Enclitics will be the focus of my post here. These are (what I would call) particles that add meaning to sentences. There are a lot of enclitics, and some even vary based upon who's speaking (male or female).
Here are the enclitics I've learned thus far:he
- we looked at this enclitic in one of my earlier posts. It turns a sentence into a question.yeló
- an turns the sentence into an assertion. Yeló = men, kištó = women
Yeló changes to weló when the preceding word ends in a u/uƞ. Kištó is usually shortened to kštó.yo
-turns the sentence into a command. Yo men, ye women. And again, yo turns into wo after a u/uƞ. Ye also changes into we after u/uƞ.šni
- turns a sentence into it's negative equivalent.ktA
- Indicates the action in the sentence is only potential/hypothetical. This (in some cases, but not all) is equivalent to the English future tense.
A lot of enclitics can be used together in a sentence. It's only when they go in the same place in the sentence (as enclitics have fixed locations) or have opposing functions.
The order of the enclitics:
first ----> end of sentence
|ktA||šni||yo, ye, yeló, kištó, he|
So, you can use ktA
, and he
, for example, in a sentence. But you can't use ye
in the same sentence.
So, let's put these into some sentences to help understand this all better.(All examples will use the male forms of the enclitics. The female form can be swapped for the male form if a female is speaking)
Mní latké he. - Are you drinking water?
Mní latké kte. - Your will/may drink water. (Your drinking of water has potential)
Mní latké yo. - (You) Drink the water!
Mní latké šni. - You're not drinking water.
Mní latké yeló. - You are
drinking water. (an assertion)
Mní latké šni yo. - (You) Don't drink water!
Mní latké kta he. - Will you drink water? (Do you have the potential to drink water?)
One last point for today. You may notice that some Lakhota words around here are spelled with a capital 'a.' This is to show that this final 'a' is subject to change under the right conditions.
Here are the conditions:
(-> = changes to)a -> e
- when the word is last in the sentence
-followed by kištó
and a few other enclitics covered later in the textbooka -> iƞ
-followed by ktA
and another enclitic covered latera -> a
-if followed by most enclitics
Hence the changes in ktA
seen in the sentences I just presented.
Until next time!