, tension between Creolophones also exists for political and social reasons.
Haïtian Créole grammar reflects its Creole roots, naturally. It is completely lacking in any form of declension, conjugation and arbitrary grammatical gender. It is a SOV [subject object verb] language, but one that can be as different from French as any other Indo-European SOV language. For instance, while the indefinite article is placed before the noun in all cases, the definite article is always placed after the noun. Furthermore, it must be adjusted based on the last morpheme of the word preceding it. This is a trait from West Africa. Plurals, as well as verb tenses are formed with the use of particles, but these can often be omitted if ambiguity is unlikely –the grammatical function is virtually implied, in other words. This is also the case with possession, for which there is no particle, word or phrase used. I wish anyone who wants to learn Haïtian Créole the best of luck. Be assured that you will be received warmly by all Creolophones - particularly Haïtians in learning this language!

The pronunciation of Haïtian Créole is quite straightforward – it is a creole after all! There are certain sounds and sound changes that particularly French speakers benefit from understanding, and using in the oral language. Also, be cogniscent of the fact that many Diaspora speakers will not strictly observe these rules, but rather will allow the sounds of the word to take on that of the original language – be it French, English, Spanish, etc. Note: The examples are only for pronunciation’s sake – do not feel obligated to learn them at this time.

There are 11 vowel sounds in Haïtian Créole, 3 of which are nasal vowels.
A– this corresponds roughly to the /a/ of IPA. It is similar to the word ‘mat’ in general American English, but without the glide and slightly shorter, and it is similar to the a in ‘battre’ in French.
Examples: ka (can [the modal verb], sak (that which), akòz (because), ase (enough), depase (exceed)
Koute pawòl sa yo!
E – this corresponds to the /e/ of IPA. It is like ‘say’ in English, but without the glide, and ‘parlé’ in French.
Examples: Pale (to speak), kite (to leave), deja (already), nimewo (number), ble (blue)
Koute pawòl sa yo!
È – this corresponds to /ɛ/ in IPA. It is pronounced as the e in ‘bed’ in English, and like ‘près’ in French. At the end of a word, the letter y also sounds similar to this.
Examples: kilomèt (kilometre), très (lock [of hair]), pèdi (lose), fè (to do/iron), lotèl (hotel), Kreyòl (Creole)
Koute pawòl sa yo!
I – this corresponds to the /i/ of IPA. It is like the ee in the word ‘leek’ in English, and like the I in the word ‘conduire’ in French. French-speakers should at this point note that the [y] , or French ‘u’ sound was extremely difficult for, and continues to be a good shibboleth for Creolophones. The /y/ sound maps onto this /i/ vowel.
Examples: vivan (living), li (he/she), Ayiti (Haïti), klik (gang), lib (free [as in, without restrain])
Examples of the u/i merger: Haïtian Créole - itil, French - utile; Haïtian Créole dife, French du feu; Haïtian Créole plim, French plume
Koute pawòl sa yo!
O – this corresponds to the /o/ of IPA. It corresponds to the o in ‘low’ of English, and to the vowels of ‘l’eau’ in French.
Examples: flote (drift), bo (kiss :D), matlo ( noun, mate), moman (moment)
[You can see what mood I was in when I wrote this! :lol:]
Koute pawòl sa yo!
Ò – this corresponds closely to the /ɔ/ of IPA. It is like the diphthong in the English word ‘mow’ and like the o in the word ‘parole’ in French.
Examples: Pawòl (word), alò (well then [common filler word]), filozòf (philosopher), kò (PM me, if you want to know :naughty: )
Koute pawòl sa yo!
OU – this corresponds to the /u/ of IPA. It is like the ‘oo’ of ‘loot’ in English, and like the ‘ou’ of ‘cou’ in French.
Examples: fou (crazy), ou (you), doudou (darling, sweetheart [warning – reserved only for one’s partner generally]), foure (put s.th. inside of s.th.), patou (everywhere)
Koute pawòl sa yo!

