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Oqaluutit - Verbs

Posted: 2007-02-11, 20:46
by ilaana
Maannakkut pisoq - Present tense (indicative)

There are 3 different verb stems in Greenlandic. 3rd person, singular, indicative, present tense has the following endings which shows what stem the verbs belong to:

Vowel stem: -voq (placed after the vowels i, u or a)
Q-stem: -poq (placed after r, originally q)
K/T-stem: -poq (placed after p, originally k or t)

So finding the stem of the verb is done by removing -voq or -poq from 3rd person, singular, indicative, present tense form. It's good to remember this, because it is of importance when you have to add affixes to the verbs.
In indicative, present tense the 3 verb stems are conjugated like this:

Vowel stem, nerivoq (is eating):

Nerivunga (I'm eating)
Nerivutit (You're eating)
Nerivoq (He's eating)
Nerivugut (We're eating)
Nerivusi (You're eating)
Neripput (They're eating)

Nerivunga? (Am I eating?)
Nerivit? (Are you eating?)
Neriva? (Is he eating?)
Nerivugut? (Are we eating?)
Nerivisi? (Are you eating?)
Nerippat? (Are they eating?)

It's an orthographic rule that you don't write 'uvi' and 'uva', but always 'ui' and 'ua' (and of course 'ue')

Q-stem, atuarpoq (is reading):

Atuarpunga (I'm reading)
Atuarputit (You're reading)
Atuarpoq (He's reading)
Atuarpugut (We're reading)
Atuarpusi (You're reading)
Atuarput (They're reading)

Atuarpunga? (Am I reading?)
Atuarpit? (Are you reading?)
Atuarpa? (Is he reading?)
Atuarpugut? (Are we reading?)
Atuarpisi? (Are you reading?)
Atuarpat? (Are they reading?)

K/T-stem, sinippoq (is sleeping):

Sinippunga (I'm sleeping)
Sinipputit (You're sleeping)
Sinippoq (He's sleeping)
Sinippugut (We're sleeping)
Sinippusi (You're sleeping)
Sinipput (They're sleeping)

Sinippunga? (Am I sleeping?)
Sinippit? (Are you sleeping?)
Sinippa? (Is he sleeping?)
Sinippugut? (Are we sleeping?)
Sinippisi? (Are you sleeping?)
Sinippiat? (Are they sleeping?)

The affix -nngilaq (not) is added to the last vowel in the verb stem:

Sininngilanga (I'm not sleeping)
Sininngilatit (You're not sleeping)
Sininngilaq (He's not sleeping)
Sininngilagut (We're not sleeping)
Sininngilasi (You're not sleeping)
Sininngillat (They're not sleeping)

Sininngilanga? (Am I not sleeping?)
Sininngilatit? (Aren't you sleeping)
Sininngila? (Isn't he sleeping?)
Sininngilagut? (Aren't we sleeping?)
Sininngilasi? (Aren't you sleeping?)
Sininngillat? (Aren't they sleeping?)

The affix added to other stems:
Nerinngilanga (I'm not eating)
Atuanngilanga (I'm not reading)

Posted: 2007-02-11, 21:02
by nighean-neonach
I think it is important here to point out that the verb forms ending in -voq and -poq are present/past tense and are usually understood more like past tense, if no further context is given.

Therefore I think it might be misleading to translate them with progressive present forms in English. Most grammar books translate them as present and past, or only past tense. (I did the same when I introduced verbal declension in one of my grammar postings.)

Tense and aspect of the verbs is more clearly marked by affixes, e.g. the best equivalent for progressive present would be -lerpoq = has started to do something, is doing something, is about to do something.
nerilerpoq = he/she/it is eating, has begun to eat
nerivoq = he/she/it eats, or ate

Posted: 2007-02-11, 21:14
by ilaana
It just how I learned it :)

Posted: 2007-02-11, 21:16
by nighean-neonach
Yeah well, and this is just how I've learned it :)

Posted: 2007-02-11, 21:35
by ilaana
Okay :D

Posted: 2007-02-11, 21:44
by nighean-neonach
We'll get on alright, don't worry. A native or fluent speaker would be great though... I'll ask a few people again :D Or we'll put an advert into Nuuk Ugeavis or Sermitsiaq :lol:

Posted: 2007-02-11, 21:46
by ilaana
I could also ask some people :) Hehe, we sure will :lol: