I'll add some explanations to my previous post.
I use An introduction to Nitinaht Language and Culture, by Tom Hess and John Thomas
ʔ is a glottal stop.
č is like ch in 'chin'
q is a voiceless uvular stop, like the Arabic letter ق
x̌ is a voiceless uvular fricative /X/ - like ch in the German word/surname 'Bach'
ʷ is a labialization, like English w
a)ʔačqik. -- Who-you-interr. = Who are you?
b)ʔux̌ʷs John. to-be-I(affirmative) John = I am John
a) ʔačqii yaa. -- who-IIIp. that-one? = Who is he?
b) ʔux̌ʷʔa Paul. -- to-be-he(affirm.) Paul = He is Paul.
a)ʔačqiks. -- Who-I-interr. =Who am I
b) ʔux̌ʷas William. -- to-be-you(affirm.) William = You are William.
ʔačqiks. -- Who-I-interr. = Who am I?
ʔačqik. -- Who-you-interr. = Who are you?
ʔačqii yaa. -- who-he-interr. that-one = Who is he?
ʔačqikid. -- who-we-interr. = Who are we?
ʔačqiksu. -- who-you-all-interr. = Who are you all?
The stem ʔač- means "who?", while the suffixes used for questions are -qiks (I), -qik "you", -qii "he/she/it", -qikid "we", -qiksu "you all". The book does not give the form for the third person plural. These suffixes are called "informational" and are used with words that are inherently interrogative. They are open questions which requires open answers.
The stem ʔux̌ʷ - is composed of the "non interrogative root" ʔu-, "often used in contexts where the information is not new" (p. 106), and x̌ (being) (p. 129). The labialization (ʷ) is probably the effect of the preceding vowel "u".
The suffixes -s in ʔux̌ʷs (I am) is the first person singular affirmative; -ʔas in ʔux̌ʷas (you are) is the second person singular affirmative; -ʔa in ʔux̌ʷa (he/she/it is) is the third person singular affirmative.
I use Lessons in Hopi, by Milo Calectaca.
' is a glottal stop.
a) Um hin maatsiwa? -- You how to-be-named? = What is your name?
b) Nu' Ron yan maatsiwa -- I Ron thus to-be-named. = My name is Ron
Nu' means "I", um means "you", itam means "we"
Nu' pitu means "I arrive", um pitu means "you arrive" etc... The verb seems very easy, at least for the moment.
I use Kawalangim tunugan kaduuǧingin - Eastern Aleut Grammar and Lexicon, by Knut Bergsland and Moses Dirks.
x̂ is a voiceless uvular fricative /X/ - like ch in the German word/surname 'Bach'
x is a voiceless velar fricative, like the letter x in Russian.
Ayagaadax̂ chitaayakux̂ -- Girl-(x̂ =singular) to-be-reading-(x̂ =singular) = The girl is reading
Ayagaadan chitaayakun -- Girls to-be-reading-plur. = The girls are reading
Ayagadax chitaayakux -- girl-(dual) to-be-reading = Two girl are reading
Ayagaada means "girl". The ending -x̂ indicates the singular, apparently both of the nouns and of the verb. -n is the plural. x is the dual ending.
I use Oneida teaching grammar, by Clifford Abbot.
The letter h is pronounced even before consonants.
Kunolúhkwa -- I-you(ku-)-to-love (-noluhkwa) = I love you.
Sknolùhkwa -- You-me-to-love = You love me
The last syllable (-kwa) of the verb is whispered. In the prefix ku- 'I' is the doer and 'you' is the receiver. In the prefix sk-, "you" is the doer and "I" is the receiver.
I use Pum opunvkv, pun yvhiketv, pun fulletv - Our language, our songs, our way, by Jack Martin, Margaret Mauldin, Gloria McCarty.
c = as "chin".
v is a schwa.
e = short "i" as in "hit".
o = long "o" as in "code".
ǒ = short "o" as "hotel".
i = like "ay" in "day".
Double consonants are geminated, as in Italian, Japanese, or Arabic
The sequence sh is pronounced s-h.
Heyv cokvt ǒs -- This book-subject is = This is a book.
Mv eshoccickvt ǒs -- That pen-subject is = That is a pen.
Heyv cokvt ǒwv -- This book-subj is-interr. = Is this a book
The suffix -t is the definit article. The verb "to be" is ǒs in the affirmative form. The interrogative form is ǒwv.
I use Amskapi pikuni language lessons.
Nitapotaki anóm -- I-(ni-)-to-work(-apotaki) / here = I work here. The letter -t- is a "go-between"
Kitapotaki -- you(sing)-to-work = You work.
Nitapotakihpinan -- we-to-work-(we) = We work
Kitapotakihpuwaw -- you-plur-to-work-(you.plur) = you all work.
Ni- "I", ki- "you", ni-verb-hpinan "we", ki-verb-hpuwaw "you all"
Apotaki = "to work".
I use A beginning course in Salish and Pend d'Oreille Dialect
ɫ is a voiceless alveolar lateral fricative.
ʷ is a labialization, like English w.
swe ɫu askʷest? -- What / (secondary-importance) / your-name? = What is your name?
John ɫu iskʷest -- John(secondary-importance) my-name = My name is John.
Swe means "what". The prefix a- means "your-singular", while the prefix i- means "my). Skʷest means "name". ɫu means "secondary in importance", but after six years I still struggle to understand its correct use. It indicates that the following word is already known - that is, it is the topic (what is being talked about). Indeed, when we ask a person's name, we already know that they have a name. We don't know what it is.
Last edited by Massimiliano B
on 2017-12-11, 20:46, edited 6 times in total.