Nasal Vowels
Nasal sounds differ from normal vowels in their manner of articulation. When a nasal vowel is articulated, air escapes from both the mouth and the nose. This feature was taken from the French language; however, Francophones will note that French has much heavier nasal sounds than do any of the French creoles. Haïtian Créole in particular only uses very slight nasal sounds. All nasal vowels are written in this manner : first, the vowel to be articulated is written, and then a single n is written to denote nasalization. A double n in no case denotes nasalization.
Example : Annou alè! (Let’s go) M ka santi van nan. (I can feel the wind)
Koute fraz sa yo!
In this section, I have omitted giving examples in French because of the diversity of pronunciations of the nasal vowels – please see the American English equivalent and/or listen to the voice files that I have made.
AN- this corresponds to the /ã/ of IPA. It is similar to the ‘an’ in the English word ‘man’, but without articulation of the n.
Examples: van (wind), nan (in, the), etonan (surprising/amazing), Zantiy (the Antilles), pikan (thorn)
Koute pawòl sa yo!
EN – This corresponds to the /ẽ/ of IPA. It is similar to the word ‘can’ when uttered without the n sound in quick speech.
Examples: diven (wine), byen (well, [intensifier]), mwen (I), fen (end)
Koute pawòl sa yo!
ON – This corresponds to the /õ/ of IPA. It is similar to the word ‘cone’ in English without fully articulating the n sound.
Examples: Kamyon (truck), Pantalon (pants), Tonbe (to start doing s.th.), ponp (pump [n.]), ondire ki (everyone says)
Koute pawòl sa yo!

The next lesson will go over the consonants, and the rules of stress for Haïtian Creole.
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Postby Sisyphe » 2007-09-09, 21:54

Lesson 2 – Consonants

Due to the lack of regional differences in pronunciation of the consonants, I deem IPA unecessary for this section, and will modify the explanations of the consonant sounds with English and French pronunciations, as well as with voice files.

B – pronounced as in English and French.
Examples: abreje (to shorten), baboun (baboon), bebe (baby), bèl (beautiful), kabann (bed)
Koute pawòl sa yo!
C is an unnecessary letter in Haitian Creole and is not used at all in the standard writing system.
Ch, however, is a letter – it is identical to the the French ‘ch’ and to the English ‘sh’.
Examples: chwazi (To choose), chame (to put under a spell), kach (cash), chante (to sing, to chant)
Koute pawòl sa yo!
D – pronounced as in French. English speakers should keep in mind that this is a dental, not a palatal sound – your teeth should touch your teeth, not the front of your palate, to produce this sound correctly.
Examples: doktè (doctor), debòde (to overflow), prezidan (president), devaste (to devastate)
Note, d is pronounced with a slight z sound before an i sound. (this would correspond to the French i and u) This can occasionally be heard in combination with e and è as well.
Examples: diri (rice), dirije (to direct), difè (fire), dis (ten)
Koute pawòl sa yo!
F – pronounced as in English and French.
Examples: pwofesè (teacher), fatige (tired, to tire), fizi (rifle), flèv (river)
Koute pawòl sa yo!
G – always as the hard g of English and French.
Examples: gade (to watch, to pay attention to), gaga (dumbass), gwonde (to roar), gwosyè (rude)
Koute pawòl sa yo!
H – Nonexistent.
J – as the French ‘j’ or like the ‘s’ in the English word ‘pleasure’.
Examples: jou (day), ronje (row), masaje (to massage), lonbraj (shade/shadow)
This sound can sound like the English j, if it is preceded by a d.
Example: madjigridji (to scribble)
Koute pawòl sa yo!
K – As in English and in French. But French speakers should not aspirate this sound! It’s actually quite dissonant to the ears, when aspirated. At the end of a word, this letter can even sound as if it were being ‘swallowed’.
Examples: Ka (to be able to), koukouloulou (rooster), koute (cost), kwè (to believe), klòch (bell)
Examples of the ‘disappearing’ k: ak (and/with), akademik (academic)
Koute pawòl sa yo!
L – As in English – a light touch of the tongue to the palate – not heavily articulated as in French.
Examples: souple (please), anpil (much/many/very), adilt (adult), lapè (fear/peace), kreyòl (Creole), lajan (money)
Koute pawòl sa yo!
M – as in English. Do not heavily articulate this as in French.
Examples: menm (same), klimatizè (air conditioner), mayi (corn), diminye (to diminish)
Koute pawòl sa yo!
N – As in English and French. The strength of articulation is between the two languages.
Examples: non (no/name), okenn (none), neglije (to neglect), nemoni (pneumonia)
Koute pawòl sa yo!
P - As in English. French speakers should endeavor to pronounce this sound with less aspiration. This sound is almost silent at the end of a word.
Examples: polisyon (pollution), apresye (to appreciate), panno (board), paske (because), m’ap (I am [doing s.th.])
Koute pawòl sa yo!
R – See the short article below.
S – As in English and French.
Examples: bese (to bend over), seriz (cherry), sivil (civil), sal (dirty), lès (east), lesyèl (heaven)
Koute pawòl sa yo!
T – A dental sound as in French. English speakers should make sure that the tongue touches the top teeth when articulating this sound. Also note that this sound becomes ‘ts’ in combination with an i and sometimes an e.
Examples: tirè (hyphen), natif (native), envante (to invent), travay (work), zandolit (lizard)
Koute pawòl sa yo!
V – As in English and French.
Examples: jovyal (jovial), navige (to navigate), rive (to happen), pespektiv (outlook), vòt (vote)
Koute pawòl sa yo!
W – As in English and French. Note that this often corresponds to the French R.
Examples: louwe (to praise), bwat (box), pwenti (sharp), istwa (story), pwofèse (professor)
Koute pawòl sa yo!
Y – As in English and French.
Examples: yo (they/[plural marker]), eseye (to try), espresyon (expression), vwayaj (trip)
Koute pawòl sa yo!
Z – As in English and French.
Examples: desizyon (decision), zilè (island), rezilta (result), egzamen (test)
Koute pawòl sa yo!

