Tupi (Tupinambá) Lessons

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Tupi (Tupinambá) Lessons

Postby Pittsboy » 2003-10-16, 7:18

Course of Old Tupi Language (Tubinambá)

Lesson #1

Pronunciation (I had to give up my IPA temptation and make use of this ugly SAMPA encoding, sorry)

Vowels

a - [a]
e - [Image]
i - [i]
o - [Image]
u - [ u ]
y - [1] or [1G] (usually represented by ‘yg’) (G sounds as greek 'Gamma' or Spanish 'lueGo') Click here for a sound sample of this phoneme.
'y' is the same sound represented by Polish 'y'.

All the vowels above can also be nasalized in Tupi.

Consonants

' - [?]
b – [ B ] (as Spanish 'aBuela')
î - [j] or [Z] (j as in 'Yet' and 'Z' as in 'pleaSure')
k - [k]
m - [m] or [m_b]
n - [n] or [n_d]
nh - [ñ]
ng - [N] (as in goiNG)
p - [p]
r - [4] (as in 'beTTer' - American Pronunciation)
s - [s]
t - [t]
û - [w] or [g_w]
x - [S] (as 'SHow')

Observations on allophones:

1) /m/ and /n/ are realized as [m_b] and [n_d], respectively, when it is followed by a stressed syllable without any other nasal.
2) In stressed word-initial position, /m/ and /n/ are realized as [m_b] and [n_d] respectively, if and only if there is not any other nasal after them in the word.
3) /m/ and /n/ always nasalize the vowel which comes before them.
4) î and nh are basically allophones; î is realized as [ñ] when another nasal is present in the word and in word-initial position as [Z] if and only if no other nasal is present in the word.
5) û is realized as [g_w] in word-initial position; all other cases it is realized as [w]
6) When a syllable ending in y is followed by a vowel-initial syllable, [1] changes into [1G].

On Stress

--> All words, ending in a) consonant, b) semi-vowel and c) vowel (i, u, y) or d) any nasal vowel, have the last syllable stressed.

Karu – Agûapyk

--> a word maintains its stress when unstressed affixes (suffixes and enclitics, unstressed post-positions) are added.

Morubixabape (-pe is an enclitic)

--> the vowel just after a glottal stop is always stressed.

Poti'a

--> an acute accent mark is used mainly for last-syllable-stressed words and for stressed monosyllabic words which end in a, e, o. In a few cases, however, a distinctive accent mark will be used.

îu, ky, mon (accents are actually written here)

Ou (he comes) has a distinctive accent mark (he is coming)
Last edited by Pittsboy on 2003-10-17, 6:50, edited 2 times in total.
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Postby Pittsboy » 2003-10-17, 4:39

Lesson #2

Text
The Portuguese Settlers arrive

Peró oîepotar. Peróetá ‘y kûápe osó.
The Portuguese men arrived. Many Portuguese men went to the river shore.

Abá ‘y kûápe oîkó. Peróetá ygarusu pupé opytá.
The natives were at the river shore. Many Portuguese men stayed inside the ships.

Peró ygara suí osem. Aba osyk. Aba peró supé onhe’eng.
The Portuguese men left the boat. The natives came closer. The natives talk to the Portuguese men.

Abáetá osykyîé.
The natives are afraid.

They ask the Portuguese:
Abápe endé? Mamõpe ereîkobé?
Who are you? Where do you live?

Vocabulary
Abá – native (Indians), man, human being.
Kûá – bay, shore
‘y kûá – river shore
Peró – Portuguese (people)
‘y – river, water
ygara – boat
ygarusu – ship (lit. big boat)
îepotara – to arrive (via river or sea)
ikó – to be
ikobé – to live
nhe’enga – to speak/talk
pytá – to stay
sema – to leave, to come
só – to go
syka – to come closer, to arrive
sykyîé – to be afraid of
abápe – who?
endé – you
etá – many
mamõpe – where?
-pe – in, at, towards (locative)
supé – to (dative)
suí – from (or cause)
pupé – inside of, in

Next lesson I will explain the grammar behind the text[/i]
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Re: Tupi (Tupinambá) Lessons

Postby Psi-Lord » 2003-10-17, 5:51

Pittsboy wrote:Actually, Sampa for 'nh' [ñ] is [J]... that's why I used that... but I corrected aboveand used ñ

