Kaylee—Lakȟotiyapi

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Kaylee
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Re: Kaylee - NAILC - Lakȟotiyapi

Postby Kaylee » 2011-12-01, 23:59

Update!

On lesson #29, I learned to work with "eyá" on inanimate and animate (animals/people). When animate, the verb gets the affix "-wičha-"

My sentences:

Iyéčhiŋkiŋyaŋka eyá waŋbláke. (I see/saw some cars. inanimate)
Šuŋgmánitu tȟáŋka eyá waŋwíčhablake. (I see/saw some wolves. animate)

Wáta eyá waŋbláke. (I see/saw some boats. inanimate)
Wakȟáŋheža eyá waŋwíčhablake. (I see/saw some children. animate)

On lesson #30, I learned how to form dialog like this:
"Are you a cattle rancher?" "No, I am a policeman."
"Are you a brain surgeon?" "No, I am a mechanic."
etc etc etc

Pattern:


Pteyúhaheníčhahe?Hiyá, čhaŋksáyuhahemáčha.
Cattle rancherto be of such kindquestionNo,policemanto be of such kind.
NOUNVSENCL--INTERJNOUNVS


My sentences:

Wičhá heníčha he? - Hiyá, wikȟóškalaka hemáčha.
Wikȟóškalaka Ikčéka heníčha he? - Hiya, wóiȟaka wikȟóškalaka hemáčha.
Háŋska wikȟóškalaka heníčha he? - Hiyá, ptéčela wikȟóškalaka hemáčha.

On the last lesson of the day, #31, I learned how to deal with the indirect object and with kinship terms. The pattern will be:

Lekšíwaye kiŋwíyuhiŋtewaŋowákilote.
My unclerakeaI borrowed from
Vcaus (indirect object)noun (direct object)determinerVdat+subject

And some rules:
Notice that the indirect object is used with a verb in its dative form: olótA(to borrow smth)>okílotA(to borrow smth from smb).
Now you can practice by making your own sentences. Change only the red parts of the pattern.
For the indirect object try to use any kind of kinship term.


My sentences:

Iná kiŋ wíčazo waŋ owákilote.
Mitȟáŋ kiŋ wíčahiŋte waŋ owákilote.

Word of the Day:
[flag]lkt[/flag] Owáŋkičahiŋte
Broom (Syn.: ičáhiŋte)
Native American inspired Conlang!
Kaylee - NAILC - Lakȟotiyapi
Learning:lkt (lkt) Next: ru (ru) af (af) bo (bo) ar (ar) cy (cy)/gd (gd)

Thanks to hashi, ronin319, razlem, johntm, Lenguas, jake12,Milya0 and YngNghymru for literally teaching me from nothing, to something big! Thank you guys so much!

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Kaylee
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Re: Kaylee - NAILC - Lakȟotiyapi

Postby Kaylee » 2011-12-02, 21:24

Update!

On lesson #32, I learned how to say "no" as in "not any" in Lakhota. The word is "tákuni". The pattern is:

Čháŋ šašá tákuni waŋbláke šni. (=I didn’t see any red trees. / I saw no red trees.)

Čháŋšašátákuniwaŋblákešni.
treered noI-see-itnot
inanimate noun (N)stative verb (VS)(reduplicated)determiner (DET) transitive verb (VT+2)negation

Some rules:
1. Do not talk about animate beings, they will require another conjugation or another word.
2. You must reduplicate the stative verb if the verb allows reduplication since the word ”tree” is in plural and is inanimate.


My sentences:

Wáta tȟotȟó tákuni waŋbláke šni.
Waȟčáȟča zizí tákuni waŋbláke šni.

On lesson #33, well, I learned how to ask and answer "Do you dislike/like them?". You can find more information here, since I cannot properly word it any differently. :blush:

My sentences:

Čhaŋnákpa waȟtéyalašni he? -- Hiyá, čhaŋnákpa waštéwalake.
Ȟé waȟtéyalašni he? -- Hiyá, ȟé waštéwalake.

Khéya waȟtéwičhayalašni he? -- Hiyá, khéya waštéwičhawalake.
Šuŋgmánitu tȟáŋka waȟtéwičhayalašni he? -- Hiyá, šuŋgmánitu tȟáŋka waštéwičhawalake.

Lastly, on Lesson #34, I learned how to make a compound phrase using the prefix o- with special form of an active transitive verb, and the stative verb wašté or šíčA. Again, this is something you might want to read for yourself. I might just confuse you. xD It was a long post full of great information, and hopefully I understood it correctly!

My sentences:

Iyápi wóuŋspe oúŋspe šíče.
Waskúyeča oyúl wašté.
Šiyótȟaŋka oškál šíče.

Word of the Day:

[flag]lkt[/flag] Iyápi wóuŋspe
Linguistics
Native American inspired Conlang!
Kaylee - NAILC - Lakȟotiyapi
Learning:lkt (lkt) Next: ru (ru) af (af) bo (bo) ar (ar) cy (cy)/gd (gd)

Thanks to hashi, ronin319, razlem, johntm, Lenguas, jake12,Milya0 and YngNghymru for literally teaching me from nothing, to something big! Thank you guys so much!

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Kaylee
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Re: Kaylee - NAILC - Lakȟotiyapi

Postby Kaylee » 2011-12-04, 4:46

Update!