Other Pronunciation Matters and Writing Conventions:

The Haitian Creole R: The R of Haitian Creole is perhaps the only difficult sound for English and French speakers to produce. Complicating this matter, is the fact that there are various pronunciations of the letter depending on the proficiency of the speaker in other languages (French specifically), the dialect of the speaker, as well as the position of the letter in the word. Its pronunciation is often an indicator of the above-mentioned things as well, with wealthy Haitians endeavoring to pronounce the r as close to that of Standard French as possible, and many of the common people pronouncing the sound as a w in all cases. The sound is also difficult to describe, but I will do my best to give an approximation. The closest IPA symbol to the sound that you should start with is [ɹ]. It is like the North American R. While pronouncing this sound, round your lips as if you were saying ‘o’ and try to articulate a [ɹ] and an [h] simultaneously. The resulting sound should be similar to a ‘w’ of English and French. Personally, I pronounce ‘r’ in this way in most occasions, except before an i, when I pronounce it identically to a w.
Examples: sipriz (surprise), rasemble (to get together), merite (you’re welcome/to deserve), efreye (to frighten), raje (the woods), klere (shiny, bright), rekonfòte (to comfort)
Koute pawòl sa yo!

French speakers will certainly notice that Haitian Creole omits quite a few of the ‘r’ sounds of French. Some common sound shifts include the change of ‘er’, which yields ‘è’ or simply ‘e’ on verbal endings, as well as ‘or’ which generally yields ‘ò’ in Haitian Creole.. The Haitian R is an ideal shibboleth to hear foreigners (excluding most Creoles), but at times, this shibboleth has been used against Haitians. Due to the political and economic unrest of the mid-20th century, many Haitians fled Haiti in search of asylum elsewhere.
The Dominican Republic was a common place to flee for these emigrants. Rafael Trujillo, however, the dictator of the Dominican Republic, systematically ordered fleeing Haitians to be massacred upon crossing the border.
To escape their deaths, Haitians would be shown a tuft of parsley and ordered to pronounce the word in Spanish - perejil. Nearly all Haitians that were put to the test could not reproduce the Spanish rolling r, but replaced it with a ‘w’ and were promptly murdered. The reason for this? – Trujillo believed that Haiti had sent spies to cause instability in the Dominican Republic and to take over the entire island of Hispaniola. Haitian-Dominican relations remain very, very strained to this day. Ironically, Trujillo’s mother was half Haitian!


Many Haitians still live in abject poverty, in the Dominican Republic; they have though, escaped death at the hands of the Haitian secret service.
Stress: Stress is almost invariably on the last syllable. Exceptions sometimes occur in words of African origin; these often have a secondary stress and will be addressed when they arise.
Punctuation: Haitian Creole punctuation rules do not differ significantly from that of English or French.