Ah, sorry, Thi, my mistake — I had misunderstood what you'd written, which was why I confused [j] with [J] and thought they were meant to be the same. :oops: Eu devia dormir mais e palpitar menos. ;)

As for the feedback, I'm paying close attention to what you're writing and loving it so far. :)
Last edited by Psi-Lord on 2003-10-17, 15:14, edited 1 time in total.
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Postby Pittsboy » 2003-10-17, 6:59

Lesson #3

Grammar Focus

1) Peró oîepotar.
The Portuguese men arrived.
(Portuguese men + 3rdpl-arrive)

Tupi has two distinct classes of verbs. The ones in the first lesson text belong to the 1st Class. To be a first-class verb means that it bears flexion (both for number and person). Tupi verbs express no tense whatsoever, and then it is through context that tense is attributed.

a) îepotara – to arrive

ixé a-îepotar – I arrive, -ed
endé ere-îepotar – you arrive, -ed
a’e o-îepotar – he arrives, -ed (lit. that one arrives, -ed)
oré oro-îepotar – we arrive, -ed (exclusive)
îandé îa-îepotar – we arrive, -ed (inclusive)
pe’e~ pe-îepotar – you arrive, -ed
a’e o-îepotar – they arrive, -ed (lit. those ones arrive, -ed)

As you can see, the flexion marking is placed on left rather then on the right side of the radical of the verb and the infinitive suffix is dropped (in case it bears any). Also, it is not necessary to write the personal pronouns; once the verbs fully inform what person that flexion belongs to.

Every noun and every verb infinitive always end in a vowel. If the verb has a radical which ends in consonant, the infinitive gets an –a ending.
e.g.:
só (to go) – infinitive/radical: só
syka (to arrive) – infinitive/radical: syka/syk
nhe’enga (to speak) – infinitive/radical: nhe’enga/nhe’eng
sema (to leave) – infinitive/radical: sema/sem

Verb infinitives are always nouns, in Tupi, as well.
e.g.:
sema = to leave, the departure

b) exclusive vs. Inclusive ‘We’

If we say, in Tupi, to a group of natives ‘We came from Portugal’, we must use the Exclusive ‘we’, for the natives didn’t come from Portugal, this way they are not included in the ‘we’ I am using. If we rather say ‘We will die someday’ to this same group of natives, everybody is included for everybody will die eventually, so we use the Inclusive ‘we’.

2) Peróetá ‘y kûápe osó.
Many Portuguese men went to the river shore.
(Portuguese-many + river shore-locative + 3rdpl-go)

a) Tupi has no plural marking, this way, the suffix ‘etá’, meaning ‘many’ is attached to the word.

Peró + etá = peróetá
Portuguese + many = ‘portugueses’/many Portuguese men

b) Adjectives are usually placed before the noun they modify if they function as genitives.

‘y kûá = river + shore --> shore of the river / river’s shore

c) Attributive Adjectives (which give qualities to nouns) make compounds with the words they act upon and they are also invariable in number. It is also important to remember that this sort of composition must always end in a vowel, so we add an ‘-a’ if the last word of the compound ends in consonant.

Beautiful = porang
Woman/women = kunhã
Beautiful woman/women = kunhãporanga (lit. woman/women beautiful)

Good = katu
Man/men = abá
Good man/men = abákatu (lit. man/men good)

d) The locative particle ‘-pe’ is placed after the target of the movement. ‘-pe’ is attached to the target noun because it is an unstressed post-position.

Ixé São Paulope asó – I go/wet to São Paulo (lit. I São Paulo-to go/went)

--> So far, we have seen two sentences and that’s enough as a sample of Tupi syntax. As you can see, the usual word order is SOV (Subject-Object-Verb), just like Japanese LOL!

(ANY FEEDBACK SO FAR??)
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Postby E}{pugnator » 2003-10-17, 16:13

Thi, I'm just loving the lessons! I'm busy at uni right now, but this week I plan to have a look at them...It will be great to understand what is behind most Brazilian towns' names...

