TAC 2018 - Mike (Albanian, Romanian, *Turkish, *OE)

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TAC 2018 - Mike (Albanian, Old English, *Mandarin)

Postby Michael » 2018-03-21, 21:49

Rrëzohet(1) miti; Shqiptarët nuk janë aq të gjindshëm(2) dhe bujarë(3) sa mendonit!
The myth is debunked(1): Albanians aren't as kind(2) and generous(3) as you thought!
1. rrëzo/hem, u -ova, i,e -uar to fall, crumble, be destroyed
2. i gjindsh/ëm, e -me accommodating, helpful, kind
3. bujar(e) generous, unselfish


Bujaria, gatishmëria për të dhuruar, për të ndihmuar dhe për të mbështetur të tjerët kanë qenë karakteristikë e shqiptarëve në vite. “Bukë, kripë e zemër”, është një shprehje popullore që mishëronte(4) pikërisht këtë sjellje. Por duket se ndryshimi i ritmit të jetesës(5) pas viteve 90, emigracioni dhe migrimi i brendshëm, të kombinuara me vështirësitë ekonomike i kanë bërë shqiptarët më të largët dhe më të ftohtë ndaj njëri-tjetrit, më pak të prirur(6) për të bërë bamirësi(7) dhe për të mbështetur njëri-tjetrin në rast nevoje(8).
Generosity, the willingness to give, to help and to support others have been characteristic of Albanians for years. "Bread, salt and heart", is a popular expression which sums up(4) this attitude precisely. But it seems that the difference in the rhythm of life(5) after the 90's, emigration and internal migration, combined with economic difficulties have rendered Albanians more distant and colder towards one another, [as well as] less inclined to be charitable(7) and support each other in times of need(8).
4. mishër/oj, -ova, -uar to encompass, epitomize, incorporate
5. jetes/ë, -a a living, way of life
6. i,e prirur prone, inclined [to do smth.]
7. bamirësi, -a charity ¶ bëj […] to be charitable, give alms lit. ‘to do charity’
8. në rast nevoje idiom. in times of need, lit. ‘in (a) case of need’


Një sondazh i zhvilluar nga Gallup, në kuadër të(9) Indeksit të Lumturisë të publikuar nga OKB(10), që maste edhe treguesin(11) e bujarisë, gjeti se Shqipëria renditet(12) në vendin e 91 në botë, duke hyrë në listën e shteteve më pak bujare. Të anketuarve(13) iu bë pyetja “A keni dhuruar para për bamirësi muajt e fundit?”. Për Shqipërinë, përgjigjja e atyre që thonë jo, është më e lartë se e atyre që thonë po.
A Gallup poll (lit. ‘a poll sponsored by Gallup’), under(10) the Happiness Index published by the UN(10), that also measured for(11) generosity found that Albania ranks(12) in 91st place worldwide, ending up on the list of least generous nations. Those surveyed(13) were asked, “Have you donated money to charity in recent months?” For Albania, the response of those who answered NO is higher than that of those who answered YES.
9. në kuadër të +gen. comp.prep. under (legal, cf. Spanish bajo), within (id), in the context of
10. OKB = Organizata e Kombeve të Bashkuara United Nations, aka the UN
11. tregues, -i, -Ø(it) indicator, variable, figure, factor ¶ mas […]in e +gen. to measure for X, lit. ‘to measure the figure of X’
12. renditet X ranks #
13. i,e anketuar (person) surveyed


Shqipëria rezulton një nga vendet më pak bujare në Ballkan. Karakteristikën e bujarisë e ka ruajtur më së miri Kosova, e cila rezulton e para në rajon dhe e 26-a në botë. Më pas renditen Bosnjë dhe Hercegovina (49), Maqedonia (79). Më “cingunë”(14) sesa ne janë serbët (104) dhe malazezët (116).
It turns out that Albania is one of the least generous countries in the Balkans. Kosovo has better maintained the characteristic of generosity, which puts it at first in the region and 26th in the world. Bosnia and Herzegovina (49th) [and] Macedonia (79th) follow. Cheaper(14) than we are, are the Serbs (104th) and Montenegrins (116th.)
14. cingun(e) cheap (said of a person), (as a noun) cheapskate, penny pincher

