Cusco Quechua

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Rikita
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Cusco Quechua

Postby Rikita » 2006-08-11, 20:58

So, since some people expressed interest, and since I myself am also quite interested in Quechua, and most familiar with the version from Cusco, I will start this thread about it now.

I put it in this forum, as it was suggested this might be the best idea, and because of its close relation to Quichua. Should bluechiron not agree with that, she can of course move it, or tell me to delete it, as this it is a bit off-topic for the topic of this forum...

I have to first say that I am nowhere near fluent in Quechua, I am actually still a beginner, in part due to the difficulty to find good courses as long as I am here in Germany. So this thread is more of an experiment, in which I will work with lessons from books I own, and try to explain the basics. I hope this will also help me, and be a good motivation for me to learn on... So we will see whether it works...

Good, this was the introduction, hehe. Next post to follow...

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Postby Rikita » 2006-08-11, 21:52

Some more general things as an introduction...

The word Quechua - or Qhiswa, Qhichwa, Qheswa (ortography varies, also according to the dialect) - means in fact a specific climatical zone, that of the Andean valleys. That is, the zone above the jungles (Yunga). After the Quechua zone follow Suni, Puna and the highest, Cordillera. I am not sure why they gave the language the name of that zone, but maybe it was because it is especially good for agriculture, and thus a lot of Quechua speakers lived there.

The speakers themselves call the language runa simi, from runa = people, person, and simi = mouth, language.

It is said to be the most widely spoken Amerindian language, with depending on the estimate between 8 and 12 million speakers, and spoken mainly in Ecuador (Quichua), Peru, and Bolivia, but also in small parts of Colombia, Argentina, and Chile. Of course the variety is quite big, and it is often said to be a language family rather than a language...

According to Alfredo Torero, there are two main varieties which he calls Quechua I and Quechua II. Quechua I (which he also called Waywash) is the central one and spoken mainly in the surroundings of Huancayo and Huaraz in Peru. Quechua II (also Wampuy) is spoken both to the North in Northern Peru, Ecuador, and small parts of Colombia, and to the South in Southern Peru (for example Ayacucho, Cusco, Puno), in Bolivia, and small parts of Chile and Argentina. So as you can see, Quichua and Cusco Quechua belong to the same main variety.

Quechua II has according to Torero the following varieties: Quechua II a (Yunkay, spoken in zentral and northern Peru), Quechua II b (Chinchay, Kichwa from Ecuador and Colombia, and some small Kichwa areas in the Peruvian Amazone), and Quechua II c (Chanka in Ayacucho, Huancavelica and northern Apurimac in Peru, and Qusqu-Qullaw in southern Apurimac, Cusco and Puno in Peru, and in Bolivia, Argentina and Chile). Quechua II c seems to have the highest number of speakers, and its dialects are said to be relatively mutually intelligible.

One of the problems in learning Quechua is the big differences both between different learning materials (which often don't specify exactly WHICH Quechua they are teaching) and even within the same book (more than once they spelled the same word in different ways without mentioning any reason for it... Also, a lot of texts are written in very different ways, some writers will just use spanish ortography and make up their own ways to express those sounds that don't exist in Spanish - this is especially the case in older texts. In 1946 the first official alphabete was introduced, and another one in 1975, in the 80s they tried to turn these two into one, but there remain debates, for example about whether three or five vowels should be used.

Just as an example about the different writings - when José María Arguedas in his books "Yawar Fiesta" or "Los rios profundos" uses the combination "k'" he seems to mean the same sound that according to the official spelling of Cusco, Ayacucho, etc. Quechua is "q" (rather than "k'" which in Cusco Quechua is a very different sound), and which in the old cronicles is often found as "cc".

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Postby Alcadras » 2006-08-12, 9:48

Keep good work,Rikita!
:wink:

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Postby Nero » 2006-08-12, 23:39

Rikita Yusulpayki!

I am happy to see the native american forums active again. Keep up the good work!
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Postby Rikita » 2006-08-15, 0:25

hey... sorry it took me a few days to get back...

okay, now I will write a few notes about the pronounciation and orthography... I don't know IPA very well, so I just use it were I find it very necessary... Sorry about that... For some of the examples and comparisons I use the Lonely planet phrase book. Others are from Curso de Quechua en 40 lecciones by Mario Mejia Huaman.

1. Vowels

And we are right at one of those points the Quechua specialist argue about: Does Quechua have three vowels, or five?