BTW, if you want feedback, you should provide exercises. I know some members here who join virtual classes at this forum just to have fun with the exercises :wink: Psi-Lord belongs to this grous himself :lol:

Don't worry about what you write at this thread which is not directly related to the course itself, like Marcel's post and mine..when the course get to be published in the main site, it will be edited...
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Re: Tupi (Tupinambá) Lessons

Postby Psi-Lord » 2003-10-18, 4:40

Pittsboy wrote:Observations on allophones:

1) /m/ and /n/ are realized as [m_b] and [n_d], respectively, when it is followed by a stressed syllable without any other nasal.
2) In stressed word-initial position, /m/ and /n/ are realized as [m_b] and [n_d] respectively, if and only if there is not any other nasal after them in the word.
3) /m/ and /n/ always nasalize the vowel which comes before them.
4) î and nh are basically allophones; î is realized as [ñ] when another nasal is present in the word and in word-initial position as [Z] if and only if no other nasal is present in the word.
5) û is realized as [g_w] in word-initial position; all other cases it is realized as [w]
6) When a syllable ending in y is followed by a vowel-initial syllable, [1] changes into [1G].

Thi, would it be possible for you to give examples for the 'rules' above? Though it might be easy to spot some (all?) of them in the words you've taught so far, I often find myself unsure about my being totally correct on those I pick, as if I might be actually missing some obvious mistake in my choices. :oops:
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Postby Pittsboy » 2003-10-19, 18:32

1) /m/ and /n/ are realized as [m_b] and [n_d], respectively, when it is followed by a stressed syllable without any other nasal.

temi'u can be pronounced tembi'u
ma'e > mba'e
kam+'y > kamby (and not Kamy)
nhan+ara > nahndara (and not nhanara)

2) In stressed word-initial position, /m/ and /n/ are realized as [m_b] and [n_d] respectively, if and only if there is not any other nasal after them in the word.

3) /m/ and /n/ always nasalize the vowel which comes before them.

Just as Portuguese

4) î and nh are basically allophones; î is realized as [ñ] when another nasal is present in the word and in word-initial position as [Z] if and only if no other nasal is present in the word.

aîybõ read as aiybõ
anhybõ read as anhybõ
îetyka read as either ietyka or Zetyka
yara can be pronounced ygara
yasaba > ygasaba

5) û is realized as [g_w] in word-initial position; all other cases it is realized as [w]

ûyrá can be pronounce gûyrá
6) When a syllable ending in y is followed by a vowel-initial syllable, [1] changes into [1G].
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Postby Pittsboy » 2003-10-19, 18:54

3) Abá ‘y kûápe oîkó.
The natives are at the river shore.
(Natives + river shore-at + 3rdpl-be)

a) The locative particle ‘-pe’ can also convey the place where something/someone is located. The particle is placed after the place where s/t or s/o is.

Ixé São Paulope aîkó – I am/was in São Paulo (lit. I São Paulo-in am/was)

b) In order to make pronunciation smoother, ‘ikó’ (to be) turns into ‘îkó’ so that it makes a glide sound (diphthong) when the verb is conjugated. This usually happens, i > î, when an unstressed ‘i’ is followed by another vowel.

4) Peróetá ygarusu pupé opytá.
Many Portuguese men stayed inside the ships.
(Portuguese-many + ship + inside + 3rdpl-stay)

a) There’s an interior locative ‘pupé’, which is used to state that something or someone is inside a place. This particle goes right after the place where s/t or s/o is and before the verb of the sentence.

Ixé oka pupé aîkó – I am/was in/inside the house (lit. I house inside am/was)

5) Peró ygara suí osem.
The Portuguese men left the boat.
(Portuguese + boat + from + 3rdpl-leave)

a) In order to express where something or someone comes from, Tupi uses a particle ‘suí’ after the place from where s/t or s/o comes from.

Ixé São Paulo suí osem – I come/came from São Paulo (lit I São Paulo from come)

6) Abá osyk.
The natives came closer.
(Natives + 3rdpl-come closer)

7) Abá peró supé onhe’eng.
The natives talk to the Portuguese.
(Natives + Portuguese + to(dative) + 3rdpl-talk)

a) As said before, in order to express to whom someone is talking, the nhe’enga (to speak/talk) verb requires a post-positional complement ‘supé’.

