An verb "bos" yn Kernowek

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An verb "bos" yn Kernowek

Postby Prosper_Youplaboum » 2013-05-20, 15:21

Hello

I'm trying to understand how should one use the different forms of the verb "to be" in the present tense in Cornish (yu, yma, usy and ues)
Could anyone translate these sentences for me?:

Yowann is big (beginning the sentence by the verb )
Yowann is big (beginning the sentence by "big")
Yowann isn't big. (beginning by the negative word)
Is Yowann big? (beginning with "big")

Yowann is there. (beginning with Yowann)
Yowann isn't there. (beginning with Yowann)
Yowann is there (beginning with "there")
Yowan is there? (beginning with "there")

There's a house there. (beginning with "a house")
There's a house there. (beginning with "there")
There's a house there? (beginning with "there")
There's no house there? (beginning with the negative word)


Muer ras!!!
Agur Xibe’ua,
Bazter güzietako xokho’ik eijerrena,
Agur sor lekhia,
Zu’i ditit ene ametsik goxuenak.

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Re: An verb "bos" yn Kernowek

Postby Prosper_Youplaboum » 2013-05-22, 10:53

Morlader, I think you'd translate these sentences quite easily...?
Thanks in advance :D
Agur Xibe’ua,
Bazter güzietako xokho’ik eijerrena,
Agur sor lekhia,
Zu’i ditit ene ametsik goxuenak.

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Re: An verb "bos" yn Kernowek

Postby morlader » 2013-05-22, 22:55

I can now that I'm back :)

Yowann is big (beginning the sentence by the verb ) Yth yu Yowann bras - If the verb comes first in an affirmative sentence, it has to be preceded by the particle y(th).
Yowann is big (beginning the sentence by "big") Bras yu Yowann - This is the normal, neutral word order for the short form of bos.
Yowann isn't big. (beginning by the negative word) Nyns yu Yowann bras
Is Yowann big? (beginning with "big") Yu Yowann bras? - Questions always start with the verb.

Yowann is there. (beginning with Yowann) Yma Yowann ena - For the long form of bos, Yma always comes first in affirmative sentences.
Yowann isn't there. (beginning with Yowann) Nyns usy Yowann ena - Negative sentences usually begin with ny(ns). If you said Yowann nyns usy ena, it'd be like saying "As for Yowann, he's not there".
Yowann is there (beginning with "there") Yma Yowann ena - Like above, this is the normal word order.
Yowan is there? (beginning with "there") Usy Yowann ena? - Questions must begin with a verb.

There's a house there. (beginning with "a house") Yma chy ena. The same as above, Yma must come first.
There's a house there. (beginning with "there") Yma chy ena
There's a house there? (beginning with "there") Yma chy ena? - This is if you mean to be surprised at the idea that there's a house there. If you just want to ask "is there a house there?" then it's Ues chy ena?
There's no house there? (beginning with the negative word) A nyns ues chy ena?
An lavar coth yw lavar gwir:
Na vedn nevra dos vas a davas re hir;
Bes den heb tavas a gollas y dir.
[flag=]kw[/flag]

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Re: An verb "bos" yn Kernowek

Postby morlader » 2013-05-22, 23:06

The following is the short form present tense of bos:
ov, os, yu, on, owgh, yns

The short form is used to describe a state:

Lowen ov vy = I'm happy
Du yu an gath = The cat is black

This is the long form present tense of bos:
esov, esos, yma/usy/ues, eson, esowgh, ymons/usons

In affirmative sentence it always goes at the front of the sentence, which is why the particle yth is added. The particle is not added to yma, since it is considered to already have it built in. The long form is used for existence, location and continuous action.

Yth esov vy y'n gegyn = I'm in the kitchen
Yma tamm tesen gesys = There's a bit of cake left
Yth eson ny ow cortos = We're waiting

Yma is used in affirmative sentences only. Ues and usy are used in negative sentences and questions, and also subordinate clauses. Ues is used with indefinite subjects, and usy with definite subjects.

Yma den y'n gegyn = There's a man in the kitchen
Eus den y'n gegyn? = Is there a man in the kitchen?
Nyns ues den y'n gegyn = There isn't a man in the kitchen.

Yma Yowann y'n gegyn = Yowann is in the kitchen
Usy Yowann y'n gegyn? = Is Yowann in the kitchen?
Nyns ues Yowann y'n gegyn = Yowann isn't in the kitchen.
An lavar coth yw lavar gwir:
Na vedn nevra dos vas a davas re hir;
Bes den heb tavas a gollas y dir.
[flag=]kw[/flag]

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Re: An verb "bos" yn Kernowek

Postby Prosper_Youplaboum » 2013-05-22, 23:16

Muer ras!
A yl an den leverel ynwedh:

Yowann yu ena.
Ena yma Yowann.
Chy yu/yma/ues ena.


?