The thing is, there are five main vowel sounds (A, E, I, O, U) - but only three vowel phonemes (/a/, /i/ und /u/). /e/ and /o/ are in fact allophones of /i/ and /u/. To be more precise, the letters A, I and U usually represent the sounds [æ], [ɪ], [ʊ] but when they are near the uvular consonants Q, QH and Q' they represent [ɑ], [ɜ], [ɔ].

The thing with this is, quite a few people (between them the Academia de la lengua Quechua in Cusco) are of the opinion that an orthography with five vowels is more precisely representing the pronounciation. So, for example, they would write "Erqe" for "child", or "Orqo" for "mountain" or "male animal", or "Qosqo" for Cusco (and my former teacher, who though I have a bit of my own opinion about, claimed there would be boht a word "Orqo" and a word "Urqu", with different meaning).

Others, in Cusco for example represented by the Centro Bartolomé de las Casas, say that writing three vowels is orientating too much on Spanish orthography, and they prefer three vowels, thus writing "Irqi" or "Urqu" or "Qusqu".

An additional problem here comes up with Spanish loan words or names. Some books will write "Albertu", others will write "Alberto"... But if one listens to Quechua speakers speaking Spanish, they sometimes have indeed trouble pronouncing the E and O, it sounds a bit like "Buynus diyas, siñurita"...

2. Diphthongs

In the official orthography Diphthongs are not represented by two vowels, but rather with the use of W and Y:
aw (au), ay (ai), iw (iu), uy (ui)

3. Consonants

One of the distinctive features of Cusco Quechua (similar and probably taken from Aymara) are aspirated and ejective versions of plosive consonants (CH, K, P, Q, T). This is represented by adding an H or an ' to the letter.

Thus, K is a simple k sound like in spanish "cara", while KH adds an aspiration to the sound (like in german "Katze", maybe stronger), and K' means there is a little stop of the airflow after the sound. That last one is the most difficult, I find, but at the same time makes the typical sound Cusco Quechua... Other varieties even of Quechua II c don't have this distinction...

The consonant sounds are (I always explain the plain version):

CH', CH, CHH - CH is pronounced similarly to Spanish, or to english "church"...
ch'aki = dry; ch'aka = sore throat, hoarse
chakra = farm, field; chaka = bridge
chhalay = to barter, to exchange

H - contrary to Spanish it is pronounced
hatun = big

K', K, KH - like the C in cara
k'apak = exact, exactly
kay = to be
kharka = dirty

L - as in land
Lawa = soup

LL - like lli in billion - in Quechua there is no yeísmo! and through the influence of that, most people from Quechua speaking regions also clearly distinguish LL and Y when they speak spanish.
llama - llama

M - as in much
Mama - mom, Mrs.

N - as in note
nina = fire

Ñ similar to Spanish
ñiqin - first

P', P, PH - as in spot
p'acha = dress, clothes
pacha = world, universe, space, time
phiña = angrz

Q', Q, QH - a bit like German ch in Ach, but pronounced further back in the throat
q'ipi = pack, backpack
quri = gold
qhapaq = powerful, rich

R - short rolled r like in spanish pero
raymi = festival

S - voiceless s, but in some varieties it can approach a sh sound, especially before i (in Andean Spanish, I think due to this, some people also pronounce s, c, or z like sh, if it comes before a diphthong starting with i - like siete pronounced as shiete, cien pronounced as shien, gasiosa pronounced as gashiosa...(
sara - corn, mais

SH - like sh in short
kashay = to be

T', T, TH - like t in stop
t'anta = bread
tanta = group
thanta = old, worn out

W - semivowel, used in diphthongs
Wasi = house

Y - semivowel, used in diphthongs
yana = black

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Postby Rikita » 2006-08-17, 21:51

Ñawpaq ñeqen yachay - lesson one

(I am in part using "Quechua en 40 lecciones" by Mario Mejía Huamán for this lesson. He uses, however, the pentavocalica, and since I prefer the trivocalica I change it to that, except in names. Since his book seems more geared at a class room situation where a teacher can directly answer questions, I try to add some more dialogues, and vocabulary and explanations.)

1. Rimakuy:
Napaykunakuy:
Jorge: Imaynallan? Allillanchu?
Pedro: Allillanmi. Qanri?
Jorge: Nuqapas allillanmi, wayna.

Rosa: Imaynallan kashanki?
Carmen: Allillanmi. Qanri?
Rosa: Nuqapas allillanmi, sipas.

Tayta Juan: Allillanchu?
Jorge: Allillanmi, wiraqucha. Allillanchu?
Tayta Juan: Allillanmi.

