księżyc - aymara

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księżyc - aymara

Postby księżycowy » 2012-06-08, 20:34

So, in order to help my Quechua studies out, I'll be tackling some Aymara. Which is cool, considering I've wanted to learn Aymara anyway.
I'm using Aymar Arux Akhamawa as my main textbook, but I might use Beginning Aymara a bit as well.

Without further ado, we'll have some fun with some suffixes!

Kunas ukaxa.
what-INT that-SEC_TOP
what is that?

So, as we can (hopefully) see, there are two suffixes in this question.
-sa is a weak suffix that indicates a question. (weak suffixes drop their vowel under certain circumstances)
-xa is a secondary weak suffix (see below)

Two possible answers:
Akax wallpa aychawa.
This-XA chicken meat-TOP
This [is] chicken meat.

-xa is here again. (see below).
-wa is a weak suffix (see below).

Wallpa k'awnawa.
chicken egg-TOP
[This is a] chicken egg.

Lesson one also went over a few other suffixes, but I'll get to them, and the exercises (which I'll do my best to parse my answers) later.
Lesson one of Aymar Arux Akhamawa is not that descriptive on these first few suffixes. I'll check Beginning Aymara later and get a fuller picture if possible. Or perhaps it's a few lessons in that there is greater detail. Either way I'll try to get a fuller picture of these and the other suffixes in Lesson One.

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Re: księży - aymara

Postby księżycowy » 2012-06-08, 23:39

I forgot all about the website I posted in the Learning Resources thread. I'll use that and Aymar Arux Akhamawa as my main "textbooks."

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Re: księży - aymara

Postby księżycowy » 2012-06-09, 0:48

Ok, after a second reading of the introduction and lesson 1, it dawned on me!





Sentence typeTopic suffixesSecondary suffixes
Affirmative-wa-xa
Negative-wa-xa
Question-sa/-ti-xa/-sti
Combination-sti


So, what does all of this mean? Good question. :lol:

Let's look at -wa for example. -Wa is used in affirmative and negative sentences to mark the topic of the sentence or clause (very much like the Japanese particle wa :P ). It does not make the sentence affirmative nor negative, but it just marks the most important word in the sentence.

So, what about suffixes like -xa? Well -xa is used in a similar context as -wa, only it marks the secondary topic of the sentence, the lesser important word. Hence the title "secondary suffixes."

So, what about weak and strong suffixes? Weak suffixes, as I said before, are prone to losing their vowels under in certain environments. These are when followed by another word (of any type) [this happens to all Aymara words generally], and when followed by a strong suffix.
All of the suffixes in this lesson are weak, so we'll see this second rule later on. The first rule we have already seen.

I'll explain the rest of the suffixes (-ta, -sa, -sti) later. Though you might be able to guess what they are for thanks to the table.

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Re: księży - aymara

Postby Massimiliano B » 2012-06-09, 13:50

I try to guess what is the combination. I read that Aymara has a three-valued logic (true, false, indetermined). Is this suffix used when a sentence is neither affirmative nor negative?

Anyway, I think Aymara sounds better than Quechua. :)







EDIT
I've quickly checked Beginner Aymara. I think my answer is wrong.

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Re: księży - aymara

Postby księżycowy » 2012-06-09, 14:14

Massimiliano B wrote:I try to guess what is the combination. I read that Aymara has a three-valued logic (true, false, indetermined). Is this suffix used when a sentence is neither affirmative nor negative?

EDIT
I've quickly checked Beginner Aymara. I think my answer is wrong.

I haven't really read much of Beginning Aymara, but from the little I've studied from Aymar Arux Akhamawa, there seem to be suffixes that are used in a doubtful way. However, at this point I can't say for sure, sorry.

Anyway, I think Aymara sounds better than Quechua. :)

Aymara certainly has a distinctive favor and charm that Quechua doesn't seem to have. :wink:

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Re: księży - aymara

Postby księżycowy » 2012-06-12, 20:07

So, I so reading Beginning Aymara, as that seems to have further complicated matters. :?

wa - the predicate marker, also shows "to be" in nouns and adjectives
xa - topic marker (optional)
Or so it says in Beginning Aymara.

I'm not going to worry about all this now though. Pronunciation and other matters await.