Orthography: Haitian Creole has had a standardized, official system of spelling for many decades now. This system though is rarely strictly observed. Here are some of the ways that this course might differ in spelling from other writing that you may come in contact with.
-I will not use hyphens to attach pronouns and particles or verbs under any circumstance. An apostrophe or a single space will fulfil this need.
-I will generally use the full spelling of pronouns when used as the subject, and the enclitic form when attached to the end of a verb, particularly with the pronoun you ‘ou/-w’.
-The letter é will not be used for the purpose of indicating pronunciation; it is common when chatting and in other informal circumstances though.
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Postby Sisyphe » 2007-09-09, 23:42

Now that you have acquainted yourselves with all of the sounds of Haitian Creole, it would be a good time to test your ear. ;) The following are short (under a minute) dictation exercises, spoken slowly, to help you test your ear, and get some more exposure to the spoken language, if there are no natives where you live. Feel free to write your answers here.

:arrow: File 1 Koute sa!
Duration: 0.48
Difficulty: Difficult

:arrow: File 2
Koute sa!
Duration: 0.30
Difficulty: Not too hard :)

:arrow: File 3
Koute sa!
Duration: 0.09
Difficulty: Easy! :D

:arrow: The challenge ;)
Koute sa!
Duration: 0.49
Difficulty: Very hard
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Postby Sisyphe » 2007-09-22, 5:31

Lesson 3


The Definite Article:
In Haitian Creole the definite article is written after the noun, not before it. This feature comes from Western African languages, most notably, from Yoruba. Additionally, one must observe the Haitian Creole rules of euphony which are written below to correctly pronounce the article.

If the preceding noun ends in a consonant, the definite article is ‘la’.

Examples: Kòt la (the coat), liv la (the book), kay la (the house), risk la (the risk)

There are two major exceptions to this rule:

Nasal consonants [m, n] are not considered to be a consonant ending, the definite article in combination with a word that ends in a nasal vowel is ‘nan’.

Examples: Lajan nan (the money), septanm nan (September)

With consonants that are preceded by a [m, nm, gn, nn or ng], the definite article is ‘lan’.

Examples: Absans lan (the absence), kampagn lan (the campaign), grang lan (the hunger, informal)

If the preceeding noun ends in a vowel, the definite article is ‘a’.

Examples: Lapè a (the peace, the fear), peche a (the sin), peyi a (the country)

However, if the vowel is preceded by a nasal vowel, the definite article becomes ‘an’.

The definite article is also ‘an’ when in combination with nasal vowels.

Examples: pon an (the bridge), fanmi an (the family)

These rules have been taken but modified by the previous Unilang Haitian Creole lessons. I certainly don’t know them by heart, and spoken Haitian Creole often deviates from these rules, favouring la, a and an to other forms of the definite article.

The indefinite article:
‘Yon’ is the indefinite article in most cases. It, unlike the definite article, precedes the noun. If the word that follows this article ends in ‘oun’, the article turns into ‘youn’. In the spoken language, one might find that a speaker will favour either yon or youn regardless of this rule.

Examples: yon adrès (an address), yon jwè (a toy), youn jou (a day), youn timoun (a little kid)

The plural indefinite which translates as ‘some’ in English is always expressed by the word ‘kèk’. The plural is implied when ‘kèk’ is used – it is redundant and incorrect to add the plural participle here, although some might do it with foreigners to fit their thinking patterns.
Examples: kèk moun (some people), kèk bagay (some things), kèk fig (some banana(s) [trees])

Vokabile (in the order introduced in the dialogue below):
Bonjou – Hello/Good morning! (use until noon)
Kouman – how [note: this is often elided to koum’ in speech]
Kouman ou ye? – How are you?
Kijan – also means how, it can be used interchangeably with kouman
Boule – To burn
M’ap boule! – I’m doing great! [literally: I’m burning up!]
Mèsi – Thank you
Fè – To do
Sa ou fè? – How are you? What have you been up to? [it is a contraction of ‘Kisa ou fè?’, What do you do? What have you been doing?]
Pi – more
Mal - bad
M pa pi mal – I’m not too bad.
Panse – To think
Rele – to call, shout, scream
Kouman ou rele? – What is your name?
Ak – and, with
Menm – same
Byen – well (adverb)
Kontan – Happy
Rekonèt – to meet, realize
Alò – well (filler word)
Fòk – It is necessary (not as formal as the English equivalent)
Pati – to leave
Kounyè a – Now
wè - to see
N’a wè – See you later. [literally we will see (each other)]
Orevwa – Goodbye
Premye - First
Nouvo – New
Zanmi – Friend