On lesson #35, I learned how to use benefactive verbs. The pattern allowed "waŋží" and the lack of "waŋží". To work with the pattern, I had to include "-čhi-" with the verb. *If you wish to know more, please check the thread!*

My sentences:

Aŋpétu kiŋ lé olówaŋ waŋží čhičiyahotȟuŋ kte.
Aŋpétu kiŋ lé wičhówoyake waŋží očhíčiwa kte.
Aŋpétu kiŋ lé waháŋpi čhičiyupȟowaya kte.

On lesson #36, I learned how to use the verb "yukȟÁŋ" with animates and body parts. However, "yukȟÁŋ" is not used when a body part or any animate being, is described with a stative verb or with number. But if someone wanted to say that "a certain animal (animate being) has a certain body part without describing it (with a stative verb or number)", then "yukȟÁŋ" would be used.

My sentences:

Šuŋgmánitu tȟáŋka kiŋ siŋté háŋskapi.
Šuŋgmánitu tȟáŋka kiŋ siŋté yukȟáŋpi.

Lastly, on lesson #37, well...as I am not entirely sure I understand, I will link to the post instead.

My sentences: (unsure)

Lowáŋ yaŋké.
Wayáwa muŋká-he.

Word of the Day:

[flag]lkt[/flag] IštíŋmA
to sleep; to fall asleep
Native American inspired Conlang!
Kaylee - NAILC - Lakȟotiyapi
Learning:lkt (lkt) Next: ru (ru) af (af) bo (bo) ar (ar) cy (cy)/gd (gd)

Thanks to hashi, ronin319, razlem, johntm, Lenguas, jake12,Milya0 and YngNghymru for literally teaching me from nothing, to something big! Thank you guys so much!

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Re: Kaylee - NAILC - Lakȟotiyapi

Postby Struthiomimus » 2011-12-06, 3:29

Wow! You've been making a ton of headway! Taŋyáŋ ečhánuŋ, haŋkáši! Bravo! :mrgreen:
[flag=]wbp[/flag] [flag=]qu[/flag] [flag=]eo[/flag] [flag=]wo[/flag] [flag=]rom[/flag] [flag=]csb[/flag] [flag=]lkt[/flag]

"Beshav me akana kai le chirikle chi gilaban." kaj, "Beidh ceol, caint agus craic againn."

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Kaylee
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Re: Kaylee - NAILC - Lakȟotiyapi

Postby Kaylee » 2011-12-06, 6:56

Philámayaye šičʼéši! :D

I went shopping so I could not do some lessons today, and then I went to get a tree and now have some fixing up to do around the house. But I will get the next three lessons up for sure! Lastly, I made a tiny-boo-boo on my last post. It was an error I forgot to clean up. I was talking about soup, then decided to talk about cleaning and forgot to kick "soup" out. So it says something along the lines of "I'll rub/clean the soup". :lol:

Word of the Day:

[flag]lkt[/flag] Makȟóčhe
land, country; place, allotment, a piece of land
Native American inspired Conlang!
Kaylee - NAILC - Lakȟotiyapi
Learning:lkt (lkt) Next: ru (ru) af (af) bo (bo) ar (ar) cy (cy)/gd (gd)

Thanks to hashi, ronin319, razlem, johntm, Lenguas, jake12,Milya0 and YngNghymru for literally teaching me from nothing, to something big! Thank you guys so much!

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Kaylee
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Re: Kaylee - NAILC - Lakȟotiyapi

Postby Kaylee » 2011-12-07, 0:58

Update! Sorry I was busy before!

Today on lesson #38, I learned how to say "“I like [doing something.]”. There are two patterns, both are correct. Pattern 1 is:


Lowáŋawáštewalake.
to singI like
verb intransitive, 3sverb transitive

Pattern 2 is:


Wakȟályapiyatkáŋawáštewalake.
Coffeeto drinkI like
Objectverb transitive , 3sverb transitive.


Some rules:
IMPORTANT:
1) In both patterns you need to use the third person singular
of the verb describing what you like to do. This verb is
INTRANSITIVE in the first pattern, TRANSITIVE in the second pattern

2) Use the contracted form of the verb if there is one. Contracted forms are marked “cont” in the dictionary listings. For example, the dictionary lists the following contracted versions:

íŋyaŋg for íŋyaŋkA
yúl for yútA
škál for škátA

Check the dictionary!

3) Use “awáštewalake” in all of your sentences.
4) Do not translate your sentences.
5) Keep your sentences simple, please.


My sentences:

Wówapi káǧa awáštewalake. (contracted form is most likely needed for "Wówapi káǧa", but I am not sure it needs to me contracted if its apart of another word.)
Žižílowaŋ awáštewalake.

Watȟókeča yúl awáštewalake.
Mnikápȟopapi yatkáŋ awáštewalake.

On lesson #39 I learned a lot. It was a very informative post, so I will lay down the basics of what I learned. Instead of using the affix "kíči", I learned how to use "míči" with a BENEFACTIVE VERB (V-BEN). The pattern also called for the enclitics for command dependent on your gender; males: yo, wo, females: ye, we. (wo and we are used with verbs that end with o, u, uŋ). More here.

My sentences:

Wičhówoyake kiŋ omíčiwa ye.
Wówapi kiŋ míčiyawa ye.
Wóiyaksape kiŋ anámíčiǧoptaŋ ye.