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Re: księży - aymara

Postby księżycowy » 2012-06-14, 13:38

Aymara On the Internet and Aymar Arux Akhamawa seem to be lining up on their explanations, so I'll go with the following on the suffixes:

In Unit One of Aymar Arux Akhamawa (and Unit One of Aymara on the Internet too) we have a series of equational sentences (A=B). In these sentences we use the suffixes -wa and -xa to mark each half of the sentence. But which goes with which, you ask?

-wa shows personal knowledge. That you know this information from experience.
-xa is simply used to show the other part of the sentence (topic?).

For example:
Akax wallpa aychawa.
This is chicken meat.
This = chicken meat

aka-x wallpa aycha-wa.
this-XA chicken meat-WA

In other words the chicken meat is know to be chicken meat through personal experience.

Now, enough about -wa and -xa. It's making my head spin. :P

The other suffixes from Unit one of Aymar Arux Akhamawa and Unit 1.1 of Aymara on the Internet (as they are largely the same, minus a suffix not found in AOTI).

-sa is used to show a question that requires an informative answer (frequently added to interrogative pronouns).
ex.
Kunas ukaxa.
kuna-sa uka-xa.
what-IN_QUEST that-XA
What [is] that?

-ti is used to show yes/no questions.
Wallpa aychati.
wallpa aycha-ti
chicken meat-Y/N_QUEST
[Is this/that] chicken meat?

-sti is used in combined sentences or a series of questions. It is something like 'and' in English.

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Re: księży - aymara

Postby księżycowy » 2012-07-15, 14:19

I haven't forgotten about my pal Aymara yet. :P
Though I doubt I'll be able to present a text in the language. :( Time shall tell.

Pronouns and Possession:



PersonSingularPlural
1stnaya(see below)
2ndjumajumanaka
3rdjupajupanaka

As can be seen, the suffix -naka is used to make the plural forms of the pronouns. This is also what is generally used with nouns as well, when necessary to mark plural.

As for the 1st person plural (we), there are three forms:
nanakajiwasajiwasanaka


nanaka = "exclusive" we (listener not included)
jiwasa = "inclusive" we, for groups of up to four people (listener included)
jiwasanaka = same as jiwasa except that it is for more than four people

For possession the following suffixes are needed with the item possessed:



PersonSingularPlural
1st-xa-sa
2nd-ma-ma
3rd-pa-pa

As can be seen, the 2nd and 3rd person suffixes are the same for singular and plural. However, that still does not complete the picture. We still need one more suffix, -na.

-Na attaches to the possessor:
nayana - my, mine
jumana - your
Lucasana - Lucas'

How about a few examples?
Nayan sutixax Franciskuwa.
naya-na suti-xa-xa Francisku-wa
I-POSS name-POSS-TOPIC Francisku-KNOW
My name [is] Francisku.

Ukax juman yapumawa.
uka-xa juma-na yapu-ma-wa
that-TOPIC you-POSS garden-POSS_2nd-KNOW
That [is] your garden.

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Re: księży - aymara

Postby księżycowy » 2012-08-03, 13:45

So, here is my first offical post for the CSAILC! 8-)

Let's figure out how to conjugate some verbs!

saraña - to go
sara- the root
-ña is the infinitive ending of Aymara verbs.

sarta - going/did go (present progressive)
-ta is the present progressive verb suffix

A few examples:

Kunas masürux lurta?
kuna-sa masüru-xa lura-ta
What-INT_INFO yesterday-TOP to_do-PrPro
What did [you] do yesterday?
[As this sentence includes the word "yesterday," the present progressive would be understood to refer to a recent past event.]

T'ant' munta.
T'ant' muna-ta
bread to_want-PrP
(I) want bread.

You'll notice that the subject of the sentence is not included in the Aymara (neither by pronouns nor by verb conjugation). Verbs are conjugated by person and number in other tenses and forms, so don't get used to this. :wink:

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Re: księży - aymara

Postby księżycowy » 2012-09-11, 18:42

Let's keep the CSAILC alive!

Here is a new suffix to play with: -ru (weak).
It indicates "to, for, along."

Some examples:
¿Masürux eskuelar sartati?
masüru-xa eskuela-ra sar-ta-ti
yesterday-topic school-LOC go-PROG-QUEST
Did [you] go to school yesterday?

Pamparuw sarta.
pampa-ru-wa sar-ta
country_side-to-KNOW go-PROG
[I] went/go to the country side.


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