Shqipëria renditet keq edhe në treguesin e mbështetjes sociale, në vendin e 138 (e 19-a nga fundi), ku individëve u është bërë pyetja: “Nëse do të ishit në telashe(15), a keni të afërm apo miq se ku mund të mbështeteni që t’ju ndihmojnë kur keni nevojë?”. Në të njëjtin tregues, Kosova është në vendin e 88, ndërsa mbështetje më të madhe sociale e kanë serbët (59), malazezët (76), maqedonasit (85) dhe më pak boshnjakët (118). Edhe italianët, që renditen më keq se ne në indeksin e bamirësisë, kur vjen fjala për të ndihmuar njëri-tjetrin janë më të gatshëm (vendi i 27).
Albania ranks badly even on the social support index, in 138th place (19th from last), in which individuals were asked: “If you were in trouble, do you have relatives or friends you could count on to help you out whenever you may need it?” On the same index, Kosovo is in 88th place, whereas Serbs (59th), Montenegrins (76th), Macedonians (85) and least, Bosnians (118th) have more social support. Even Italians, who ranked worse than us on the charity index, are better prepared to help each other out when it comes down to it (27th place)
15. telashe trouble

Shqipëria ishte e fundit në Europë në indeksin e lumturisë, në vendin e 112 në botë, nga 157 shtete. Krahas të ardhurave(16) të ulëta për frymë(17) dhe perceptimit të lartë për nivelin e korrupsionit në vend, faktorë të tjerë që i bënin shqiptarët të palumtur lidheshin me mungesën e mbështetjes tek njëri-tjetri. Krejt ndryshe është Kosova, që ndonëse renditet më keq në të ardhurat për frymë sesa Shqipëria, solidariteti që ata kanë ndaj njëri-tjetrit dhe fakti që e dinë se në rast se kanë një hall(18) kanë një krah ku të mbështeten, i bën ata të ndihen më të lumtur dhe më të kënaqur me jetën.
Albania was last in Europe on the happiness index, in 112th place in the world, out of 157 nations. Besides low income(16) per capita(17) and a high perception of corruption in the country, other factors that made Albanians unhappy were linked to a lack of mutual support. Kosovo is the total opposite, which, although it ranks worse in income per capita than Albania does, the solidarity that they have towards one another and the fact that they know they have a hand to depend on in case they get in trouble(18) makes them feel happier and more satisfied with life.
16. të ardhurat income, revenue, lit. ‘the comings-in’
17. për frymë per capita, lit. ‘per soul’
18. kam një hall to have a problem, be in trouble or in need


Në botë, shtetet, qytetarët e të cilëve janë më të gatshëm të bëjnë bamirësi, janë Myanmar, Indonezia, Haiti, Siria.
Worldwide, the nations whose citizens are most willing to give alms are Myanmar, Indonesia, Haiti [and] Syria.

Në Europë kryesojnë(19) Mbretëria e Bashkuar, Holanda, Norvegjia, Suedia, Danimarka. Të fundit në botë për bujarinë janë Kina, Maroku, Lituania. Shtetet me mbështetjen më të madhe ndaj njëri-tjetrit në rast nevoje ne botë janë Islanda, Zelanda e Re, Finlanda, Danimarka.
The United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden [and] Denmark lead the way(19) in Europe. Last in place for generosity in the world are China, Morocco [and] Lithuania. The nations with the most mutual support in times of need in the world are Island, New Zealand, Finland [and] Denmark.
19. kryes/oj, -ova, -uar to head, lead, preside over

20 mars 2018 (gazeta-Shqip.com)/Monitor




FJALË TË REJA TË TJERA, e martë 20 mars
OTHER NEW WORDS, Tues 20 March

trur, -i brain
rrëmb/ej, -eva, -yer to grab, seize, snatch
pandërprerë uninterruptedly
gungaç hunchback
shtrembër/ohem, u -ova, i,e -uar to become distorted, to twist (intrans.)
i ngjitsh/ëm, e -me sticky
i,e rrënjosur entrenched, deeply rooted
pordh/ë, -a, -a(t) fart
nxi/j, -va, -rë to blacken, tarnish ¶ nxi/hem, u -va, i,e -rë to get a tan, sunbathe
shkurtes/ë, -a, -a(t) abbreviation, acronym
bëhet fjalë për +acc. it’s about X (cf. Italian si tratta di)
nism/ë, -a, -a(t) initiative
stërvit, -a, -ur to exercise, train