Lastly, on lesson #40, I worked with possessive verbs and the prefix "ki-", which carries other forms: ki-, k-, gl-. The only rule is: "Use the possessive verb in the third person singular." (see more here)

My sentences:

Até kiŋ čhuŋwíŋtku kiŋ ogláȟniǧa.
Igmú kiŋ igmúla kiŋ glužáža

Word of the Day:

[flag]lkt[/flag] Makȟóčhe
land, country; place, allotment, a piece of land
Native American inspired Conlang!
Kaylee - NAILC - Lakȟotiyapi
Learning:lkt (lkt) Next: ru (ru) af (af) bo (bo) ar (ar) cy (cy)/gd (gd)

Thanks to hashi, ronin319, razlem, johntm, Lenguas, jake12,Milya0 and YngNghymru for literally teaching me from nothing, to something big! Thank you guys so much!

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Re: Kaylee - NAILC - Lakȟotiyapi

Postby księżycowy » 2011-12-07, 10:35

Kaylee wrote:Update! Sorry I was busy before!

With all your updates, I wouldn't have noticed. :P
Keep up all the good work!

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Kaylee
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Re: Kaylee - NAILC - Lakȟotiyapi

Postby Kaylee » 2011-12-21, 1:19

Update! Sorry for such a long leave guys! My house is going under construction to make the kitchen and bedroom bigger, and the internet and and electricity had to be turned off. Its taking longer than expected because of the constant raining here, and then one of my kitties (Koda) was found sick and passed away on the 12 of December, so I was tending to him and then trying to figure how it happened. But the construction is almost finished so I will be able to get back onto my regular time. Sorry again! I really missed this place. :cry:

It seems the last post I made contained the last sentence of the week pattern, for now at least.I will also, finally, be getting the dictionary hopefully next month or the end of this one, maybe the 27th...so that should help! So I will repeat a few sentence patterns, and move on (or try to!) to the "Word of the Week" part of the forum. Looks pretty advanced though. :blush:

Word of the Day:
[flag]lkt[/flag] Zíškopela
Banana
Native American inspired Conlang!
Kaylee - NAILC - Lakȟotiyapi
Learning:lkt (lkt) Next: ru (ru) af (af) bo (bo) ar (ar) cy (cy)/gd (gd)

Thanks to hashi, ronin319, razlem, johntm, Lenguas, jake12,Milya0 and YngNghymru for literally teaching me from nothing, to something big! Thank you guys so much!

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Kaylee
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Re: Kaylee - NAILC - Lakȟotiyapi

Postby Kaylee » 2012-06-12, 23:50

Hello forum!

Today I got the dictionary and have decided to look through the grammar section. It is fairly big, so I just thought to start with "ablauts" in the grammar section. If none of this makes zero sense, please say so. I'll try to get down what I'm learning as clearly as possible. :)

The Ablauts!

I already knew a bit about ablauts, so today's learning wasn't 100% new for me, like there are three forms; e-ablaut, a-ablaut (A-words), and iŋ-ablaut. Also, each word that takes an ablaut has three forms. For example; slolyá, slolyíŋ, and slolyé. There are also words that are ablauted for some speakers while for another it isn't. For example "ȟóta" and "ȟótA" (the word is "gray" if you are wondering).

Some new information that I'm learning is that the final vowel of an A-word always depends on what follows. There are individual rules. The best way to describe it, I think, is how it is described in the book, so here are the rules:

A-words occur with final e in two cases: (1) when they are the last word in a sentence, (2) when they are followed by a word that triggers e-ablaut.

1) E-ablaut as the last word in a sentence, consider the examples:

Héčhiya yé. > He went there. (e-ablaut of the verb "yÁ")
Yúte. > She ate it. (from "YútA")
Thípi kiŋ pahá akáŋl ȟe > The house stands on a hill. (from "HÁŋ)

2) E-ablaut triggered by the following word.

Words that trigger e-ablaut in the preceding A-word can be divided into three groups: a) various enclitics, such as: ȟča,ȟčiŋ, iŋčhéye, kačháš, kiló, kštó, któk, lakȟa, -ls, láȟ, láȟčaka, ló, séčA, sékse, sʼeléčheča, so, sʼa, sʼe, šaŋ, šni, and uŋštó. b) some conjunctions and articles, such as: kiŋ, kiŋháŋ, kʼéyaš, kʼuŋ, eháŋtaŋš. c) Some auxiliary verbs: kapíŋ, kiníŋ (kiníl), lakA, kúŋzA, phiča, ší, wačhíŋ, -yA, and -khiyA.

Below are examples of e-ablaut triggered by words following an A-word:

Škáte šni > he did not play. [Enclitic]
Škáte sʼa > He plays often. [Enclitic]
Škáte ló > He plays. [Enclitic (marking assertion)]
Okȟáte eháŋtaŋš... > If it is hot... [Conjunction]
Sápe kiŋ > The black one. [Definite article]
Glé kúŋze > He pretended to go home. [auxiliary verb]

The e-ablaut is also triggered by verbs of coming and going but with specific rules *6. Unfortunately, I am not at the page it is described on, so that will have to wait. :)

The iŋ-ablaut (pronounced as i by some speakers) occurs only before the following words:

(1) ktA (kte) will
(2) na, naháŋ, and
(3) naíŋš or, and or
(4) yetȟó, familiar command enclitic
(4*2) yé, polite request or entreaty enclitic

Examples:

Waŋyáŋkiŋ yetȟó > Take a look at this, real quick.
Yiŋ kte > She will go.
Skúyiŋ na wašté > It was sweet and good.
Waŋyáŋkiŋ yé > Please, look at it.

