voron wrote:BCS has a syncretism of dative and locative (except for a few marginal cases where only the stress is different). In your table, you need to replace all entries for locative with the ones for dative.
Also, vocative plural is identical to nominative plural.
languagepotato wrote:1. is iute hot as in spicy or hot as in warm?
2. tips for remembering the plural of nouns, or is rote memorization the best way to go here?
1. what's the difference between narandžast and narančast, wiktionary mentions them both for the color orange?
same thing for bijel vs beo
siv vs sinji, and crven vs rumen?
2. is the difference between plav and modar: blue vs purple-y blue?
3. when do you use which form of the adjectives, i'm familiar with cases and number in adjectives, i'm not that familiar with definite/indefinite distinction in adjectives? Is it as the name implies, the difference between a/the
17a. "Indefinite" vs. "definite"
In terms of meaning, the distinction short vs. long in adjectives is usually referred to as indefinite vs. definite. This is because in a number of instances the difference between short and long forms corresponds roughly to that between the English indefinite and definite articles, respectively. Thus, the adjective in the BCS phrase crn kaput would correspond to English A black coat while that in BCS crni kaput would correspond to English THE black coat. In other words, speakers use indefinite adjectives to provide "new" information (to introduce an idea for the first time), while they use definite adjectives to identify something that is already known (or "defined"), after which they go on to say something else new about it. For example:
Rade, je li to nov kaput? Rade, is that a new coat?
Da. On je nov. Yes. It's new.
Taj novi kaput je moj. That new coat is mine.
Gd[j]e je moj novi kaput? Where is my new coat?
17b. "Short vs. long" and "indefinite vs. definite"
Unfortunately, the correspondence between English articles and BCS adjective endings works in only a few instances. To complicate matters further, the BCS distinction between short and long adjectives is gradually being lost. For adjectives with both short and long forms, all one can say with certainty is that the short forms (those with presumed indefinite meaning) are used frequently in predicative position (as in Pas je crn [The dog is black]), and that the long forms (those with presumed definite meaning, as in Taj crni pas je moj [That black dog is mine]) are used in most other instances. The dictionary form is the masculine singular short form.
In general terms, it is advisable for learners to keep the concepts short vs. long separate from indefinite vs. definite - not only because the English / BCS correspondence is such an imperfect match, but also because there are a number of adjectives which have only short forms or only long forms. Most grammarians confuse the issue by calling these adjectives "only indefinite" or "only definite". This is both incorrect and misleading. For instance, adjectives such as engleski "English", srpski "Serbian", hrvatski "Croatian", američki "American", and the like, have only long forms, yet they can be used in both definite and indefinite contexts. There are also adjectives which have only short forms, such as the pronominal adjectives ovaj [this] and moj [my]; yet the meaning conveyed by these pronominal adjectives is clearly one of definiteness. In addition, the adjective mali "small" also exists only in the long form. Some speakers use this single long form in both meanings while others prefer to use a different adjective in the indefinite meaning - one which also means small and which does have both long and short forms (malen / maleni).
languagepotato wrote:is this the difference:
zelen miš peva - a green mouse sings
zeleni miš peva - the green mouse sings
4. which of these is the version you'd use to make the general fact statement (something like for example: young mammals drink milk)?
languagepotato wrote:Interesting apparently, one of the words for daughter (kći) is irregular, and that's why a lot of people say kćerka (the diminutive of kći or kćera) instead.
another irregular noun is otac (father)
languagepotato wrote:According to wiktonary, the noun braća (which is feminine) is used to denote brothers, my question for this word is:
when using adjectives with this word, do you use feminine singular adjectives, masculine singular or masculine plural?
With regards to obitelj, this is the first feminine noun that doesn't have an -a at the end in nominative, and it's declension pattern is also quite interesting, most forms are obitelji. For this I am wondering, are there more relatively common words that decline like this?
languagepotato wrote:also, apparently my brain can't keep the following somewhat similar words apart
băiat | bărbat
pahar | pasăre
farfurie | fluture
for the rest, I'm starting to get the feeling that while there are many patterns, this language is still highly regular and predictable when it comes to the forms (this might just be beginners optimism though)
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