Ixé abá supé anhe’eng – I speak/spoke to the man (lit. I man to speak/spoke)

8) Abáetá osykyîé.
The natives are afraid.
(Natives-many + 3rdpl-be afraid)

9) Abápe endé?
Who are you?
(Who + you)

a) As you can see, there’s no ‘to be’ verb in Tupi, in the sense as ‘to exist’. This way, if I want to say something like ‘I am a man’ I say, in Tupi:

Ixé Thiago – I am Thiago (lit. I Thiago)
Kurumi~ Pedro – The boy is Pedro (lit. Boy Pedro)

b) There’s no definite or indefinite article in Tupi

The native(s) stay at the river shore – Abá ‘y kûápe opytá
Some native(s) stay at the river shore - Abá ‘y kûápe opytá

10) Mamõpe ereîkobé?
Where do you live?
(Where + 2ndsg-live)

a) So far, we make interrogatives using the questions words ‘who’ and ‘where. Note the fact that both words have the ‘-pe’ particle, which shall not be confused with the ‘-pe’ locative particle
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Postby Pittsboy » 2003-10-19, 19:03

Exercises

I- Conjugate the verbs below and translate

a) kuruka – to mumble
b) gûatá – to walk
c) gûapyka – to sit down
d) perereka – to walk by fits and starts
e) nhana – to run
f) kera – to sleep
g) karu – to eat

II- Translate into Tupi

a) I stay in Rio
b) I live in Paris
c) I leave the river shore
d) We (inclusive) stay at home
e) We (exclusive) sleep inside the ship
f) The natives talk to Maria
g) Where do you live? I live in Montreal
h) The men go to the boat, they are afraid
i) He goes to the boy’s river
j) Who are they? He is Pedro, she is Cecile
k) A Portuguese talk to many natives
l) We left the shore, we go to Carl’s house
m) Who is at the seashore? The Portuguese men are at the seashore, inside their ships.

III- Answer the sentences following the pattern given and translate them.

- Mamõpe ereîkobé? (‘Ygûasu)
- Aîkobé ‘Ygûasupe.
Translation: Where do you live? (Great River Shore)
I live in the Great River Shore (‘ygûasu)

- Abápe osó tatu ‘ype? (Pedro)
- Pedro osó tatu ‘ype.
Translation: Who goes to the armadillo river? (Pedro)
Pedro goes to the armadillo river

a) Mamõpe erepytá? (îakaré ‘y)
b) Mamõpe peîkobé? (Tokyo)
c) Mamõpe eresó? (Hanover)
d) Mamõpe ereîkó? (Ararakûara)
e) Abápe opytá São Paulope? (Maria)
f) Abápe osem ygarusu suí? (peró)
g) Abápe opytá ‘y kûápe? (paketá)
h) Abápe oîkobé Coloradope? (abáetá)
i) Mamõpe pepytá? (siri ‘y)
j) Abápe osykyîé? (Maria)

Vocabulary
îakaré – crocodile
ararakûara – parrot’s burrow (citu name)
paketá – many agouti (city name)
siri - crab
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Postby Psi-Lord » 2003-10-19, 19:58

Cool, exercises! :) Let me take them by small parts, though...

I. a) kuruka – to mumble
ixé akuruk - I mumble, -ed
endé erekuruk - you mumble, -ed (singular)
a'e okuruk - he mumbles, -ed
oré orokuruk - we mumble, -ed (exclusive)
îandé îakuruk - we mumble, -ed (inclusive)
pe'ẽ pekuruk - you mumble, -ed (plural)
a'e okuruk - they mumble, -ed

b) gûatá – to walk
ixé agûatá - I walk, -ed
endé eregûatá - you walk, -ed (singular)
a'e ogûatá - he walks, -ed
oré orogûatá - we walk, -ed (exclusive)
îandé îagûatá - we walk, -ed (inclusive)
pe'ẽ pegûatá - you walk, -ed (plural)
a'e ogûatá - they walk, -ed

c) gûapyka – to sit down
ixé agûapyk - I sit down, sat down
endé eregûapyk - you sit down, sat down (singular)
a'e ogûapyk - he sits down, sat down
oré orogûapyk - we sit down, sat down (exclusive)
îandé îagûapyk - we sit down, sat down (inclusive)
pe'ẽ pegûapyk - you sit down, sat down (plural)
a'e ogûapyk - they sit down, sat down