A number of A-words have somewhat irregular iŋ-ablaut form. Most of these words are derivatives of "yÁ" > to go there. An example is "Mníŋ kte" > I will go there (from "yÁ") and Gníŋ kte > he will go back (from glÁ). I will update about ablaut on reduplication later on, when I get to the section in the book. ;)

Sometimes some words lose their terminal vowel, and can happen in the following cases: 1) A word is closely associated with a verb that follows, as in iwóglag maši > he told me to speak about it (from "iwóglakA" > to speak about something and "ši" > tell somebody to do something) or in "waŋyaŋg wahí" > I came to see him. 2) A word is closely associated with the noun that follows, as in "Lakȟól wičhóȟʼaŋ" > Lakota traditions. 3) A word becomes a non-final member of a compound, as in "maswógnaka" > a tin can (from "máza" > metal and "wógnaka" > container), or "makhíyapȟa" > to hit the ground (from "makȟá" > ground and "iyápȟa" > to hit something accidentally) or "itípakhiŋte" > towel (from "ité" > face and "ipákhiŋta" > to wipe with).

4) in reduplication: as in "sápa" > to be black → "sapsápa" > the things are black.
5) almost any terminal vowel can be dropped in fast speech. For example, "hená iyúha" > all of those becomes "heníyuha" and "Táku tókȟanuŋ he?" > What are you doing? becomes "Tág tókȟanuŋ he?".

Also, some final syllables of a word undergoes an additional change upon the terminal vowel loss. When a word ends with one of the syllables listed just below, the preceding consonant is sometimes changed from voiced to voiceless (z, ž, ǧ becomes s, š, and ȟ ) and sometimes from voiceless to voiced (p, k become b, and g). The sound "t" becomes "l". If the vowel of the final syllable is nasalized, the newly voiced stops are often nasalized as well, that is, "p" becomes "m", "t" becomes "n" and sometimes "k" becomes a nasal with the tongue position of "k/g", phonetically written as [ŋ]. Whether the voicing shift place depends on many factors, including speech style. Moreover, "č" changes into either "l" or "g/k":

final syllable-----------becomes-----------example
-ča-lšíčAšíl áya to become bad
-ča-g/k-šíčAšíkšíča the things are bad
-ǧa-hKágAkaȟší she told him to make it
-ka, (-ku)-g/-kwašʼákAwašʼág-ičʼiya to make oneself strong
-pa-b/-pKsápAKsab-íčʼila to consider oneself smart
-ta, -te-l/-tPȟétapȟel-ókšaŋ yaŋkápi they sat around the fire
-za-s/-zYúzAYús áya to lead sb holding him/her
-ža, -že-š/-žowíŋžaowíŋš phikíya to make one's own bed


A compound that involves lost terminal vowels before word initial vowel can have two or three alternative pronunciations and spellings. There is "slower speech", "transitional form", and "faster speech".

Some examples for slower speech is "masʼóphiye" from the transitional form "maz'óphiye", whilst the faster speech is "mazóphiye". Sometimes the faster speech forms are fully lexicalized, yet in other cases both forms are considered equally correct, like "Lakȟólʼiyapi" and "Lakȟótiyapi".

*Notes:
*6 Dakota dialects have different rules for terminal vowel alternation. For instance, the Santee-Sisseton dialect completely lacks iŋ-ablaut. There are also differences as to which words undergo ablaut, as in "yuhá" which is an A-word in all Dakota dialects, but not in Lakota. Dakota variants of entry head words are not marked for ablaut as this was beyond the scope of the present research.*

Well, that's all! I'm gonna go over this a couple more times, and then make some cards for some words. Tomorrow I'll be learning a bit more of "k" and "č", and then move onto the next piece. :)

Word of the Day:
[flag]lkt[/flag] Iyótaŋš
Especially, particularly

See ya next time! :D
Native American inspired Conlang!
Kaylee - NAILC - Lakȟotiyapi
Learning:lkt (lkt) Next: ru (ru) af (af) bo (bo) ar (ar) cy (cy)/gd (gd)

Thanks to hashi, ronin319, razlem, johntm, Lenguas, jake12,Milya0 and YngNghymru for literally teaching me from nothing, to something big! Thank you guys so much!

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Re: Kaylee - NAILC - Lakȟotiyapi

Postby księżycowy » 2012-06-13, 0:06

This just reminds me I need to brush up and continue my Lakota. :doggy:

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Kaylee
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Re: Kaylee - NAILC - Lakȟotiyapi

Postby Kaylee » 2012-06-13, 0:41

Oh, you totally should! :) Will you be posting your progress should you continue? It would certainly be very helpful, and fun to read. :)

I'm going to be teaching some of Lakota to my mother very slowly (she doesn't have much time in her day), so hopefully posting the information here will help her, as well as any other person willing to learn. :yep:
Native American inspired Conlang!
Kaylee - NAILC - Lakȟotiyapi
Learning:lkt (lkt) Next: ru (ru) af (af) bo (bo) ar (ar) cy (cy)/gd (gd)

Thanks to hashi, ronin319, razlem, johntm, Lenguas, jake12,Milya0 and YngNghymru for literally teaching me from nothing, to something big! Thank you guys so much!

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Re: Kaylee - NAILC - Lakȟotiyapi

Postby księżycowy » 2012-06-13, 11:40

I'm considering it. I do like Lakota, and I would like to brush it up for sure. I'm just not sure if I want to do it now or wait. :hmm:
I'm trying to get a head start for the upcoming CSAILC* in August so I can try to do a text or two in Aymara.

