Kaylee—Lakȟotiyapi

User avatar
Kaylee
Posts: 871
Joined: 2011-04-16, 1:46
Real Name: Some casual name
Gender: female

Re: Kaylee—Lakȟotiyapi—NAILC; 2nd Annual Powwow

Postby Kaylee » 2012-11-02, 21:51

księżycowy wrote:I'm certainly glad you did, as I need to review quite a bit of my Lakota, and I'll be following your thread. :wink:

I am glad too. I will most likely make grievous errors, but that's how I learn—plus it is fun that way. :whistle:

I hope my thread can prove useful to you, then! :D

Stative Verbs as modifiers & referring to inalienable nouns with Stative Verbs:

As said in the last post, there is more to be said about the stative verbs in Lakhota. Just as adjectives function in English, Lakhota uses stative verbs in the same manner—that is, they modify the nouns. Consider the following sentences;

1) Thípi tȟáŋkabig house | Thípi tȟáŋka waŋ bluhá → I have a big house
2) Šúŋka skáwhite dog | Šúŋka ská waŋ waŋbláke → I have a white dog
3) Čháŋ háŋskatall tree | Ȟečhiya čháŋ háŋskaska eyá ičháǧe → Some tall trees grow there

Remember the "adjective" follows the noun it modifies and the duplication rules etc etc. Also, the stative verb modifiers, the "adjectives", have been highlighted for the sake of comprehension.

As for when stative verbs are associated with inalienable nouns like body parts, the personal affixes refer to the owner of the noun, rather than the noun itself. In these instances the personal affixes translate into English as the possessive pronouns. However, in Lakhota the 3s is unmarked. Here are some examples:

Thezí mayázaŋ → My stomach is aching
Napé nisnísni → Your hands are cold
Pȟasú tȟáŋkapiTheir beaks are big (Please not that -pi refers to the possessors, not the beaks!)
Pȟehíŋ sabsápe → Her hair is black (3s unmarked!) *note

[*Book note; Beginning students tend to apply English structure which uses the possessive pronoun, as in "Napé nitȟáwa kiŋ sní", such structures are ungrammatical in Lakhota.]

The Plural of Stative Verbs:

The plural of the stative verb is marked differently for animate and inanimate nouns. Animates take the suffix -pi for distributive plural and the affix wičha- for the collective plural.

Hokšíla kiŋ ípuzapiThe boys were thirsty (distributive)
Íwičhapuze → Everybody was thirsty (collective)

While inanimate nouns, as you may recall, are marked by reduplication. If you forget what this is, it means that some of the verb, or sometimes all of the verb, is repeated. Examples are below.

Tȟaspáŋ kiŋ lé šá (This apple is red) → Tȟaspáŋ kiŋ lená šašá (These apples are red)
Olówaŋ kiŋ hé wašté (That song is good) → Olówaŋ kiŋ hená waštéšte (Those songs are good)

Also, in many cases, a verb can mark both animate and inanimate plural. Consider:

Šúŋkawaȟáŋ kiŋ hená hí waštéstepi → Those horses have good teeth.

In the above sentence the suffix pi refers to the plural number of the horses and the reduplication marks that each horse has more than one good tooth.

I think that's pretty neat! :lol:

That is all for now! I'm trying to keep the posts pretty much organized, for my own sake as well as any readers. Next up...active verbs!

Word of the day:

[flag]lkt[/flag] Ȟópuza; Desert, dry country
Native American inspired Conlang!
Kaylee - NAILC - Lakȟotiyapi
Learning:lkt (lkt) Next: ru (ru) af (af) bo (bo) ar (ar) cy (cy)/gd (gd)

Thanks to hashi, ronin319, razlem, johntm, Lenguas, jake12,Milya0 and YngNghymru for literally teaching me from nothing, to something big! Thank you guys so much!

User avatar
Kaylee
Posts: 871
Joined: 2011-04-16, 1:46
Real Name: Some casual name
Gender: female

Re: Kaylee—Lakȟotiyapi—NAILC; 2nd Annual Powwow

Postby Kaylee » 2012-12-02, 2:36

Hello,

Sorry for the lateness. Was the forum down for anyone else? I haven't been able to get onto the forum for a long time! Well, anyways, next lesson. And this one is for a few friends I'm trying to teach what little I know of Lakota to. :lol:

As promised I'm onto section 3.5 of the Lakota Grammar section of the book and it is now telling me, "us", about active verbs. It has a nice paradigm that would just irritate me to reproduce with the forum's system, so I just made an image for it. You'll see that a bit later than right here in the post.

The second large group of verbs in Lakota is Active Verbs. Active Verbs describe actions, especially those governed or controlled by the actor and they are the opposite of stative verbs, which as you know, describe states or conditions, and imply that one has no control over them. Instead of determining the classification based on the verb's meaning, whether it is active or stative is determined by the personal affixes it takes. Active verbs are all those verbs that do not take the affixes ma- and ni- for I and you (e.i, the affixes used with stative verbs).

But while stative verbs are a homogenous group, active verbs are in numerous categories and subcategories that can be classified to three criteria:

1) inflection type
2) relationship between subject and object
3) number of 'participants' (arguments) the verb takes.

When for the first criterion (inflection type), active verbs fall into three classes depending on the type of subject affixes used in their inflection. For example, the following;

Image

End Notes for the above:

Please note that only the first persona singular and the second persons differ in each of the three classes. However, because the inflectional paradigm used for each verb is not always predictable, the dictionary always provides the first person singular for each verb as well as the first person plural due to the position of uŋ(k) in the verb, which is not always the same as the position of the first person singular affix. And since it is only partially predictable whether its form is - or uŋk-.

Collective plural is realized only on a relatively small number of active verbs. There are three patterns for the placement of the personal affixes in active verbs: 1) all affixes are prefixed, 2) all affixes are infixed, and 3) uŋk is prefixed while the others are infixed.

There are also a small number of irregular verbs that are listed later in the chapter I'm on, but this is it for now. :)

Word of the day:

[flag]lkt[/flag] yawášte: to praise or commend sb/smth; say good words on behalf of sb/smth.
Native American inspired Conlang!
Kaylee - NAILC - Lakȟotiyapi
Learning:lkt (lkt) Next: ru (ru) af (af) bo (bo) ar (ar) cy (cy)/gd (gd)

Thanks to hashi, ronin319, razlem, johntm, Lenguas, jake12,Milya0 and YngNghymru for literally teaching me from nothing, to something big! Thank you guys so much!


Return to “North American Indigenous Languages”

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 1 guest

cron