GJITHSEJ (IN TOTAL): 204
American English (en-us) Pizzonese (nap) N Italian (it) Mexican Spanish (es-mx) Brazilian Portuguese (pt-br) Albanian (sq) B1 Greek (el) Persian (fa) A2 Romanian (ro) Old English (en_old) Turkish (tr) Azerbaijani (az) A1
„Çdo njeri është peng i veprave të veta.‟
Every human being is hostage to their own deeds.

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Re: TAC 2018 - Mike (Albanian, Romanian, *Turkish, *OE)

Postby Michael » 2018-04-28, 8:31

PËRDITËSIM, e shtunë 28 prill
UPDATE, Sat 28 April

It's been over a month since I last posted. A few things have changed since then:
  • I haven't progressed in the Albanian textbook, nor have I been keeping up with Anki reviews, but I've been learning new words and practicing my Standard Albanian (sq) Albanian nevertheless, so my level remains the same.
  • A fellow student of Albanian whom I met on FB was gracious enough to send me a PDF copy of A Concise Historical Grammar of the Albanian Language: Reconstruction of Proto-Albanian (for free, of course), for which I am eternally indebted to her. Before that, I was despairing at the thought of having to save up $125 just to get to know PA! So I'll be fitting in some Proto-Albanian (la) Proto-Albanian note-taking in the indefinite future.
  • I have an immense desire to delve into Romanian (ro) Romanian once and for all, all the more so now that I've learned Albanian to an intermediate level. I'm finding that Albanian and Romanian morphology delightfully correspond 1:1 among Balkan Sprachbund languages, which further motivates me to revisit Romanian.
  • I've "officially" put Mandarin Chinese, Simplified (zh.Hans) Mandarin on hold. I hope to be able to revisit it in 2019.
  • I'd like to try to brush up my Turkish (tr) Turkish, but as the asterisk implies, I won't be focusing on it.
  • I haven't been able to get myself to study Old English (en_old) Old English any further, let alone go over the Anki reviews, so I'm going to sign off on active study and relegate this goalpost to maintenance.

FJALË TË REJA
NEW WORDS
Since my interest in learning about Proto-Albanian has now become a degree more serious, I'll be adding etymological information, whenever available, from here on out.
arratis/em, u -a, i/e -ur to escape, evade, take flight
arratí, -a, -Ø(të) escape
└  MnA […] ← PA *ors-o-tia ← PIE *ers- ‘to move’
në flagrancë adv. red-handed, in the act
ngushëllim, -i, -e(t) comfort, condolence, consolation
ngushëll/oj, -ova, -uar to console, comfort
└  MnA […] ← OA *en-gushullonj ← (possibly) VL *inconsōlō ← Lat. consōlō
fllusk/ë, -a, -a(t) bubble, blister, balloon
└  MnA […] ← MA/OA augmentation in -kë of *fllusë ← PA *(s)blèwsa
gjah, -u (no pl.) game (i.e. huntable fowl), (the) hunt, (the) chase, hunting, shooting, prey
└  MnA […] ← PA *jaga
gjúaj, -ta, -tur to hunt; to lie in wait for, ambush; to shoot, throw (an aimed projectile)
└  MnA […] ← OA gjuonj ← PA *jāgnja
shpell/ë, -a, -a(t) cave, grotto, cavern
└  MnA […] ← MA variation of fellë ‘deep or shallow place’, influenced by Lat. spelaeum ‘id’ ← OA nominalization of adverb fell ‘deep, shallow’ ← PA *spesla, metathesis of *spelsa ← PIE *pels ‘rock, boulder’
dynd/em, u -a, i/e -ur to flock; to be swept or crammed into
dynd, -a, -ur to shake; to thicken; to rush in (mob, crowd, horde), swamp
└  MnA […] ← PA *dūnda
shkrep, -i, -a(t) crag, cliff, rock, small mountain
└  MnA […] ← MnA/MA singularized plural of shkarp, causative nominal prefix sh- ‘be-’ + karp ← masculinization of karpë ‘rocky hill with sharp peak’, apparently only triggered when modified by a prefix ← PA *karpā ← PIE *kerp- ‘to pluck’
paraprak (adj.) prior, preliminary, provisional, prerequisite, initial; (noun) feasibility, precondition
(një) shijim paraprak foretaste, sample (gastron.)
ndot/je, -ja, -je(t) pollution, contimant
i/e mirëfilltë literal, genuine
American English (en-us) Pizzonese (nap) N Italian (it) Mexican Spanish (es-mx) Brazilian Portuguese (pt-br) Albanian (sq) B1 Greek (el) Persian (fa) A2 Romanian (ro) Old English (en_old) Turkish (tr) Azerbaijani (az) A1
„Çdo njeri është peng i veprave të veta.‟
Every human being is hostage to their own deeds.

