For NAILC I decided on Lakȟóta to work on, as I was already working on it and I really -- really
-- love the language.
I don't have many resources with my, like the lessons or psychical dictionary, I learn for free off this forum and from the people there
. At least, until I can actually afford the lessons and dictionary of course!
I've never done one of these things, so I'm not sure exactly what to put here. If I screwed something up, please tell me and I'll fix it up!
So for now, I will post what I've learned, what I'm learning etc etc.
Anyway, some notes of what I've learned? I'll start off with the vowel/consonant inventory and their pronunciation? Simple stuff first! --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Vowel/Consonant Inventory & Pronunciation:
like in fa
ther (Example word in LKT: aǧúyapi)
like in be
d (Example word in LKT: épazo)
t (Example word in LKT: ígmu)
like in so
ft (Example word in LKT: oákaŋke)
like in pu
t (Example word in LKT: úta)
/aŋ/ like o
ney, nasalized (Example word in LKT: aŋpétuwi)
/íŋ/ almost like i
nk (Example word in LKT: íŋyaŋ)
/uŋ/ like oo
n, nasalized (Example word in LKT: uŋčí)
/g/ like g
ot (Example word in LKT: gnašká)
/ǧ/ like the northern French r (Example word in LKT: ǧí)
/h/ like h
at (Example word in LKT: hokšíla)
/ȟ/ close to Spanish x
ico (Example word in LKT: ȟé)
/č/ almost like ch
in rich (Example word in LKT: čónala)
/čh/ like ch h
in much h
aste (Example word in LKT: čhápa)
/čʼ/ like č
but followed by a glottal stop (Example word in LKT: čʼó)
/k/ like k
ip, but not
ip (Example word in LKT: kimímela )
/kh/ like k h
in back h
ome (Example word in LKT: khéya)
/kȟ/ connect k
(no equivalent in English) (Example word in LKT: kȟáŋta)
/kʼ/ like k but followed by a glottal stop (Example word in LKT: kʼá )
/p/ like p
in, but not
in (Example word in LKT: pispíza)
/ph/ like p h
in steep h
ill (Example word in LKT: pheží)
/pȟ/ connect p
(no equivalent in English) (Example word in LKT: pȟahíŋ )
/pʼ/ like p
but followed by glottal stop (Example word in LKT: pʼó)
/t/ like t
ill, but not
ill (Example word in LKT: tópa)
/th/ like th
in sit h
ere (Example word in LKT: thípi )
/tȟ/ connect t
(no equivalent in English) (Example word in LKT: tȟatȟáŋka)
/tʼ/ like t
followed by a glottal stop (Example word in LKT: tʼá)
/s/ like s
o (Example word in LKT: sí)
/š/ like sh
op (Example word in LKT: šúŋka)
/z/ like z
ero (Example word in LKT: zičá)
/ž/ like s
ure (Example word in LKT: žó )
/b/ like b
oy (Example word in LKT: bebéla)
/l/ like l
amp (Example word in LKT: lowáŋ)
/m/ like m
ap (Example word in LKT: mathó)
/n/ like n
ap (Example word in LKT: napé)
/w/ like w
as (Example word in LKT: wičhíŋčala)
/y/ like y
es (Example word in LKT: yámni)
/ʼ/ catch in the throat; like the pause between the syllables in "uh-oh" (glottal stop)(Example word in LKT: )*please look here for a prettier chart*Numbers:
waŋži = one
núŋpa = two (twice)
yámni = three (to be three)
tópa = four
záptaŋ = five
šákpe = six *My favorite number*
šakówiŋ = seven
šaglóǧaŋ = eight
napčíyuŋka = nine
wikčémna = tenLakȟóta word order:
Lakȟóta's syntax is SOV, subject-object-verb.Some phrases I have learned:
Philámayaye. = I thank you (sg.).
Philámayayapi. = I thank you all (pl.).
Philáuŋyayapi. = We thank you (sg./pl.).
Philámaye. = I thank him/her.
Philámayapi. = I thank them.
Philáuŋyaŋpi. = We thank him/her/them.
Male speakers add ló
Philámayaye ló. (philámaya yeló is incorrect, so use this!)
A "Thank you" can also be expressed with wóphila
híŋhaŋni wašté - good morning
aŋpétu wašté - good day
ȟtayétu wašté - good eveningSummary of terms for addressing each other
And as of today (5th of November!) I just learned some new phrases/sentences that I thought would be interesting to share. At least, I found it interesting! As
tȟaŋháŋši – man to a man
haŋkáši – man to a woman
čépȟaŋši – woman to a woman
šič’éši – woman to a man
lekší – uncle
tȟuŋwíŋ – aunt
tȟuŋžáŋ – man speaking
tȟožáŋ – woman speaking
tȟuŋšká – man speaking
tȟošká – woman speaking
kȟolá – man to a man
máške – woman to a woman
okȟólayA – gender neutral, but usually not used as a term of address
ADDRESSING A GENERAL AUDIENCE
mitákuyepi – my relatives
What I learned about this (the above), reminds me a lot of Japanese. I haven't looked into Japanese much, but my sister is learning and often tells me about it. In a way, it functions just like "chan" and "sama".
Traditionally and with much respect, the above terms were, and still are, used. For people who are close in age, they refer to them as "cousin" (tȟaŋháŋši, haŋkáši, šič’éši, čépȟaŋši; depends on their gender). When you are addressing someone who is older, the terms lekší
(uncle) or tȟuŋwíŋ
(aunt) are used.
Now you might be thinking "but now you are addressing that person as your cousin". From what I've read and learn, there is a BIG difference between calling someone your cousin/etc etc out of respect than actually calling them your (actual) cousin. For example: ȟaŋháŋšiwaye kiŋ
– he is my cousin & hakátawaye kiŋ
– my cross cousin.
I thought this was interesting because, as I've seen this to be true, translators and "outsiders" often confuse these terms as the person/receiver being accepted into society or the family, when this is not so. This is the most polite way to address unrelated peoples, whilst terms like son, daughter, brother, sister, etc etc are used for more intimate or adoptive relationships!
I thought it was really neat and unique!
So if you want to address the forum or members here, learn the four terms (cousin etc etc) respectfully and apply them as directed! If you know the person you are talking to and you know they are (considerably) younger/older than you, you may also use the terms: “uncle,” “aunt,” “nephew,” and “niece” appropriately. OH! I almost forgot! If you are addressing a general audience, you can use -- mitákuyepi
– my relatives.END NOTES:
I'm not very far into Lakhota, so I hope everyone can excuse me for that. But! I'm still learning and trying as hard as I can! I have more to post, so hold on!
So I hope my post is good and can help someone who is in a situation like mine some! And if its allowed, I could take questions?
Lastly, If anyone is reading this please wait until I post at least one more before you post. I will need the first two posts.
Also, please report if the above leads to incorrect links!
Thank you! And sorry for the HUGE
October 27th, 2012 EDITS > Changed the title to "NAILC; 2nd Annual Powwow" for the second annual powwow.