księżycowy wrote:I'm certainly glad you did, as I need to review quite a bit of my Lakota, and I'll be following your thread.
I am glad too. I will most likely make grievous errors, but that's how I learn—plus it is fun that way.
I hope my thread can prove useful to you, then!
Stative Verbs as modifiers & referring to inalienable nouns with Stative Verbs:
As said in the last post, there is more to be said about the stative verbs in Lakhota. Just as adjectives function in English, Lakhota uses stative verbs in the same manner—that is, they modify the nouns. Consider the following sentences;
1) Thípi tȟáŋka → big house | Thípi tȟáŋka waŋ bluhá → I have a big house
2) Šúŋka ská → white dog | Šúŋka ská waŋ waŋbláke → I have a white dog
3) Čháŋ háŋska → tall tree | Ȟečhiya čháŋ háŋskaska eyá ičháǧe → Some tall trees grow there
Remember the "adjective" follows the noun it modifies and the duplication rules etc etc. Also, the stative verb modifiers, the "adjectives", have been highlighted for the sake of comprehension.
As for when stative verbs are associated with inalienable nouns like body parts, the personal affixes refer to the owner of the noun, rather than the noun itself. In these instances the personal affixes translate into English as the possessive pronouns. However, in Lakhota the 3s is unmarked. Here are some examples:
Thezí mayázaŋ → My stomach is aching
Napé nisnísni → Your hands are cold
Pȟasú tȟáŋkapi → Their beaks are big (Please not that -pi refers to the possessors, not the beaks!)
Pȟehíŋ sabsápe → Her hair is black (3s unmarked!) *note
[*Book note; Beginning students tend to apply English structure which uses the possessive pronoun, as in "Napé nitȟáwa kiŋ sní", such structures are ungrammatical in Lakhota.]
The Plural of Stative Verbs:
The plural of the stative verb is marked differently for animate and inanimate nouns. Animates take the suffix -pi for distributive plural and the affix wičha- for the collective plural.
Hokšíla kiŋ ípuzapi → The boys were thirsty (distributive)
Íwičhapuze → Everybody was thirsty (collective)
While inanimate nouns, as you may recall, are marked by reduplication. If you forget what this is, it means that some of the verb, or sometimes all of the verb, is repeated. Examples are below.
Tȟaspáŋ kiŋ lé šá (This apple is red) → Tȟaspáŋ kiŋ lená šašá (These apples are red)
Olówaŋ kiŋ hé wašté (That song is good) → Olówaŋ kiŋ hená waštéšte (Those songs are good)
Also, in many cases, a verb can mark both animate and inanimate plural. Consider:
Šúŋkawaȟáŋ kiŋ hená hí waštéstepi → Those horses have good teeth.
In the above sentence the suffix pi refers to the plural number of the horses and the reduplication marks that each horse has more than one good tooth.
I think that's pretty neat!
That is all for now! I'm trying to keep the posts pretty much organized, for my own sake as well as any readers. Next up...active verbs!
Word of the day:
[flag]lkt[/flag] Ȟópuza; Desert, dry country