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Re: TAC 2018 - Mike (Albanian, Romanian, *Turkish, *OE)

Postby vijayjohn » 2018-04-29, 18:59

Michael wrote:I've "officially" put Mandarin Chinese, Simplified (zh.Hans) Mandarin on hold.

Huh, I thought you already had :hmm: (although of course I'll be happy whenever you decide to get into Mandarin :D). Cool that you're delving so much into Albanian etymology, though! Also, I wonder to what extent the similarities between Albanian and Romanian can be found elsewhere in the Balkans.

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Re: TAC 2018 - Mike (Albanian, Romanian, *Turkish, *OE)

Postby voron » 2018-04-29, 21:05

vijayjohn wrote:to what extent the similarities between Albanian and Romanian can be found elsewhere in the Balkans.

Throughout the whole Balkan Sprachbund? Serbian and Bulgarian also share a lot of grammatical features with Romanian.

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Re: TAC 2018 - Mike (Albanian, Romanian, *Turkish, *OE)

Postby vijayjohn » 2018-04-29, 21:42

voron wrote:
vijayjohn wrote:to what extent the similarities between Albanian and Romanian can be found elsewhere in the Balkans.

Throughout the whole Balkan Sprachbund? Serbian and Bulgarian also share a lot of grammatical features with Romanian.

Oh, I know. I might have misunderstood what Mike was saying. I was wondering whether the specific features Mike identified were simply Balkan Sprachbund features or features shared only between Albanian and Romanian (but not with other Balkan languages).

Part of the problem is that I either don't know or forgot what the features Mike identified were and am too lazy to check. :blush:

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Re: TAC 2018 - Mike (Albanian, Romanian, *Turkish, *OE)

Postby Michael » 2018-04-30, 0:36

vijayjohn wrote:
Michael wrote:I've "officially" put Mandarin Chinese, Simplified (zh.Hans) Mandarin on hold.

Huh, I thought you already had :hmm: (although of course I'll be happy whenever you decide to get into Mandarin :D).

Yeah, I wouldn’t blame ya for thinkin’ that I had already paused my study of Mandarin, for I practically had done so as soon as the beginning of December.

Cool that you're delving so much into Albanian etymology, though! Also, I wonder to what extent the similarities between Albanian and Romanian can be found elsewhere in the Balkans.

Faleminderit shumë, shok! Albanian etymology is at least as interesting as English’s, if not more so. :)

And voron, you nailed it. Hvala tebe! :?:
American English (en-us) Pizzonese (nap) N Italian (it) Mexican Spanish (es-mx) Brazilian Portuguese (pt-br) Albanian (sq) B1 Greek (el) Persian (fa) A2 Romanian (ro) Old English (en_old) Turkish (tr) Azerbaijani (az) A1
„Çdo njeri është peng i veprave të veta.‟
Every human being is hostage to their own deeds.

