Massimiliano's Powwow Thread

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Massimiliano B
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Real Name: Massimiliano Bavieri
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Re: Massimiliano's Powwow Thread

Postby Massimiliano B » 2018-01-25, 22:27

Oneida (Onʌyotaʔa:ka)


Oneida has no adjectives. It has verbs with adjectival meaning:

-atunháhele = to be happy

yakotunháhele (yako- + -atunháhele) = she is happy.


-attókha = to be smart

luttókha (lu- + -attókha) = they are smart


An adjectival verb can incorporate nouns:

-owa•nʌ́ = to be big

kanúhsote = house, building

kanuhsowa•nʌ́ = (it's) a big house



Creek (Mvskoke)


ADVERBS

adjective+n

hvlvlatkē = 'slow' -- hvlvlatkēn = 'slowly'

Cepanat hvlvlatkēn lētkes (The-boy slowly is-running) = The boy is running slowly.

Hoktē atvmo lvsten hvlvlatkēn svtohkes (woman-a car black-indef. slowly is-driving) = A woman is driving a black car slowly.


In the previous chapter, I had understood that a noun in the basic form like hoktē is definite, but in this chapter the basic form has an indefinite meaning. I also understood that when a noun ends in -at, it is indefinite, but in the sentence above it is definite. The sentences in the previous chapter that led me to that conclusion are the following:

Hoktē vholocē hēces (Woman-definite-subject cloud-definite-object see-3pers) = The woman sees the cloud.

Cepanat svtv catan hompes (boy-indefinite.subject apple red-definite.object eat-3sing) = A boy is eating the red apple.

The translations (and the glosses of the first sentence) are given in the book (pages 47 and 49). Are they perhaps wrong?



Blackfoot (Aamsskáápipikani)


If I want to say "I can ..." I have to combine the verb root akot-/akoz (to can) with the main verb:

nitakozaipuyi (nit-akoz-ai-puyi) = I can speak.

The verb "to want" is aiahs(i):

nitaiahsuyi (nit-aiahs-uyi) = I want to eat.

The verb "to go to (do)" is formed by oto and the main verb:

nitakotoaisumosi (nitak-oto-aisumosi) = I go to get water.

To say "try to" I have to use asak-:

nitasaksami (nit-asak-sami)= I try tu hunt

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Massimiliano B
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Re: Massimiliano's Powwow Thread

Postby Massimiliano B » 2018-02-13, 16:19

I've been busy in the last weeks. From now till the end of the Powwow I'll focus only on Ditidaht.


baqqii tii. (What this) = What is this?

ɫicɫiba yaa. (mat that) = That is a mat.

The same question can be answered by pointing at the number of the items:
baqqii tii. (What this) = What is this?
c̓awaaʔka ɫicɫib. (One-is mat) = There is one mat / They are three mats. In the book only the first translation is given.

A more precise question would be the following one:
ʔadiiqii tii. (How many that/there) = How many are there?

this one:
ʔadiiqii ɫicɫib. = (How many mat) = How many mats are there?

and this one:
ʔadiiqii ɫicɫib ʔiyax̌ tii. (How-many mats lie there) = "How many mats are here?". I don't find in the book the exact meaning of ʔiyax̌ . I think it means something like "to lie"

We can answer them in this way:
hayaaʔaks.= I don't know
or
qakac̓ʔa ɫicɫib. (Three-are mat) = There are three mats. qakac̓ means "three" qakac̓ʔa means "They are three".

Number four in Ditidaht is buu, while in Salishan languages it is mu/mus. They are clearly related.

Neither interrogation mark nor capital letters are used in Ditidaht.

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Massimiliano B
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Re: Massimiliano's Powwow Thread

Postby Massimiliano B » 2018-02-23, 22:16

ʔiix̌ ʔa tii (big-is this) = This is big
wikʔa ʔiix̌ tii (not-is big this) = This is not big
ʔinux̌ ʔa tii (small-is this) = This is small.

ƛuukʷšiiʔda yaa (Raven-is that) = That is a raven
ʔiix̌ ʔa ƛuukʷšiiʔdaq (Big-is raven-the) = The raven is big.

The suffix -ʔaq is similar to the determinative article "the".


1. haac̓ʔa ɫaax̌ʷuʔkʷ (tall-is youth) = He is a tall youth.
2. haac̓ʔa ɫaax̌ʷuʔkʷaq (tall-is youth-the) = The youth is tall.
3. haac̓ʔa tii ɫaax̌ʷuʔkʷaq (tall-is this youth-the) = This youth is tall.

So, the first sentence has no "definite article", and the "declarative suffix" -ʔa is at the end of the adjective. The second sentence differs from the first one just for the presence of the "definite article" at the end of the noun. The sentence is the opposite of the English equivalent. The third sentence has the demonstrative adjective before the noun. The sequence is "demonstrative - noun+def.art.". Literally it is "this youth-the". The demonstrative and the article occur at the same time.


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