We'll see. I certainly would like to help you as much as possible. :wink:

*Central and South American Indigenous Language Challenge

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Kaylee
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Re: Kaylee - NAILC - Lakȟotiyapi

Postby Kaylee » 2012-06-13, 23:53

A new challenge? Are others competing? Hmm, since you are competing in a challenge, then maybe putting Lakota aside is the best for now? That way, you can have the time you want to work on Aymara for the texts. :) Oh, and can't wait to see something for Aymara. Looks interesting. :P

Today I am finishing up something for the last update; when verb inflection places "i" before "k" and is followed by another vowel, it becomes "č". For instance, "kašlá" > to cut smth low > "kíčašla" > he cut it low for him > "ničíčašla" > he cut it low for you and "kaksÁ" > to cut smth off > "khičáksA" > to cut smth in two > "khiwákakse" > I cut it in two.

In the last example, when another element comes between "i" and "č", the letter is changed back to "k". This only happens in active verbs, and not in stative verbs. However, there are two exceptions in which statives do undergo the same change: a) when a stative verb involves the instrumental prefix "ka-" and when it contains the dative prefix "ki-". For example, stative with prefix "ka-": "kakížA [to suffer] > ničákiže [you suffer]. And Stative with prefix "-ki-": akísni [ to recover from smth] > aníčisni [ you recovered from it].

This change of "k" also happens in compounds, for instance compounding "glí" and "kú" is "gličú". Also, word initial "k" is also changes into "" after e-ablaut. Such as "kiŋ" (definite article) would be come "čiŋ" after an ablauted word, as in "wéksuye čiŋ hená" [those things that I remember]. Even though this rule disappeared around the 50s and contemporary speakers do not apply or recognize it as grammatical, it is a rule that still occurs after the suffix "-kA" (a generalizer), as in "kičihí waúŋke čiŋ" [ the one I kind of lived with].

With that over, I am reading over the Nasalization Spread part, where it explains that the syllables "ya, yi, yu, ha, hi, hu and wa, wi, wu" are often nasalized when a nasal vowel is placed before or after them through the means of grammatical processes, like "uŋyáŋpi" from "yÁ". However, this does not spread across the instrumental prefixes, and is blocked by "l" and is particularly spread when infixing the personal affix.

Oh! And speaking of the personal affix, when it is infixed after a consonant, a glottal stop is always inserted between them. For example "kȟalyÁ" [to heat smth] > "kȟalʼúŋyaŋpi" [we heated it]; "čhaštȟúŋ" [to name sb] > "čhašʼúŋtȟuŋpi" [ we named him].

Next post is Verbs! Oh, it looks intimidating, especially when it says its complex. :lol: Well, here I go!
Native American inspired Conlang!
Kaylee - NAILC - Lakȟotiyapi
Learning:lkt (lkt) Next: ru (ru) af (af) bo (bo) ar (ar) cy (cy)/gd (gd)

Thanks to hashi, ronin319, razlem, johntm, Lenguas, jake12,Milya0 and YngNghymru for literally teaching me from nothing, to something big! Thank you guys so much!

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Re: Kaylee - NAILC - Lakȟotiyapi

Postby księżycowy » 2012-06-14, 0:22

Kaylee wrote:A new challenge? Are others competing? Hmm, since you are competing in a challenge, then maybe putting Lakota aside is the best for now? That way, you can have the time you want to work on Aymara for the texts. :) Oh, and can't wait to see something for Aymara. Looks interesting. :P

Not that I want to take over your thread with non-Lakota talk, but I will for a bit. :P

Well, as I'm now the mod of the Eskimo-Aleut forum and the newly created CSAIL forum, and see as the NAILC was a success, I figured I'd do the same with the other two forums. So we're having a CSAILC, the NAILC again and the Eskimo-Aleut Challenge (in that order in fact). If you want to know more there's some info in the General Thread here and in the other forums as well. :wink:

Feel free to join in on the others if you want. :)

9 whole months of indigenous American craziness. :silly:

Oh, and I think I've found my Aymara texts! Now I just have to hope I can learn enough to present them.
And yes, I'll be putting Lakota aside for now, but I will get back to it (and Arapaho) soon hopefully. I might do one of them for the NAILC actually, but I'm not sure yet. Either way I'll figure it out soon, I'm trying to stay a bit ahead of the contests so I can try to present texts for them.

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Re: Kaylee - NAILC - Lakȟotiyapi

Postby Kaylee » 2012-06-14, 2:04

That is fine, really. It keeps me from having to post twice in a row anyways, and it is sorta on topic. :yep: I would very much love to participate in the NAILC again, so I'll check out the thread now. :D

Oh, that is good news! I wish you all the best luck on your texts and learning, then. :)

VERBS

I may have made some small details or posts here or else where, perhaps, about verbs, but I am finally going into deep detail of it, so here we go.

First things first, which some may know and others may not know, Lakota verbs 1) do no have an infinitive form 2) The simplest form of a verb is the Third Person Singular and 3) Lakota verbs do not express gender, so words like "nážiŋ" can mean he/she/it stands. 4) Lakota verbs do not distinguish between present and past tense! Time information is usually expressed with adverbs, moods and aspect are expressed by enclitics or words that follow verbs.

As for conjugation, unlike English, it conjugates directly on the verbs, like previously posted in another thread "Ímapuze", which means "I am thirsty" or "wawačhí" and "Waní" which means He lives. This is called personal affixes, which are either prefixed (for newcomers: placed at the beginning) or infixed (inserted into a word to become the new sound or later syllable of the inflected verb). The position of personal affixes in a verb is often unpredictable though, but if you have a dictionary or use the online dictionary, it is marked within it.