2. Musuq simikuna (new words):

napa - greeting, the action of greeting
napaykuy - to greet, to show respect
napaykunakuy - to greet each other

ima - what?
imayna - how?
imaynalla - and how?
imaynallan? - how are you?
imaynallan kashanki? - how are you?

alli - good
allillan - exactly good, just good, just fine
allillanmi - just good, just fine (in an answer)
allillanchu? - is it good? (how are you?)

The part above is, as you can see, about greetings - and this is in my opinion already one of the more complicated parts when it comes to Quechua courses, because greetings have a lot to do with conventions that can vary according to region, time, and social situation... My quechua teacher in Berlin (who is from Ayacucho) told us, that the "good" word for greeting someone would be "Awmaryay", meaning something like "Hello, good day". I never heard that word used, at least not in the Cusco region. In fact, I never heard anyone at all say any equivalent for Hello in Quechua. If at all, the Spanish forms "Buenos dias", "Buenas tardes" seemed to be used. What seemed more common was greeting someone with how are you - even those taht speak Spanish in that reagion seemed to greet more often by saying "Como estas".

Now the next thing is how to say "How are you". Most books I have seen seem to suggest "Imaynallan", "Imaynallan kashanki", but the most common form I have heard is "Allillanchu" - though I have heard the other forms as well.

wiraqucha - mister (polite), Sir, title of respect
quya - missus (polite), Ma'am, Queen
wayna - young man, boy
sipas - young woman, girl

To these forms I would want to add "Tayta" - Mr. and "Mama" - Mrs. According to the Lonely Planet Phrasebook of Quechua, tayta or taytay, and mama or mamay followed by the name are the safest form of address to use to a Quechua speaker. They can, according to the phrase book, only be used with the name (tayta Juan, mama Marsilina), while wiraqucha can be used without one - the phrase book doesn't list quya, and I have never heard the form used, but again, it might depend on region or circumstances. I am however pretty sure that I have heard "Taytay" and "Mamay" used without name, for example at the end of phrases.

qan - you
qanri? - and you?
nuqa - I
nuqapas - me too

When someone asked you how you are, the logical reply seems to be "Good, and you?" but I was told that the "and you?" ("qanri?") part is in fact considered rude, if you don't know someone well. Appearantly you shouldn't just call anyone "qan". People had difficulties to suggest ways out of it though, I suppose the most secure thing is to just say the whole question again (I.e. "allillanchu" or "imaynallan kashanki") until you are sure you can use "qanri".

Ayllunchispa runakuna - the people of the family:
qusa - husband
warmi - wife, woman
churi - son (of a man)
ususi - daughter (of a man)
wawa - child (of a woman)
qhari wawa - male child
warmi wawa - female child
wayqi - brother of a man
pana - sister of a man
tura - brother of a woman
ñaña - sister of a woman
tayta, tata, papa - father
mama, manta - mother

The first thing to notice here, is that traditionally men refer to their children as their son (churi) or daughter (ususi), while women refer to them as their child (wawa) and if necessary specify the gender of the child by adding the word for man (qhari) or woman (warmi).

Also, men use a different word for their brother (wayqi) and sister (pana) than women (tura, ñaña). Especially the word "wayqi" seems quite common not only for real siblings, but just as a way of creating familiarity with someone, so you could call your (male) friends "wayqi" (if you are male yourself, of course)...

As for the words for mother and father, they seem to vary by region - the word "manta" is not one I found in books, but in "my" village near Cusco it seemed the most commonly used one.

3. Gramatika yachay (Grammar):

a) Runa simi or Quechua has the following word order: Subject, Object, Verb (SOV)...
Nuqa yachaq kani - I student am (I am a student)
Nuqa runasimi yachaqmi kani - I quechua student am

b) Okay, here the book gives one of those amusing explanations that are quite similar to the way my quechua teacher at university talked, I will put it here in Spanish for those that understand - now imagine your teacher talking like this all the time, leaving out any real information while doing so, hehe... - "El runasimi, es un idioma rico, bello y muy delicado en sus expresiones; para ello, utiliza un sin numero de posposiciones, las mismas que reciben el nombre de enfáticas o aseverativas."

Well anyway, here the first two of these suffixes:
-n/-mi and -qa

-n is in fact a variation of -mi: -n is used after vowels, -mi after consonants (runasimitan - yachaqmi). It indicates a statement of something you know from personal experiences, or emphasizes the answer. It is very commonly used in answer to questions with "-chu". Btw, in Ayacucho the suffix would be -m/-mi.