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Re: TAC 2018 - Mike (Albanian, Romanian, *Turkish, *OE)

Postby vijayjohn » 2018-04-30, 1:48

Michael wrote:Hvala tebe! :?:

I think it's hvala ti!

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Re: TAC 2018 - Mike (Albanian, Romanian, *Turkish, *OE)

Postby Saim » 2018-04-30, 9:59

vijayjohn wrote:
Michael wrote:Hvala tebe! :?:

I think it's hvala ti!


Yes, you're right, hvala goes with the dative, and in this context the clitic form of the pronoun is the most natural. Hvala tebi (with the full pronoun form) is mostly said as a response to hvala (i.e., "no, thank you!").

-Hvala!
-Hvala tebi!


U pravu si, tu je potreban dativ, a u ovom kontekstu koristili bi enklitički oblik zamenice. Hvala tebi se govori uglavnom kao odgovor na hvala.

-Hvala!
-Hvala tebi!

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Re: TAC 2018 - Mike (Albanian, Romanian, *Turkish, *OE)

Postby vijayjohn » 2018-04-30, 21:02

Hvala! :P

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Re: TAC 2018 - Mike (Albanian, Romanian, *Turkish, *OE)

Postby Michael » 2018-05-19, 7:18

(en) A quick update; (sq) Një përditësim i shkurtër; (ro) O actualizare scurtă

(ro) Thus far, I've completed as much as 4/20 (20%) of TY Romanian. Also, have surpassed the 200-cards milestone on the Ankl deck, entitled Mëso-ia vetes gjuhën rumune (a literal translation of the course's name in English to Albanian—the deck is in Albanian as opposed to English, naturally).

Here's a little song I listened to today, along with a full translation, as always.

Mirabela Dauer - Ce dor mi-a fost de ochii tăi (“How much I've long for your eyes!”)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z_IGtT9_IS4

(versuri) wrote:Strofa 1:
Îmi amintesc atunci când ai plecat[1]
I remember back when you left[1]
Pașii tăi în noapte încet[2] s-au depărtat[3].
Your footsteps slowly[2] faded away[3] in the night.
 1. a pleca to leave, go away
 2. încet (adv.) slow, low
 3. a se depărta to remove or to move oneself away


Refren:
Ce dor mi-a fost de[4] ochii tăi
How much I've longed for[4] your eyes!
Vreau să vii la mine, viața mea[5] să fii
I want you to come to me, to be my life[5]
Ce dor mi-a fost de ochii tăi
How much I've longed for your eyes!
Într-o zi de mâine[6] tu vei reveni…amândoi[7] vom fi.
You will return in a tomorrow[6]…it will be [just] the two of us[7].
 4. a-i fi dor de to miss, long for
 5. viaț/ă, -a, vieți(le) (irreg.pl.) life
 6. ziua de mâine figur. tomorrow, the future (‘the day of tomorrow’)
 7. amândoi, amândouă pron. (masc., fem.) both, the two of


Strofa 2:
Te-am așteptat…la tine doar[8] visam[9]
I've waited for you…I was {only[8]} daydreaming[9] about you
Inima și dorul[10] de tine întrebau.
[My] heart and [my] longing[10] were asking about you.
 8. doar just, only
 9. a visa to daydream
 10. dor, -ul, -uri(le) longing, yearning


[Refren]

[Strofa 1]

Ce dor mi-a fost de ochii tăi
How much I've longed for your eyes!
(2x) Într-o zi de mâine tu vei reveni… amândoi vom fi.
(2x) You will come in a tomorrow…it will be [just] the two of us.


(sq) Haven't advanced at all in Discovering Albanian, but have at least been keeping up with my daily 100 Anki reviews—17/18 of the way through the textbook, there's a good 1900 cards on the Anki deck.
American English (en-us) Pizzonese (nap) N Italian (it) Mexican Spanish (es-mx) Brazilian Portuguese (pt-br) Albanian (sq) B1 Greek (el) Persian (fa) A2 Romanian (ro) Old English (en_old) Turkish (tr) Azerbaijani (az) A1
„Çdo njeri është peng i veprave të veta.‟
Every human being is hostage to their own deeds.

