Well, no suprise here, everyone is 100% correct.
This exercise may be easy, but watch out, the language will get harder eventually (Wait until we start verbs, Alcadras
Lesson Drei: Tense, Negation, and "to be"
There is a verb which means "To be" in Lakota. As you've seen, there are times when it can be omitted - like with adjectives. Whenever verbs in Lakota are listed, they are given in the 3rd-person singular form. In order to form all the other persons and plurals, we use this form as a root.
The verb "to be" is un
. Here is how we conjugate it:
+ un = waun
+ un = yaun
un = un
+ un + pi
* we are
+ un + pi
you all are
un + pi
* when the verb starts with a vowel, un changes to unk
So now we can say things like, Wíŋyaŋ un: She is a woman. Kóla yaun: You are a friend, etc.
: Lakota is an SOV language. Verbs always come last.
: Lakota has an indefinite article (Wan/Wanží) but it is closer to the word "one". It can be omitted.
To negate a sentence in Lakota, put "šni
" at the end of the sentence.
Šuŋka táŋka un = It is a big dog
Šuŋka táŋka un šni = It is not a big dog
Wicáša kiŋ yaun = You're the man
Wicáša kiŋ yaun šni = You are not the man
Ziŋtkála kiŋ cíkala = The bird is small
-----Ziŋtkála kiŋ cíkala šni
= The bird
is not small
Past and Future
In Lakota, verbs don't have a past form. So any present-tense verb can also be a past tense. Ex: "waun" can mean "I am" or "I was". Context usually indicates the difference.
However, there is a way to indicate future: by putting "kte" at the end of the sentence.
Wíŋyaŋ un = she is a woman
Wíŋyaŋ un kte = she will be a woman
Hogáŋ kiŋ cíkala = The fish is small
Hogáŋ kiŋ cíkala kte = The fish will be small
Wíŋyaŋ zizípela yaun kte = You will be a thin woman
yaun kte šni
= You will not
be a thin woman
This is fairly simple compared to some european languages which have totally different conjugations. In lakota, you just have to add a particle to the end.
Exercises to follow. If anyone has any questions, feel free to ask