-qa is a topic marker

More suffixes already used in the text, that aren't in the grammar section of Mejía Huamán's book yet, though, are -pas (a variation is -pis), meaning "also, too, as well", -chu - marking in this case a question, and -ri - which can roughly be translated into "and ...?"

c) Personal pronouns

nuqa - I
qan - you
pay - he, she, it

nuqanchis - we (inclusive)
nuqayku - we (exclusive)
qankuna - you (plural)
paykuna - they

As you can see, there are two forms for "we" - the inclusive form includes the people that are being spoken to, while the exclusive form excludes them. Thus, I could say "Nuqanchis runasimita yachashanchis." - "Me and you, we are learning Quechua." but "Nuqayku Berlinpi kayku." - "Me and (my brother/my friends/whoever), we are in Berlin, but not you."

For interest, in Ayacucho the pronouns would be:
ñuqa, qan, pay, ñuqanchik, ñuqayku, qankuna, paykuna

4. Exercises

a) Write several short dialogues in which Manuel, Tayta Victor, María and Mama Luisa ask each other how they are.

b) The following words are written in Trivocalica writing. If you would use Pentavocalica writing, how would you write them (with other words, where would you pronounce I and U like E and O)?

Qusqu, qhari, qispi, isqun, kawsay, khipu, lluq'i, lulukuq, machasqa, huq

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Postby Rikita » 2006-08-19, 21:38

hi... i hoped i manage another lesson before i go on my trip, but i think i won't... sorry... but as soon as i am back i will... that gives you some time to write those small conversations...

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Postby Nero » 2006-08-20, 3:31

[23:28] <noir> VSL Quechua seems to be quite good
[23:28] <noir> Rikita put a lot of efforts in it for sure
[23:28] <Nero> yes indeed

Nice to see the lessons, Rikita. It looks like a lot of work. Have a good trip, bon voyage! :partyhat:
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Postby Karavinka » 2006-08-20, 4:52

Buenos tardes. :D

Manuel: Imaynallan kasanki, wiraqucha.
Tayta Victor: Allillanmi, wayqi. Allilanchu?
Manuel: Allilanmi. Pay Maria kan. Pay pana kan.
Maria: Imaynallan?
Tayta Victor: Allilanmi.
Manuel: Nuqa runasimi yachaqmi kani. Qanri?
Tayta Victor: Nuqapas. Pay runasimi yachaq kan?
Manuel: Paypas.

This is my best try. I looked up -n for pay on wikipedia, but that's because I wanted to make it as long as I can possibly make.. :wink:

Good work, Rikita. I haven't seen such a quality course on VSL for a very long time.
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Postby Karavinka » 2006-08-26, 7:31

A question: I noticed 'runakuna' (people) and 'simikuna' (words) on lesson 1. Does the Quechua word 'Runasimi' mean 'Language of the People'? If so, where does the word 'Quechua' come from?
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Postby Rikita » 2006-08-27, 9:45

hehe noir, actually i say that in the introduction... it comes from the word qhiswa or qiswa or similar, which means "andean valley", or the climatic zone roughly between 2500 m and 3500 m (i think, i could be wrong with the altitude).

yes, runasimi means language of the people...

as for your text - some tiny mistakes, else quite good... it should be kashanki, rather than kasanki, though actually i have seen the spelling kasanki in some quechua versions as well... and allillanmi - twice two l.
the "kan" is actually often left out, so "pay maria" should be enough, i think. this is only so for the third person though.
anyway, i have to go on... greetings from sweden, i will write more when i am home, that is middle of september (or maybe a little bit from on the way).

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Postby EROZ » 2006-08-28, 22:35

Good Job Rikita!!!

Remember that just because I don't post dosen't mean I'm not following it.

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Postby Karavinka » 2006-08-31, 0:16

Oops.. I guess I didn't read introduction carefully ;) I was glad to see a quality course and I rushed in ;)
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Postby Rikita » 2006-09-16, 19:23

I am back! I will try to post a new lesson now as soon as possible...

