I think I understand now. So "ma" must come after "i" if the sentence starts with "i?" Or is this only once for "ipuza"?
--"ma" almost always comes after initial vowel,
uŋ(k) usually is prefixed to unaccented vowel and infixed after accented vowel. This is a matter of historical development: í-puza
is literally "mouth-dry", so í-ma-puza
is "my mouth is dry", similar to natá-ma-yazaŋ
Also, the verb úŋ
was translated as a simple equivalent to English "to be". This is not so: úŋ
with a noun means "to be located somewhere".
There are two other verbs, roughly translated as "to be a..." (héčha
) and "to be the..." (é
"She is a woman" is wíŋyaŋ héčha
Also, transcription used in these lessons lacks consistent marking of aspiration and glottalization of consonants.
P, t, k consonant stops have four series:
1. Plain, unaspirated voiceless stops: p, t, k, sometimes perceived as voiced b, d, g (because English p, t, k are always aspirated word-initially, as in pack, take, kite.
Examples: pápa, táku, kú
2. Weakly (pharyngeal) aspirated: ph, th, kh: philámayaye, thípi, khúže
3. Strongly (uvular) aspirated: pȟ, tȟ, kȟ: pȟóǧe, tȟakȟólaku, tȟuŋkášila
Aspiration bears meaning: comparewápaha
, "war bonnet"tȟóka
, "something happened"
4. Glottalized stops: p’, t’, k’: wanáp’iŋ, t’ékuŋze, ok’ó
č sound has all forms except strongly aspirated: č, čh, č’
aŋ, iŋ, uŋ are actually nasalized a, i, u, /ą, į, ᶙ/ besides, all a,i,u are nasalized after m- and n-.