d) perereka – to walk by fits and starts
ixé apererek - I walk by fits and starts, -ed by fits and starts
endé erepererek - you walk by fits and starts, -ed by fits and starts (singular)
a'e opererek - he walks by fits and starts, -ed by fits and starts
oré oropererek - we walk by fits and starts, -ed by fits and starts (exclusive)
îandé îapererek - we walk by fits and starts, -ed by fits and starts (inclusive)
pe'ẽ pepererek - you walk by fits and starts, -ed by fits and starts (plural)
a'e opererek - they walk by fits and starts, -ed by fits and starts

e) nhana – to run
ixé anhan - I run, ran
endé erenhan - you run, ran (singular)
a'e onhan - he runs, ran
oré oronhan - we run, ran (exclusive)
îandé îanhan - we run, ran (inclusive)
pe'ẽ penhan - you run, ran (plural)
a'e onhan - they run, ran

f) kera – to sleep
ixé aker - I sleep, slept
endé ereker - you sleep, slept (singular)
a'e oker - he sleeps, slept
oré oroker - we sleep, slept (exclusive)
îandé îaker - we sleep, slept (inclusive)
pe'ẽ peker - you sleep, slept (plural)
a'e oker - they sleep, slept

g) karu – to eat
ixé akaru - I eat, ate
endé erekaru - you eat, ate (singular)
a'e okaru - he eats, ate
oré orokaru - we eat, ate (exclusive)
îandé îakaru - we eat, ate (inclusive)
pe'ẽ pekaru - you eat, ate (plural)
a'e okaru - they eat, ate
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Postby Pittsboy » 2003-10-19, 20:36

Correct!!
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Postby Psi-Lord » 2003-10-19, 23:10

II. a) I stay in Rio = Riope apytá.
b) I live in Paris = Parispe aîkobé.
c) I leave the river shore = 'Y kûá suí asem.
d) We (inclusive) stay at home = Okape îapytá.
e) We (exclusive) sleep inside the ship = Ygarusu pupé oroker.
f) The natives talk to Maria = Abáetá Maria supé onhe'eng.
g) Where do you live? I live in Montreal = Mamõpe ereîkobé? Montrealpe aîkobé.
h) The men go to the boat, they are afraid = Abá ygarape osó, osykyîé.
i) He goes to the boy’s river = Kurumĩ 'ype osó.
j) Who are they? He is Pedro, she is Cecile = Abápe a'e? A'e Pedro, a'e Cecile.
k) A Portuguese talk to many natives = Peró abáetá supé onhe'eng.
l) We left the shore, we go to Carl’s house = Kûá suí îasem, Carl okape îasó. / Kûá suí orosem, Carl okape orosó.
m) Who is at the seashore? The Portuguese men are at the seashore, inside their ships. = Abápe 'yguasu kûápe oîkó? Peróetá 'yguasu kûápe ygarusu pupé oîkó.
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Postby Psi-Lord » 2003-10-19, 23:33

III. a) Mamõpe erepytá? (îakaré ‘y)
Îakaré 'ype apytá.

Where do you stay?
I stay on the Crocodile River.

b) Mamõpe peîkobé? (Tokyo)
Tokyope oroîkobé.

Where do you live?
We live in Tokyo.

c) Mamõpe eresó? (Hanover)
Hanoverpe asó.

Where do you go?
I go to Hanover.

d) Mamõpe ereîkó? (Ararakûara)
Ararakûarape aîkó.

Where are you?
I'm at Parrot's Burrow.

e) Abápe opytá São Paulope? (Maria)
Maria São Paulope opytá.

Who stays at São Paulo?
Maria does.

f) Abápe osem ygarusu suí? (peró)
Peró osem ygarusu suí.

Who leaves the ships?
The Portuguese do.

g) Abápe opytá ‘y kûápe? (paketá)
Paketá opytá 'y kûápe.

Who stays on the river shore?
The agoutis do.

h) Abápe oîkobé Coloradope? (abáetá)
Abáetá oîkobé Coloradope.

Who lives in Colorado?
The natives do. / The men do.

i) Mamõpe pepytá? (siri ‘y)
Siri 'ype oropytá.