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Postby Rikita » 2006-09-16, 21:52

A few extra words, important for classroom situations (not so much online though, I guess):

Sayariychis - stand up
Tiyaychis - sit down

Uyariychis - Attention, listen
Qhepayta rimaychis - repeat after me
Yachapayawaychis - repeat

And some generally important phrases

Ama hinachu kaychis - please
Añay - thanks
Imamanta - You are welcome
Mana imamantapas - You are welcome
Arí - Yes
Mana - No

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Postby Rikita » 2006-09-16, 22:02

noir wrote:Buenos tardes. :D

Manuel: Imaynallan kasanki, wiraqucha.
Tayta Victor: Allillanmi, wayqi. Allilanchu?
Manuel: Allilanmi. Pay Maria kan. Pay pana kan.
Maria: Imaynallan?
Tayta Victor: Allilanmi.
Manuel: Nuqa runasimi yachaqmi kani. Qanri?
Tayta Victor: Nuqapas. Pay runasimi yachaq kan?
Manuel: Paypas.

This is my best try. I looked up -n for pay on wikipedia, but that's because I wanted to make it as long as I can possibly make.. :wink:

Good work, Rikita. I haven't seen such a quality course on VSL for a very long time.

A few more comments to your text:

You write - "Pay pana kan." - do you want to say "She is my sister? Or whose sister? In case of "my sister" it would be "panay" - but of course I didn't explain the possessives yet, so you can't know that... As a little pre-information, it would be: my sister - panay, your sister - panayki, his/her sister - panan, our sister - pananchis/panayku, your sister - panaykichis, their sister - pananku... That will be explained more closely in the next lesson...

Also, you wrote "Pay runasimi yachaq kan?" - For yes/no questions you have to add the question-suffix "-chu", which you also know from "allillanchu" (this in fact doesn't mean "how are you?", but rather "are you good" - so it is a yes/no question)... With leaving out the kan it might also be "pay runasimi yachaqchu?" or if from context it is clear who, maybe even "runasimi yachaqchu?" I think the position of the -chu can vary, depending on what you put into question (like, if you use the "kan", and add the -chu, then it would be more a question of "is there a quechua student, does the quechua student exist?")...

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Postby Rikita » 2006-09-18, 16:02

Iskay Ñeqen Yachay - Second Lesson

(Again I am using the same book, but adding some of my own comments and things from other books).

A. Rimakuy: "¿Iman sutiyki?"

Juan: ¿Iman sutiyki?
Pedro: Sutiyqa Pedron. ¿Taytaykiq sutinri?
Juan: Taytaypa suntinqa Juanmi.
Pedro: ¿Mamaykiq sutinri?
Juan: Mamaypa sutinqa T'ika.

B. Musuq simikuna

suti - name
tayta - father
mama - mother
t'ika - flower
pawqar - colour
umalliq - president, director, boss
llaqta - village
chakra - field
yana - black
yanay - my love, my partner
hamawt'a - teacher, wise man
suyu - region
hunt'ay - completar, llenar
niy - to say

(If you are missing more words to understand the text, here a little tip: Look into lesson one.)

C. Gramatica Yachay: Posessives

The possessive in Quechua actually consists of two parts - the possessive ending that is put on the end of that what is possessed (suti-y = name-my) and which differentiate the person of the possessor (i.e. similar to "my", "your", "his" etc.) - and there is a genitive ending, that is put at the end of the possessor, and that is just one ending.

This kind of redundancy does also reflect itself in Andean spanish, where a lot of people will say "de Pedro su casa" instead of "la casa de Pedro". Translated into English it's like saying "Peter's his house"...

The possessive endings for words ending in a vowel are:

-y
-yki
-n
-nchis
-yku
-ykichis
-nku

For example:

Taytay - my father
taytayki - your father
taytan - his father
taytanchis - our father (inclusive)
taytayku - our father (exclusive)
taytaykichis - your father
taytanku - their father

For words ending in consonant the sillable "ni" is put between the word and the ending:

-niy
-niyki
-nin
-ninchis
-niyku
-niykichis
-ninku

For example:

pawqarniy - my color
pawqarniyki - your color
pawqarnin - his color
pawqarninchis - our color (inclusive)
pawqarniyku - our color (exclusive)
pawqarniykichis - your color
pawqarninku - your color

The words ending in vowel are a lot more common though, I think... Had trouble thinking in one with consonant... Maybe my mind is just a bit blocked, hehe.

The genetive ending aren't in the book at this part, but I think it is a good idea to learn the at the same time as the possessive. For words ending in a vowel the ending is "-q", for words ending in consonant, the ending is "-pa".

So you would get, for example:

t'ikaq pawqarnin - the flower's color
umalliqpa taytan - the boss's father

A more complicated relation of possession can be expressed through combination of the suffixes:

mamaypa taytan - my mother's father
mamaypa taytanpa sutin - my mother's father's name
and similar...

