OK, so now I've tried to review everything I learned before, plus I learned the differences between the possessive suffixes and those suffixes on the verb that indicate what the subject is. The only differences are the 1SG and second person suffixes; the possessive ones are -y
, and -ykichis
and the verbal suffixes are -ni
, and -nkichis
. Oh, also, I found out that adverbs can be formed by adding -ta
in Cusco Quechua, so that might explain why the first word in the last example of Media Lengua in Shappeck's paper on it was ahidaga
I think I'll cover the next one, too: Yoga awabi kaimuni.
'I come after falling in the water.' The only new suffix here is -mu
...which is a "cislocative" suffix. What the hell is a "cislocative" suffix?
Oh, OK, it's a suffix that indicates "motion or activity towards or with respect to speaker." (The paper itself also says it "typically expresses movement towards the speaker" on p. 108).
And the next one (which is in Salcedo Quichua, not Media Lengua): Pidruwaka binishka wasipi nusutroman abisangabo
'Pedro went (came?) into the house to warn us'. -Wa
is apparently a diminutive suffix, but so far, the only diminutive suffix I can find in Cusco Quechua is -cha
Oh, another sidenote: I just found out that -y
can also be an imperative suffix in Quechua (even in Cusco, apparently).
So for example, uyariway
means 'listen to me!'. Doesn't totally explain the use of that suffix in the example I had from two posts ago, though (the last example I covered from this paper). (Oh, wait a minute, never mind. I already knew that. I've even encountered that -wa suffix before - actually, I've seen both in yachapayawaychis
OK, whatever, I guess I'll just let that -wa
suffix remain a mystery. -Shka
is the 3rd person singular "sudden discovery tense" marker. This website
explains that it "marks an event or state affairs of which the speaker was unaware at its moment of inception, of which he/she became suddenly aware, and which may or may not have come to an end by the time he/she became thus aware." In Cusco Quechua, the equivalent is -sqa
is a directional suffix in Cusco Quechua and probably is in Salcedo as well. I think once again, -nga
corresponds to Cusco Quechua -na
I thought of looking at the kinship terminology again, but I don't really feel like trying to learn all that right now.
Well, I thought of maybe learning some more colors, but then I'd have to go figure out what the correct forms of the words listed are on that website I'm using to learn those words. Maybe I'll do that a little later. First, I'll go over the kinship terms after all.
So there's qusa
'man's son', ususi
'man's daughter', wawa
'woman's child', qhari wawa
'woman's male child', warmi wawa
'woman's female child' (I'm using the words 'male' and 'female' here to indicate that the gender needs to be specified with a separate word), and what else?
Oh OK, the other words are wayqi
'man's brother', pana
'man's sister', tura
'woman's brother', and ñaña
Oh, huh, just now, I found that on the Quechua Wikipedia, the word tiyay
'to sit' seems to be used to show the location of some small towns or whatever in Peru, so then I was wondering what sayariy
'to stand' was used for. Pretty much the only thing I found for sayariy
was the article on erections.
means 'sepia', and p'aqu
means 'brown' (though the website says 'golden'; the Quechua Wikipedia says it's the color of alpacas, which are paqu
, apparently. Don't know which of these exists in Cusco Quechua yet). Also, previously introduced in Rikita's second lesson was yana
'black', and she immediately showed in that lesson that it can be used idiomatically: yanay
means 'my love' or 'my partner' (though it literally means 'my black').
Hopefully I remember all of these words!