Where do you stay?
I stay on the Crab River.

j) Abápe osykyîé? (Maria)
Maria osykyîé.

Who's afraid?
Maria is.
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Postby Pittsboy » 2003-10-20, 0:32

Comments:

Psi-Lord wrote:f) The natives talk to Maria = Abáetá Maria supé onhe'eng.


OR Abá Maria supé onhe'eng.

m) Who is at the seashore? The Portuguese men are at the seashore, inside their ships. = Abápe 'yguasu kûápe oîkó? Peróetá 'yguasu kûápe ygarusu pupé oîkó.


Correction = Abápe 'y kûápe oîkó? Peróetá 'y kûápe oîkó, ygarusu pupé oîkó.
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Postby Psi-Lord » 2003-10-20, 3:52

Thi, a question — you said the usual order is S-O-V, right? But is that so strict (as e.g. in Japanese) or may there be variations according to emphasis and the like?

Pittsboy wrote:Correction = Abápe 'y kûápe oîkó? Peróetá 'y kûápe oîkó, ygarusu pupé oîkó.

I guess I set the sentence having Japanese or something in my mind, hehe. :P Anyway, does '‘y' mean water in general? I mean, does it also mean 'sea' besides 'water' and 'river'? I guess I had the Iguaçu falls in my mind when I came up with '‘ygûasu', hehe. :oops:

It was fun doing the exercises — that was indeed something totally new for me. :)
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Postby Pittsboy » 2003-10-21, 3:27

Psi-Lord wrote:Thi, a question — you said the usual order is S-O-V, right? But is that so strict (as e.g. in Japanese) or may there be variations according to emphasis and the like?


In fact, NO, you can write sentences in Tupi as they were Portuguese as well, but the most common order was the SOV...

Pittsboy wrote:Correction = Abápe 'y kûápe oîkó? Peróetá 'y kûápe oîkó, ygarusu pupé oîkó.

I guess I set the sentence having Japanese or something in my mind, hehe. :P Anyway, does '‘y' mean water in general? I mean, does it also mean 'sea' besides 'water' and 'river'? I guess I had the Iguaçu falls in my mind when I came up with '‘ygûasu', hehe. :oops:[/quote]

'y means 'water' in general or 'river'.. I used 'y kûá for seashore because it is almost the same as river shore when it comes to that point when the river forms the delta which is going to the ocean
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Postby Pittsboy » 2003-10-21, 4:08

Psi, your exercises on III are correct, congrats... but I think you are the only on here interested in Tupi :(
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Postby Psi-Lord » 2003-10-21, 4:19

Pittsboy wrote:Psi, your exercises on III are correct, congrats... but I think you are the only on here interested in Tupi :(

I believe E}{pugnator's pretty much interested on it (I'm sure he's keeping an eye on the thread). And there was also that other guy who posted some questions about it once... What was his name again? Anyway, you bet it's been very interesting so far! :)

Eu acho que o E}{pugnator está bem interessado em tupi (tenho certeza de que ele tem dado uma olhada no curso). E também havia aquele outro cara que postou algumas perguntas sobre a língua uma vez... Qual era mesmo o nome dele? De qualquer forma, pode apostar que está interessantíssimo até agora! :)
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Postby Pittsboy » 2003-10-21, 4:42

Text 2

On the ship

The natives' chief talks to a Portuguese who has just left the ship:

- Kó abá tupinikyîa. Ixé morubixaba. Abápe endé?
- These natives are Tupi. I am the chief. Who are you?

Aîpó peró onhemokyriri~. Abá nhe'enga oîkóéeté.
That Portuguese shuts up. The natives' language is very different

Abá, a'e riré, peró ygarusupe osó. Morubixaba abé akûeî karaíba iru~namo osó.
The natives, later on, go to the ship of the Portuguese. The chief also goes with those white men.

Aîpó abá ygarusup okaru. Abá ygarusupe oker.
Those natives eat at the ship. The natives sleep on the ship.

Oîebyr a'e riré.
They come back later on.

Ps. Stupid dialogue, I know!
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Postby Pittsboy » 2003-10-21, 4:59

Out of curiosity: the name for Portuguese in Tupi (Peró) comes from the fact that this name Pero (as in Pero Vaz de Caminha) was a common name among the Portuguese settlers.
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