Grammar words:
Ou/w - You
Ye – to be
Mwen/ M - I
Sa – It/that
Pa – Not
Menm – [also acts as a suffix to make a reflexive pronoun i.e. myself = mwen menm, yourself ou menm, ourselves nou menm]
Ou menm – yourself
Ki – That (to connect clauses)
Nou/N - We
A – [future tense particle]
Li – He/She

Dyalog: http://www.box.net/shared/jzq8s19bca
Pòl: Bonjou!
Alekzann: Bonjou!
Pòl : Kouman ou ye?
Alekzann : M’ap boule, mèsi. Sa ou fè?
Pòl : M pa pi mal, mèsi.
Alekzann : M pa panse ki’m konnen ou. Kouman ou rele?
Pòl: M rele Pòl. Ak ou menm?
Alekzann: M rele Alekzann. - Mwen byen kontan rekonèt ou.
Pòl: Alò, fòk mwen pati kounyè a. N’a wè Alekzann!
Alekzann: Orevwa!

Reading and Listening Comprehension:
Vrè oswa fo? (True or false) Correct the false statements.

Pòl di Alekzann bonjou premye.
Alekzann ap boule.
Pòl te di Alekzann ki li (he/she) pa pi mal.
Pòl deja konnen Alekzann.
Nouvo (new) zanmi (friend) Alekzann rele Pòl.
Fòk Pòl pati.

Dialogue translation:
Paul: Hello!
Alexander: Hello!
Paul: How are you?
Alexander: I’m doing great, thanks. How is it going for you?
Paul: I’m not doing too bad, thanks.
Alexander: I don’t think I know you. What is your name?
Paul: My name is Paul. And yourself?
Alexander: My name is Alexander. I am very happy to meet you.
Paul: Well, I have to go now. See you later Alexander!
Alexander: Goodbye!

Additional notes:
How to greet People:
In the above dialogue, you have been introduced to the greeting ‘bonjou’. It is important to use this only until noon or a time that appears to be noon – definitely don’t use it after your noon meal though. ‘Bonswa’ is what would be used from the time of noon late into the evening. ‘Sali’ from French is also in usage in some parts of the Creolophone world, including parts of Haiti. A more traditional exchange would be ‘respè’ (respect) and then ‘onè’ (honour). Usually Haitian men use it, and I would be surprised to hear this exchange with a white person, but that’s just a gut feeling…

How are you?
The primary ways that we ask someone how they are are ‘kouman/kijan ou ye?’, ‘sa ou fè?’ and ‘sak pase?’. Sak pase has not yet been introduced – it is a shortened form of ‘kisa pase?’ (what’s going on?). You might also hear ‘Sa va?’ which has is a Gallicism. There are a variety of colourful ways to respond to these questions. These responses are given from the most positive to the most negative response. Also note that m and mwen are interchangeable in all cases below, and are a matter of style.

M’ap boule! – I’m doing wonderfully.
Mwen anfom! – I’m doing great.
Mwen kontan. - Idem
Mwen byen. – I’m well.
Mwen la. – I’m getting along.
M’ap kenbe - Idem
Mwen pa pi mal. – I’m not too bad.
Piti piti – [it means little little, but it implies that one’s day is so difficult that one must take the problems of every minute as they come.]
Mwen mal. – I’m doing badly.

How to say goodbye:
The most common ways to say goodbye are 'n'a wè' and 'orevwa'. 'N'ap wè' is also used in some parts of Haiti and 'babay' has been borrowed from English.
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Re: Kous Kreyòl Ayisyen (A Haïtian Créole Course)

Postby lucidtownmedic » 2010-04-24, 3:44

Mesi anpil pou depoze kous-sa-a. Eske ou ka pale m nan avni?

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