Nyns ues Yowann y'n gegyn = Yowann isn't in the kitchen.


shouldn't it be "nyns usy Yowann..." ?

Can you please give examples of subordinate clauses with usy and ues?

muer ras :)
Agur Xibe’ua,
Bazter güzietako xokho’ik eijerrena,
Agur sor lekhia,
Zu’i ditit ene ametsik goxuenak.

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Re: An verb "bos" yn Kernowek

Postby morlader » 2013-05-23, 9:27

Prosper_Youplaboum wrote:Muer ras!
A yl an den leverel ynwedh:

Yowann yu ena.
Ena yma Yowann.
Chy yu/yma/ues ena.


?


You can't say "Yowann yu ena" because the long form is always used with a location.

"Ena yma Yowann" is fine, but it stresses the location. It's like saying "And there, is Yowann".

It's the same with Chy, we can't use yu because it's a location.

"Chy yma ena" is odd because chy "a house" is indefinite but yma ena "it's there" on its own refers to a definite subject. "An chy yma ena" would be better, although it has a stress on the subject "As for the house, it's there".

"Chy ues ena" is a subordinate clause, it means "A house that's there".

Nyns ues Yowann y'n gegyn = Yowann isn't in the kitchen.


shouldn't it be "nyns usy Yowann..." ?


Yes it should, sorry. I was concentrating too hard on putting it into Unified orthography!

Can you please give examples of subordinate clauses with usy and ues?


An den usy y'n gegyn = The man who's in the kitchen.
Fleghes ues y'n scol = Children that are in school
An lavar coth yw lavar gwir:
Na vedn nevra dos vas a davas re hir;
Bes den heb tavas a gollas y dir.
[flag=]kw[/flag]

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Re: An verb "bos" yn Kernowek

Postby Prosper_Youplaboum » 2013-05-23, 21:33

Muer ras. :)
Ha fatel leverydh:

The man who is big.
A house is there. (if you begin with "a house")
The man who isn't big.
The man who isn't in the house.
A man who isn't in the house.

?

muer ras!
Agur Xibe’ua,
Bazter güzietako xokho’ik eijerrena,
Agur sor lekhia,
Zu’i ditit ene ametsik goxuenak.

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Re: An verb "bos" yn Kernowek

Postby morlader » 2013-05-24, 10:47

Prosper_Youplaboum wrote:Muer ras. :)
Ha fatel leverydh:

The man who is big.
A house is there. (if you begin with "a house")
The man who isn't big.
The man who isn't in the house.
A man who isn't in the house.

?

muer ras!


An den yu bras
Yma chy ena (you can't begin with chy)
An den nag yu bras
An den nag usy y'n chy
Den nag ues y'n chy
An lavar coth yw lavar gwir:
Na vedn nevra dos vas a davas re hir;
Bes den heb tavas a gollas y dir.
[flag=]kw[/flag]

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Re: An verb "bos" yn Kernowek

Postby Prosper_Youplaboum » 2013-05-24, 11:30

Awesome! I think we've seen all the possibilities now :)
Muer ras :waytogo:
Agur Xibe’ua,
Bazter güzietako xokho’ik eijerrena,
Agur sor lekhia,
Zu’i ditit ene ametsik goxuenak.

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Re: An verb "bos" yn Kernowek

Postby Prosper_Youplaboum » 2013-05-24, 11:43

I see other possibilities with indefinite nouns+predicative adjectives:

One of them is big. (with subject first and then verb first)
One of them isn't big. (idem)
Big is one of them (?)
One of them is big?
One of them isn't big?
A house that is big.
A house that isn't big.

muer ras :)
Agur Xibe’ua,
Bazter güzietako xokho’ik eijerrena,
Agur sor lekhia,
Zu’i ditit ene ametsik goxuenak.

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morlader
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Re: An verb "bos" yn Kernowek

Postby morlader » 2013-05-24, 20:01

Prosper_Youplaboum wrote:I see other possibilities with indefinite nouns+predicative adjectives:

One of them is big. (with subject first and then verb first)
One of them isn't big. (idem)
Big is one of them (?)
One of them is big?
One of them isn't big?
A house that is big.
A house that isn't big.

muer ras :)


Onen anedha yu bras
Nyns yu onen anedha bras
Bras yu onen anedha
Onen anedha yu bras
Nyns yu onen anedha bras
Chy yu bras
Chy nag yu bras
An lavar coth yw lavar gwir:
Na vedn nevra dos vas a davas re hir;
Bes den heb tavas a gollas y dir.
[flag=]kw[/flag]

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Prosper_Youplaboum
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Re: An verb "bos" yn Kernowek

Postby Prosper_Youplaboum » 2013-05-25, 0:56

MUER RAS ! :y:
Agur Xibe’ua,
Bazter güzietako xokho’ik eijerrena,
Agur sor lekhia,
Zu’i ditit ene ametsik goxuenak.


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