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Re: TAC 2018 - Mike (Albanian, Romanian, *Turkish, *OE)

Postby vijayjohn » 2018-05-19, 12:01

For some reason, I only just noticed that you're using TY Romanian. I have that! (The old edition, anyway. I don't usually seem to have the same language-learning resources as other people :ohwell:). I had a Romanian-American neighbor and would try talking to him in Romanian sometimes when I was a teenager, and this was my only resource for it. I sort of gave up by about chapter 10 because I had a lot of trouble remembering all the vocabulary past about chapter 4 and (spoiler alert :D) the dialogue for chapter 9 includes the phrase cu noaptea-n cap without any explanation of what it means. I tried asking my neighbor what it meant, but he just translated it literally into English, so that didn't help ("I got up today with the night on my head" isn't a phrase that people usually say in English :P), and it drove me so crazy I pretty much just gave up, at least for the time being. :lol:

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Re: TAC 2018 - Mike (Albanian, Romanian, *Turkish, *OE)

Postby Michael » 2018-06-16, 1:29

vijayjohn wrote:For some reason, I only just noticed that you're using TY Romanian. I have that! (The old edition, anyway. I don't usually seem to have the same language-learning resources as other people :ohwell:). I had a Romanian-American neighbor and would try talking to him in Romanian sometimes when I was a teenager, and this was my only resource for it. I sort of gave up by about chapter 10 because I had a lot of trouble remembering all the vocabulary past about chapter 4 and (spoiler alert :D) the dialogue for chapter 9 includes the phrase cu noaptea-n cap without any explanation of what it means. I tried asking my neighbor what it meant, but he just translated it literally into English, so that didn't help ("I got up today with the night on my head" isn't a phrase that people usually say in English :P), and it drove me so crazy I pretty much just gave up, at least for the time being. :lol:

Aww, hahaha no I have the newer edition from 2003. And wanna know what the best thing was? I got it for a steal on Amazon. It was supposedly a used book, but it was in mint, factory-fresh condition, and I got it for a mere $3.00 (not including S&H)! E o carte foarte frumoasă!

Here's a snapshot of the dialogue of Chapter 9 in my 2nd edition of the book. The phrase cu noaptea-n cap is nowhere to be seen, lest I somehow glossed over it.
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American English (en-us) Pizzonese (nap) N Italian (it) Mexican Spanish (es-mx) Brazilian Portuguese (pt-br) Albanian (sq) B1 Greek (el) Persian (fa) A2 Romanian (ro) Old English (en_old) Turkish (tr) Azerbaijani (az) A1
„Çdo njeri është peng i veprave të veta.‟
Every human being is hostage to their own deeds.

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Re: TAC 2018 - Mike (Albanian, Romanian, *Turkish, *OE)

Postby vijayjohn » 2018-06-17, 3:58

Michael wrote:The phrase cu noaptea-n cap is nowhere to be seen, lest I somehow glossed over it.

That's because they've greatly simplified that dialogue over the years. :P Now they just say devreme instead of cu noaptea-n cap.

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Michael
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Re: TAC 2018 - Mike (Albanian, Romanian, *Turkish, *OE)

Postby Michael » 2018-06-19, 17:47

vijayjohn wrote:
Michael wrote:The phrase cu noaptea-n cap is nowhere to be seen, lest I somehow glossed over it.

That's because they've greatly simplified that dialogue over the years. :P Now they just say devreme instead of cu noaptea-n cap.

(ro) Nu văd cuvântul „devreme” în dialog… :?:
(en-us) I don't see the word devreme “early” in the dialogue… :?:
American English (en-us) Pizzonese (nap) N Italian (it) Mexican Spanish (es-mx) Brazilian Portuguese (pt-br) Albanian (sq) B1 Greek (el) Persian (fa) A2 Romanian (ro) Old English (en_old) Turkish (tr) Azerbaijani (az) A1
„Çdo njeri është peng i veprave të veta.‟
Every human being is hostage to their own deeds.

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Re: TAC 2018 - Mike (Albanian, Romanian, *Turkish, *OE)

Postby vijayjohn » 2018-06-19, 23:32

Michael wrote:
vijayjohn wrote:
Michael wrote:The phrase cu noaptea-n cap is nowhere to be seen, lest I somehow glossed over it.

