Some grammar and structures - part 3

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nighean-neonach
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Some grammar and structures - part 3

Postby nighean-neonach » 2007-01-29, 8:58

DISCLAIMER: As I have said before, I am not going to "teach" anything here. I strongly suggest that if you are interested in learning Greenlandic you get some of the materials listed in the other topic.

Our next topic here is POSSESSION:

To say that something belongs to someone, for example "the woman's dog" you have to mark this in the ending of both words:

arnaq = woman, this goes into the relative case: arnap

With most class 1 nouns you get this relative case by simply taking the plural -t away and putting -p there instead.
With words ending in -k, the plural ending -it is changed to the relative case ending -up.
With words ending in -t the plural ending -it is changed to the relative case ending -ip.

qimmeq = dog, this gets a possessive ending which marks both whose it is and how many there are. Sounds complicated? Naaaw, let's look at it in detail:

arnap qimmia = the woman's dog (literally more like "of the woman - her dog")

arnap qimmii = the woman's dogs

So -a signals "her or his one thing" and -i signals "her or his several things".

The endings -a and -i are added to the noun stem.

The noun stem is basically what you get if you take the -t away from a plural form.
(in class 1 nouns it is usually more simple, because often the basic singular form is the stem, or you get the stem as well by taking away a -q or -k, like in arnaq, but many other nouns are not that transparent).

If a noun of class 1 ends in -a, -i, or -u you just add the ending.
If a noun of class 1 ends in -q or -k, you take that away and add the ending.
If a noun of class 1 ends in -t, the endings are -aa and -ai.

There are two more basic rules you have to take care of when adding endings to words:

Rule 1:
e and o only exist before q and r. If a q or r is taken away and something else added, the e becomes i and the o becomes u.
You can see this rule at work in the word qimmeq. The plural is qimmit, where the -q is taken away, and -t added, so the e which was there in front of the q changes to i in front of the t.

Rule 2:
If a word ends in short -a, a following ending beginning in a vowel is influenced by that, meaning that the vowel becomes a as well (so that you have -aa- as a result). But I think we have no examples for that yet... Anyway, we'll come across it later.

~ ~ ~

Sounds all weird? Well, practice it a bit with some nouns from the word box. I'll add more words there later so it doesn't get too boring.
I think that's it for today, I'll add more basic lessons this week :)
Writing poetry in: Scottish Gaelic, German, English.
Reading poetry in: Latin, Old Irish, French, Ancient Greek, Old Norse.
Talking to people in the shop in: Lithuanian, Norwegian, Irish Gaelic, Saami.
Listening to people talking in the shop in: Icelandic, Greenlandic, Finnish.

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nighean-neonach
Posts: 2440
Joined: 2007-01-14, 22:39
Real Name: Mona
Gender: female
Location: eadar cuan is teine

Postby nighean-neonach » 2007-02-07, 11:34

What about some practice?

Arnap biilia
Angutip pisiniarfia
Anaanap aviisia
Ataatap inaa
Ikinngutip qimmia

And how would you say:

The man's wife
The door of the room
Father's car
The friend's room
Mother's bread
:)
Last edited by nighean-neonach on 2007-02-07, 18:21, edited 1 time in total.
Writing poetry in: Scottish Gaelic, German, English.
Reading poetry in: Latin, Old Irish, French, Ancient Greek, Old Norse.
Talking to people in the shop in: Lithuanian, Norwegian, Irish Gaelic, Saami.
Listening to people talking in the shop in: Icelandic, Greenlandic, Finnish.

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Vertaler
Posts: 156
Joined: 2006-12-01, 10:12
Gender: male

Postby Vertaler » 2007-02-07, 13:47

Arnap biilia - [spoiler]Auto der Frau[/spoiler]
Angutip pisiniarfia - [spoiler]Laden des Manns[/spoiler]
Anaanap aviisia - [spoiler]Zeitung der Mutter[/spoiler]
Ataatap inaa - [spoiler]Zimmer des Vaters[/spoiler]
Ikinngutip (?) qimmia - [spoiler]Hund des Freundes[/spoiler]

The man's wife - [spoiler]angutip nuliaa[/spoiler]
The door of the room - [spoiler]inip matua[/spoiler]
Father's car - [spoiler]ataatap biilia[/spoiler]
The friend's room - [spoiler]ikinngutip inia[/spoiler]
Mother's bread - [spoiler]anaanap iffiaa[/spoiler]

User avatar
nighean-neonach
Posts: 2440
Joined: 2007-01-14, 22:39
Real Name: Mona
Gender: female
Location: eadar cuan is teine

Postby nighean-neonach » 2007-02-07, 18:19

Yeah, sorry for the typo. I'm going to correct it above, qujanaq! :)
Writing poetry in: Scottish Gaelic, German, English.
Reading poetry in: Latin, Old Irish, French, Ancient Greek, Old Norse.
Talking to people in the shop in: Lithuanian, Norwegian, Irish Gaelic, Saami.
Listening to people talking in the shop in: Icelandic, Greenlandic, Finnish.


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