Lakota verbs can be marked for one of 3 Persons and 3 Numbers, like Singular (1s: I, 2s: you, 3s; he, she it), Dual (1d: you and I), and plural (1p: we, 2p: you, 3p: they as individuals *distributive plural*, and 3pc: they collectively *collective plural*).

As mentioned earlier, Lakota's third person singular does not mark for gender, and some verbs are used only with animate persons (living beings) or inanimate things (non-living things like radios, tvs etc etc). Usually you'll see the distinctions in the dictionaries.

Unlike English's pronoun (in which "you" expresses both singular and plural and is often ambiguous as to the number of participants), Lakota shows the difference between singular you and plural you by always marking them. For example, the following sentences:

Mayáni. [You (sg.) are walking] singular
Mayánipi. [You (pl.) are walking] plural

As for 1st person plural ("we"), Lakota verbs conjugate with the affix "uŋ"! However, adding this affix to various verbs causes morphophonemic changes like, for example, the following:

A) When the affic appears before an oral vowel, it takes on the form of "uŋk", as in í > uŋkípi and apȟé > uŋkápȟépi.
B) When comes before a nasal vowel, it becomes uŋkʼ, as in úŋpA > uŋkʼúŋpapi or úŋ > uŋkʼúŋpi. The ONLY exception to this rule, is the following verb: "uŋspé" > "uŋkúŋspepi".
C) When comes before the syllable "ya" the nasal quality of the spreads onto "ya" and the latter becomes yaŋ, like "iyéyA" and "iyéyaŋpi".
D) When comes after a consonant a glottal stop is added between the consonant and , as in: čhaštȟúŋ > 1p: čhašʼúŋtȟuŋpi and slolyÁ > 1p: slolʼuŋyaŋpi.

*There is a bit more about the position of in the book as to being able to guess where it is placed (since it is often times not predictable), but I will get into that later, or if it is asked of me :)*

Next time, I will get into Dual Inclusive piece! Bye bye for now! :D

Word of the Day:
[flag]lkt[/flag] tʼeyÁ
To cause sb/smth to die, to put sb/smth to death
Native American inspired Conlang!
Kaylee - NAILC - Lakȟotiyapi
Learning:lkt (lkt) Next: ru (ru) af (af) bo (bo) ar (ar) cy (cy)/gd (gd)

Thanks to hashi, ronin319, razlem, johntm, Lenguas, jake12,Milya0 and YngNghymru for literally teaching me from nothing, to something big! Thank you guys so much!

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Re: Kaylee - NAILC - Lakȟotiyapi

Postby Kaylee » 2012-06-18, 20:39

Hello everyone!

As I mentioned, I am now on Dual inclusive (first dual), but I will also be on third plural, animate plural, distributive plural, collective plural and will also learn/talk about inanimate plural. Hopefully all in one sitting. I might have to break the post up if it gets too long though. :lol:

Dual Inclusive & Plurals

The dual number can only be realized in first person inclusive, which means not "He and I" or any other meaning of two grammatical persons, only "you and I". First dual is a very important grammatical person in Lakȟóta, and without it various concepts could not be expressed. For example the English "with you" like "I can go with you if you want, Tim." does not have a parallel in Lakȟóta, but a somewhat similar structure that is expressed solely with the first dual form of verbs. For instance, the following examples:

English ConstructionLakȟóta ConstructionLiteral meaning (Lakȟóta)
I will go with youUŋyíŋ kte.You and I will go (together)
I danced with youWaúŋčhi.You and I danced (together)

etc etc etc

Also, First dual "uŋ" is only available as the subject, never as the object. The affixation rules to first person dual identical to first person plural.

The third plural of Lakȟóta verbs

If not known to new readers or old, third person verbs in Lakȟóta is realized differently for animate and inanimate (I'm sure you saw my other posts?). Inanimate objects include abstract concepts as well as non-living things.

Animate plural can either be distributive or collective: distributive plural describes a plural number of separate individuals, while collective plurals focuses on persons whose identities are fused into a group. The collective plural is only available for some verbs, and often describe states or activities, like the following:

Distributive Plural: Iyókiphipi | Meaning: They are pleased/happy
Distributive Plural: Hípi. | Meaning: They came.

Collective Plural: Wičíyokiphi | Meaning: There was a general feeling of happiness among people.
Collective Plural: Ahí| Meaning: They all came in a group.

The distributive plural is always marked with the suffix -pi, and the collective plural is marked differently for stative and active verbs. The stative verbs take the affix wičha- (or one of its variants) and active verbs create collective plural less frequently. For instance, coming/going verbs can take the prefix a- for collectives and a few active verbs take the affix wičha-.

Oh yea, not all verbs have a collective plural form, so in the instance you find a verb that does not have a CP, it is usually expressed with quantifiers such as "oyásʼiŋ" or nouns with collective meanings.

Also, stative verbs are marked differently for animate and inanimate plurals. Animate plurals are marked with the suffix -pi, while inanimate plurals such as "rocks, trees, plants, flowers" is marked with reduplication.

For example: Hokšíla kiŋ háŋskapi (The boys are tall) |Čháŋ kiŋ háŋskaska (The trees are tall)

Inanimate plural is NEVER marked on active verbs. Consider:

Wičhíŋčala kiŋ héčhi yaŋkápi. > The girls are sitting there.
Wówapi kiŋ hená héčhi yaŋké. > Those books are (sitting) there.

In these cases the plural of the inanimate nouns is either understood from context or is expressed outside the verb (like with demonstrative or numbers).

Word of the Day:
[flag]lkt[/flag] Sná
To ring, tinkle, jingle, give a high pitched metallic ring.