The genitive ending is also sometimes put on pronouns - for example to stress "MY name is ..." you might say "Nuqapa sutiymi ...".

Other suffixes you can see used in the text are "-qa" which you already got to know in lesson one as a topic marker - in the case of the text above it is used, because the name was already asked for, and now when repeating it (the word suti) it has the -qa added to it.

There is also the -n and -mi which I have spoken about in the first lesson. Since the question asked for something specific (someone's name) the part of the answer that contains the required information had the ending added - Pedron, Juanmi. As far as I understand it in these cases it isn't obligatory (and in the third answer it says just "T'ika", without suffix, but can be used to emphasize the answer.

The ending -ri is also known from the first lesson, and in this case is used because it is like a row of questions (what's your name? and what's your father's name? and what's your mother's name?).

D. Translate:

My name is Pedro/Juan.
My father's name is Pablo/David.
My mother's name is Justina/Quyllur.
My brother's name is Ivan/T'itu. (pretend first you are a guy, then you are a girl)
My sister's name Maria. (again pretend first you are a guy, then a girl).

E. Kutichikuy kay tapukuykunata - answer these questions:

¿Iman sutiyki?
¿Iman taytaykiq sutin?
¿Iman mamaykiq sutin?
¿Iman yanaykiq sutin?
¿Iman hamawt'aykiq sutin?
¿Iman suyunchis umalliqpa sutin?

F. Ñawinchay (not sure what that means, but since ñawi is eye, I suppose it is something for the eye, i.e. a text - you should try to guess the meaning, even if you lack some words and suffixes for it.)

Juan: ¿Iman sutiyki?
Pedro: Sutiyqa Pedron.
Juan: ¿Taytaykimantari? (manta - from - here they are asking for the first last name, i.e. father's last name - as you might know in some countries there are two last names used, one being the father's the other being the mother's)
Pedro: Taytaymantaqa Waman.
Juan: ¿Mamaykimantari?
Pedro: Mamaymantaqa Qispi.
Juan: Hunt'asqata sutiykita niqay.
Pedro: Sutiyqa, Pedro Waman Qispi.

G. Kutichikuy kay tapukuykunata

¿Iman sutiyki?
¿Taytaykimantari?
¿Mamaykimantari?
¿Iman taytaykiq sutin?
¿Iman mamaykiq sutin?
¿Iman qanpa sutiyki?
¿Iman wayqeykikunaq sutin?
¿Iman panaykikunaq sutin?
¿Iman turaykikunaq sutin?
¿Iman ñañaykikunaq sutin?

User avatar
Karavinka
Posts: 2000
Joined: 2004-04-24, 4:00
Gender: male
Country: CA Canada (Canada)

Postby Karavinka » 2006-09-25, 21:11

It took some time to understand this genitive/possessive system.. it's just nothing like the languages I learned befoe! :D This is my best try, but I'm not quite certain about them yet..

Again, nice work, Rikita! :D


[spoiler]
D

1. Sutiyqa Pedron/Juanmi
2. Taytaypa sutinqa Pablon/Davidmi
3. Mamaypa sutinqa Justinan/Quyllurmi
4. Wayqiypa sutinqa Ivanmi / Turaypa sutinqa T'itun
5. Panaypa sutinqa Marian / Ñañaypa sutinqa Marian

E

1. Nuqapa sutiy noirmi.
2. Tataypa sutiqa Pedron.
3. Mamaypa sutinqa Marian.
4. Yanaypa sutinqa Annan.

(Of course, names for E are just made up here..)[/spoiler]
↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ← → ← → B A
Linguistic Masochism: Spoiler Alert: Turkish

User avatar
Rikita
Posts: 585
Joined: 2005-05-22, 1:44
Gender: female
Location: Bln, Dtl

Postby Rikita » 2006-09-26, 21:16

hi... very good, a few small mistakes but all in all quite good... i have to be back up and at work in just a few hours, so i hope you forgive me if i correct it in the next days... in the meantime, you could also try to answer the questions at G if you want...

User avatar
Rikita
Posts: 585
Joined: 2005-05-22, 1:44
Gender: female
Location: Bln, Dtl

Postby Rikita » 2006-10-01, 16:56

silly computer deleted what i wrote... second try...
[spoiler]
E

1. Nuqapa sutiy noirmi. - nuqapa sutiymi noir is also possible, and would in the first moment sound better to me, but i think it might have to do with what you want to stress...
2. Tataypa sutiqa Pedron. - tataypa sutinqa pedron.
(Of course, names for E are just made up here..)[/spoiler][/quote]


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