That's because they've greatly simplified that dialogue over the years. :P Now they just say devreme instead of cu noaptea-n cap.

(ro) Nu văd cuvântul „devreme” în dialog… :?:
(en-us) I don't see the word devreme “early” in the dialogue… :?:

The beginning of George's second-to-last line on p. 80: Azi m-am trezit devreme...

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Michael
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Re: TAC 2018 - Mike (Albanian, Romanian, *Turkish, *OE)

Postby Michael » 2018-06-28, 6:21

It's been over a month since I've last written an update, so real quick:

(ro) Have completed 8/20 (40%) in TY Romanian, and I'm beginning to understand the more fundamental parts of Romanian grammar. I can even understand a good part of the lyrics of the Romanian music I've been listening to. This is probably the reason my Albanian has been taking a dive…

(sq) Nothing newsworthy here. Haven't been keeping up with Anki reviews—surprise, surprise…—and I haven't progressed in the textbook since February, never mind that I only have one more Lesson left until course completion! I'm afraid I've been letting my command slip away lately. We shall see next update whether I'll have rectified this at all.
American English (en-us) Pizzonese (nap) N Italian (it) Mexican Spanish (es-mx) Brazilian Portuguese (pt-br) Albanian (sq) B1 Greek (el) Persian (fa) A2 Romanian (ro) Old English (en_old) Turkish (tr) Azerbaijani (az) A1
„Çdo njeri është peng i veprave të veta.‟
Every human being is hostage to their own deeds.

Surgeon

Re: TAC 2018 - Mike (Albanian, Romanian, *Turkish, *OE)

Postby Surgeon » 2018-06-29, 12:50

Is the -ul suffix used as an accusative or genitive?

For example : Nu vorbesc limbajul negru. (LOTR) (acc)
Eloxajul canalelor (hard anodizing of grooves) (gen)

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Re: TAC 2018 - Mike (Albanian, Romanian, *Turkish, *OE)

Postby Michael » 2018-06-29, 23:56

Surgeon wrote:Is the -ul suffix used as an accusative or genitive?

For example : Nu vorbesc limbajul negru. (LOTR) (acc)
Eloxajul canalelor (hard anodizing of grooves) (gen)

-ul is the masculine definite suffix for both the nominative and the accusative (the two cases are morphologically indistinguishable), while -ului is the equivalent for the genitive and the dative. (By the way, in your second example sentence it is canalelor that is in the genitive, not eloxajul, which is in the nominative.) In those few masculine nouns that end in , such as tată ‘father, dad’ or papă ‘pope’, the nom./acc. def. suffix becomes -ăl, and the gen./dat., -ălui.
American English (en-us) Pizzonese (nap) N Italian (it) Mexican Spanish (es-mx) Brazilian Portuguese (pt-br) Albanian (sq) B1 Greek (el) Persian (fa) A2 Romanian (ro) Old English (en_old) Turkish (tr) Azerbaijani (az) A1
„Çdo njeri është peng i veprave të veta.‟
Every human being is hostage to their own deeds.

Surgeon

Re: TAC 2018 - Mike (Albanian, Romanian, *Turkish, *OE)

Postby Surgeon » 2018-06-30, 7:53

Thanks. Now it makes sense. Razboiul stelelor : episodul 2 Atacul clonelor.

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Re: TAC 2018 - Mike (Albanian, Romanian, *Turkish, *OE)

Postby dEhiN » 2018-06-30, 20:18

Michael wrote:-ul is the masculine definite suffix for both the nominative and the accusative (the two cases are morphologically indistinguishable), while -ului is the equivalent for the genitive and the dative.

I remember seeing this for the few vocab items I've added to Anki: the nominative form of a noun is the same as the accusative. As a result, my cards go something like this:

Front: o dimineață -- dimineața
Back: morning [f. nom./acc. indef. sing. -- def. sing.]

But so far, for the handful of nouns I've added, I've only put the nominative (and accusative) singular forms.
My TAC for 2019.

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