I have to say I enjoyed today's book lesson. I don't know why, but I just liked it. The different ways to pluralize animate and inanimate is just interesting to me. :lol:

Well, that's all for today! Next is....still verbs!

Goodbye for now and good day/night everyone!
Native American inspired Conlang!
Kaylee - NAILC - Lakȟotiyapi
Learning:lkt (lkt) Next: ru (ru) af (af) bo (bo) ar (ar) cy (cy)/gd (gd)

Thanks to hashi, ronin319, razlem, johntm, Lenguas, jake12,Milya0 and YngNghymru for literally teaching me from nothing, to something big! Thank you guys so much!

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Re: Kaylee - NAILC - Lakȟotiyapi

Postby Kaylee » 2012-06-24, 2:04

Why, hello everyone!

Verbs, .2!

Today, I read more about verbs; Impersonal verbs (V-IMP), Plain Verbs (v), and Stative verbs (V-S) once again. I'll try to get what I read down here as clearly as possible, but if you have questions, please ask them. I may not be that great, but I would love to help with them! Ahem, anyway, onto it!

V-IMP cannot express any person or take any personal affixes, as most of them describe states such as weather or time etc etc. For instance, like this:

Ičámna. > It was snowing.
Maǧážu. > It rained.
Waŋná wétu. > It is spring now.

As you can see from the examples, Impersonal verbs cannot express person or take personal affixes. If you are using a dictionary, it will always be marked; be it online or the published paper work, it will be marked by the definition of the word to help you. :)

There is a group of V-IMP that invovles expressions of time and space, which end with "-tu", like: Aŋpétu (it is day), étu (it is there, that is the place), and waníyetu (it is winter).

*^ In the English translations of such verbs the word "it" does not refer to any noun outside the verbs to the place or time described by the verbs themselves.*

Plain verbs (marked "v" in the dictionary!) also cannot take personal affixes, however, they can modify the inanimate nouns such as:

Waníyetu kiŋ theȟí. > The winter was hard.
Mní kiŋ šmé. > The water was deep.

Such verbs function in the same way as the stative verbs, except their meaning does not allow them to be used with animate nouns (such as cats, dogs, horses, people etc etc). These verbs can function as impersonal and plain verbs though, such as "Líla osní" > It was very cold and "Tȟaté kiŋ osní" > The wind was very cold.

The dictionary goes on to explain, under the Staive Verb section, the differences of the verbs in the language. From statives, actives etc etc. I'll try to paraphrase this for everyone:

Stative verbs: They make up a very large proportion of Lakota verbs, and describe states or conditions and usually imply that one has no control over that state/condition.

Active verbs: Describe actions that are governed by the actor/agent.

The differences between these two verbs is often grammatical rather than semantic and therein is not always reliably identified from the verb's definition. Here is an example of what I mean:

The verb ločhíŋ 'to be hungry' is an active verb and not stative as some people might have expected, while kačégčeka 'to stagger' is stative. Since the two can not be reliably identified that way, they can be identified by the personal affixes they take, where the difference is limited to the first person singular and the second person. With the stative verbs like "I" and "you" are always marked with personal affixes "ma-" and "ni-".

STATIVE VERB CONJUGATION!

The full chart of the personal affixes used in the inflection of the v-s is:

1s. ma***
2s: ni***
3s. ***

1d: uŋ(k)*** (remember the 'uŋ' rules!)

1p: uŋ(k)****pi
2p: ni***pi
3p: ***pi
3pc: wičha***

(the "***" indicates the stative verb!)

You probably noticed the third person singular is never marked with any affix. The affix "uŋ(k)" is written in this way to indicate that "uŋ" is used before consonants (except for glottal stops!) while "uŋk" appears before vowels. *remember?*

There are three patterns for these affixes in stative verbs: 1) all affixes are prefixed 2) all affixes are infixed 3) and uŋk is prefixed while the others are infixed.

*also, the collective plural is not all the time realized on the stative verbs.*

Whoo, that's all for now guys. My head hurts a bit, so I have to cut it a bit short. Hopefully it serves a purpose to others? Thanks for reading!

Word of the day:

[flag]lkt[/flag] Phutéwata
The Potowatomi people.

Next is a little a little more the above, just some examples, and then we...sorta move on. :lol:

Tókša akhé!
Native American inspired Conlang!
Kaylee - NAILC - Lakȟotiyapi
Learning:lkt (lkt) Next: ru (ru) af (af) bo (bo) ar (ar) cy (cy)/gd (gd)

Thanks to hashi, ronin319, razlem, johntm, Lenguas, jake12,Milya0 and YngNghymru for literally teaching me from nothing, to something big! Thank you guys so much!

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Re: Kaylee - NAILC - Lakȟotiyapi

Postby Kaylee » 2012-08-27, 22:53

Hello community! :D

It has been a while, sadly. I've been trying to beef up on some other studies and had no time to stop. Anyways....!

From where I left off last time, I am now going to learn about some more rules for 'k' (which changes to 'č', before 'i'). However, that rule is not applied to Stative verbs!

There are some examples of this, like 'káŋ' > 'nikáŋ'. As you see, the presence of 'i' before 'k', did not change! But there are exceptions to this rule, like there are exceptions to other rules. Statives that contain or take the instrumental prefix 'ka-' does allow the 'k' change to ''.

kakížA to suffer > ničákiže you suffer

Also, stative verbs that contain the dative prefix 'ki-', also undergoes the change of 'k'. Please see my earlier discussion of the prefixs!

Stative verbs with m-!

