[flag=]sq[/flag] Completed Lesson 8 and have begun Lesson 9. Learnt several dozens of words pertaining to various foodstuffs (grains, fruits, vegetables), and have also been taught the formation of the subjunctive along with the invariable modal verbs mund
"can, to be able to" and duhet
"must, to have to" (cf. Greek πρέπει
). The Albanian subjunctive is much simpler than its Greek counterpart, as in Albanian, only the second- and third-person singular subjunctive conjugations differ from their indicative equivalents, except for the irregular verbs jam
"to be" and kam
"to have", whose stem vowel itself changes from -a-
, affecting all persons. 44%
[flag=]el[/flag] Consolidated Lessons 7 and 8, learning vocabulary having to do with time and timekeeping (from the former) and trade and commerce (from the latter). 40%
To conclude this update, let me post an interesting video entitled (in Greek) "Population and settlements of the Arvanites (a somewhat irredentist ethnonym used to distinguish the centuries-old Albanian population of Greece, who are usually Orthodox and overwhelmingly identify as Greek, from Albanians living elsewhere
) from 1879 to 1907", along with a translation:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oEoq7e6mceA
The Greek national intelligentsia, besides the problem of the conflict regarding the "Slavic question" with Fallmerayer (defending the national myth that they constructed), was confronted from the start with a more serious, but vivid problem, the existence of the Albanians in Greece.
Athens, the capital of the nascent kingdom, was geographically located in the midst of a sea of Albanian-speaking people, as it was surrounded by tens of Albanian villages.
Anyone who decided to travel during the primordial years of the creation of the Greek state, from Malesina and Martinus of Locrida, to Castrion (Ermione) and Cranidion of the Peloponnese, a distance that with the sole mode of transportation at the time, horseback, would necessitate 75 hours of continuous travel [Gell 1827, p. 7] & [Molossós 1878], or with the necessary stops an entire week [Lithoxóou 1983, p. 57-58], was likely to not meet a single person from the villages through which he passed who could speak Greek with him, except for Theba and Megara.
The German archaeologist and Philhellene Ludwig Ross, who came to Greece in order to assume management of the archaeological service and the seat of archaeology at the University of Athens, realizing the depth and span of the Albanian population, disappointingly noted in 1832, arriving in Greece: "I was, in theory, above Greek soil, amongst Greeks; in reality I wasn't. The naked rock of Hydra, the neighboring isles, Spetses and Porus, Castrion and Cranidion… had become occupied by Shqipëtarë
Albanians" [Ros 1976, p. 25].
The French archaeologist Edmond About, who lived in Greece for two years, wrote in 1855 that Athens was an Albanian village itself when it was [re-]established and that in addition, "Every evening, when the sun sets, you'll encounter huge groups of Albanians around Athens with their wives returning from work in the fields" [Ambou, p. 70].
Meanwhile, the Scottish historian George Finlay, who lived half his life in Athens and came to familiarize himself with the country and its people, observed in 1861: "Greeks no longer lived in Marathon, in the Plataiai, in Leuctra, in Mantineia, in Eira and in Olympus, but Albanians did. Even in Athens, which has been for a quarter of a century and onward the capital of the Hellenic kingdom, one can hear the children who play in the streets near Theseius and Hadrian's Gate speaking in the Albanian language" [Finley, p. 46].
Any foreigner who visited the country would initially become elated listening to the scholars of Athens beaming with pride about the archaic Hellenic origin of the population of Greece, but realizing the large number of Albanian inhabitants, would come to the same conclusion as did Fallmerayer: "All of these places that once upon a time were the heart and center of the Greeks are today New Albania" [Fallmerayer 1984, p. 74].
The existence of the Albanians constituted such a serious problem for the architects of the Greek national myth, that Constantine Paparregopoulos himself, leader of Greek national historiography, suggested measures for a solution in 1854, since he was obliged to accept the Albanian reality: "Two races inhabit Greece, the Greek and the Albanian. Βut does the Albanian race constitute a nation in and of itself? Τhe sole element of ethnic identity that that race possesses, its language, will gradually retreat toward the victorious path of Hellenism" [Demaras 1986, p. 153].
In Greek politics, when it comes to the "disappearance" of ethnic minorities, there is an unwritten guideline for any "national thinkers" who need to talk about minorities: "We speak generally and indefinitely, we don't like to be precise, that is to say, we don't show minority villages on the map, because there is an immediate danger of the "deterioration of its blue color" [quotes mine
]. In the case of the Albanians, the first one who aimed for a complete record of their settlements was Athanasius Tsigos, but his work remained at the bottom of the chest, so that it was published almost half a century after his death" [Tsigos 1991, p. 56-61]. The second one was George Nakratzas, who infused any of the scattered information he had collected about Albanian villages onto maps [Nakratzas 1992, p. 80, 85, 143, 145, 151,153, 156, 161].
The record-keeping of the minority villages, besides the colored distinctions on the map, allows a second task, the calculation of the exact amount of minorities, and in turn the rejection of fabricated formal statistics of censuses about native language, leading to great misery for Greek national authors. We purport to pass on this record-keeping of Albanian villages, the surveying of them and the calculation of their population, according to the figures of censuses from 1879 and 1907, that is to say, in a period during which the language was in daily use. Αpart from the aforementioned works of Tsigos and Nakratzas, specific resources were consulted for the rest of the provinces [Miliarákis 1886], [Philippson 1890], [Coryllus 1903], [Anagnostópoulos 1939], [Aïvaliotákis 1941], [Georgacas - McDonald 1968], [Guigas 1978], [Sáltaris 1986], [Yiohalás 2000 & 2002].
The total amount of Albanians in the country rose from 176,120 individuals in 1879 to 236,707 in 1907. These figures, as a percentage of the total population of Greece, were 10.65% and 9% respectively. Those who lived in urban centers were not taken into account in the amount of Albanians. Formal data from the Statistical Service about the population of Albanians was 58,916 or 3.56% for 1879 [Apographe 1879] and 50,975 or 1.94% for 1907 [Apographe 1907].
The 410 Albanian villages according to their geographical allotment were divided as such in 1907:
- In the province of Attica, 50 villages with a population of 46,105 individuals.
- In the province of Megaris, 9 villages with a population of 15,341 individuals.
- In the province of Aegine, 4 villages with a population of 1,180 individuals.
- In the province of Theba, 48 villages with a population of 30,898 individuals.
- In the province of Locrida, 11 villages with a population of 7,073 individuals.
- In the province of Lebadeia, 11 villages with a population of 4,841 individuals.
- In the province of Corinth, 61 villages with a population of 31,759 individuals.
- In the province of Argolida, 19 villages with a population of 8,674 individuals.
- In the province of Ermionida, 8 villages with a population of 15,560 individuals.
- In the province of Nauplia, 16 villages with a population of 5,933 individuals.
- In the province of Troizenia, 19 villages with a population of 15,285 individuals.
- In the province of Carystia, 53 villages with a population of 13,299 individuals.
- In the province of Andros, 17 villages with a population of 5,227 individuals.
- In the province of Trifylia, 17 villages with a population of 10,512 individuals.
- In the province of Patras, 31 villages with a population of 7,988 individuals.
- In the province of Calabryta, one village with a population of 981 individuals.
- In the province of Mantineia, one village with a population of 1,207 individuals.
- In the province of Heleia, 17 villages with a population of 6,303 individuals.
- In the province of Lacedaemon, 17 villages with a population of 10,773 individuals.