A few number of statives in Lakota are inflected with the prefixes m- and n- instead of ma- and ni-. These type of verbs include words like ištíŋmA, iyé, and é. Similar irregularity can be seen in the verb tȟáwa, which is inflected with mi- and ni-.

In the book, they give a very nice paradigm for these verbs, with iye and e given their own paradigm because their meaning is slightly different and are conjugated identically except for a few. I'll get a smaller version of the paradigm up instead of what is given.

1s: mištíŋme (I sleep) 1d: uŋkíštiŋme 1p: uŋkíštiŋmapi (we sleep)

2s: ništíŋme (you *sg.*) sleep (*you and I sleep*) 2p: ništíŋmapi ( you *pl.* sleep)

3s: išíŋme (he/she/it sleeps) 3p: ištíŋmapi (they sleep) 3pc: wičhíštiŋme (they sleep *collective*)

<ABOVE PARADIGM IS SMALLER!>

Transitive stative verbs!

Unlike many other languages that stative verbs only allow one participant, Lakota allows two participants. The second is, in most cases, enabled by the locative prefix i-.

Example; ičáǧi V-S 1s: imákaǧi 2s: iníčaǧi
Táku waŋ imákaǧi > Something hindered me. /I was hindered by something.

These stative verbs can even allow two personal affixes! For example, the following.

1; Íŋnimaskokeča > I am as large as you (from íŋskokeča)
2; Ičápšiŋpsiŋčala íwičhaskokečapi šni > They are not as large swallows.
3; Iyónimakiphi > You please me

Contemporary speakers recognize such forms as grammatical but usually avoid two personal affixes in stative verbs. They do this by paraphrasing. Some statives are transitive without any additional prefixes!

That is it for now. I'm gonna go review over these things now! Goodbye for now!

Word of the day:

[flag]lkt[/flag] núŋǧe; Human ear
Native American inspired Conlang!
Kaylee - NAILC - Lakȟotiyapi
Learning:lkt (lkt) Next: ru (ru) af (af) bo (bo) ar (ar) cy (cy)/gd (gd)

Thanks to hashi, ronin319, razlem, johntm, Lenguas, jake12,Milya0 and YngNghymru for literally teaching me from nothing, to something big! Thank you guys so much!

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Re: Kaylee—Lakȟotiyapi—NAILC; 2nd Annual Powwow

Postby Kaylee » 2012-10-28, 1:17

Hello forum! I'm back, and just in time for the second annual Powwow! I also edited the title and the main post with some more information on it, since this thread was originally used in the first powwow.

I wasn't going to join this year's powwow, because I wanted to wait until I got the training books for my dictionary, but I decided I'd just jump in anyways!

Since I just picked it up today for the powwow, I did not go very far, but it was quite a bit of knowledge to learn. I will be continuing off my work as before, so here it goes!

Nouns as Stative Verbs!

In Lakhota almost all of the nouns can be used as SV (stative verbs). There are a few examples to be shown, and they are very helpful, so I'll provide them.

Wičháša → He is a man
Wimáčhaša → I am a man
Wiŋníyaŋpi → You are women (from 'Wíŋyaŋ' — woman)
Šúŋkapi → They are dogs
Hé čháŋ → That is a tree

Personal affixes are used only with nouns where it is semantically logical. Inanimate nouns sometimes take the personal affixes such as the plural -pi suffix in myths, when the nouns become animate.

That's all that is shared in that section on that matter. However, there is something, very short, on adverbs working as SV, and numbers as SV.

Adverbs as Stative Verbs & Numbers as Stative Verbs:

There is a large number of Lakhota adverbs that are used as stative verbs, like 'hetáŋhaŋ' (ADV from there, v-s to be from there) 1s: 'Hemátaŋhaŋ' > I am from there 2s: 'Henítaŋhaŋ' > You are from there.

As for numbers being used as SV, they can also take personal affixes when expressing the age of a person. First, I'll show you a small example of the numbers acting as SV;

Uŋtópapi → There are four of us (from 'tópa' → to be four)
Šakówiŋpi → There are seven of them (from 'šakówiŋ' → to be seven)
Wačhípi kiŋ hená mawáŋži → I am one of the dancers (from 'waŋží' → to be one)

As for expressing your age, here is a quick example;

Waníyetu wikčémna núŋpa → I am twenty years old. ('núŋpa' meaning "two; twice")
Waníyetu wikčemna yámni akemanapčiyuŋka → I am thirty nine years old

Remember that "Waníyetu" is used to express the age of someone, or something.

That is it for now, as it is pretty late. Tomorrow some more stuff on stative verbs! And soon after that, some hefty look descriptions on active verbs complete with Paradigms! :D

Word of the day:

[flag]lkt[/flag] Wakpášiča; Bad River
Native American inspired Conlang!
Kaylee - NAILC - Lakȟotiyapi
Learning:lkt (lkt) Next: ru (ru) af (af) bo (bo) ar (ar) cy (cy)/gd (gd)

Thanks to hashi, ronin319, razlem, johntm, Lenguas, jake12,Milya0 and YngNghymru for literally teaching me from nothing, to something big! Thank you guys so much!

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Re: Kaylee—Lakȟotiyapi—NAILC; 2nd Annual Powwow

Postby księżycowy » 2012-10-29, 15:09

Kaylee wrote:I wasn't going to join this year's powwow, because I wanted to wait until I got the training books for my dictionary, but I decided I'd just jump in anyways!

I'm certainly glad you did, as I need to review quite a bit of my Lakota, and I'll be following your thread. :wink:


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