TAC 2010 - Karavinka

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TAC 2010 - Karavinka

Postby Karavinka » 2009-12-31, 3:47

Since we now have a forum, I move in here with a slight change on my list.

"Gothic"
Consisting primarily of Gothic, Anglo-Saxon, Middle English in the first two quarters and Norse in the second. My goals are mainly to read the extant texts. "Gothic" is my personal code for all ancient Germanic because I think the word "Germanic" sounds rather forced. I have some knowledge of the first three, and the only new language is Norse/Icelandic. German is listed in the supplments section; and it is what it is.

* Lambdin, Introduction to the Gothic Language
* Streitberg (ed), Die Gotische Bibel (2 Bd.)
* 『고트어The Gothic Language』
* Mitchell and Robinson, A Guide to Old English
* Treharne (ed), Old and Middle English c. 890-1450, An Anthology
* Klaeber's Bewoulf, 4th ed.
* Canterbury Tales
* Word-Hoard: An Introduction to Old English Vocabulary, 2e.

Supplementaries:
* Jannach and Korb, German for Reading Knowledge
* Einarsson, Icelandic: Grammar, Texts and Glossary
* A Reader's Greek New Testament

"Khitan"
Consisting of Classical Chinese, Classical Japanese, Middle Korean, Manchu and Ainu. (I dropped Mandarin Chinese; it's placed as a supplement.) Again, my goals are the same - to read, and the only "new" language here is Manchu. "Khitan" is my personal code for this Sprachbund, cognate with "Cathayan." (And I think Sprachbund affiliation is more meaningful than genetic relationshps.)

* 『中國語古文』(in Korean)
* 『古典中國語文法講議』(in Korean)
* 『日本語古典文法』(in Korean)
* 『日本語古典文法』(in Japanese)
* 『枕草子』(Classical Japanese)
* 『日本古典文學選』(CJ Anthology)
* 『日本古典文學精解』(CJ Anthology)
* 『三國演義滿文總解』(Manchu-Middle Korean)
* 『舊滿洲檔』(Manchu-Korean)
* 『標準中世國語文法論』(in Korean)
* 『カムイユカでアイヌ語を学ぶ』(in Japanese)


More to buy, more to come...

ps. sorry if it doesn't fit "listing"; I don't see myself as doing 9 languages here; as the grouping tells, I'm learning only two. For practical sake, "got" "is" "zh" and "ja" should be fine.
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Re: TAC 2010 - Karavinka

Postby Karavinka » 2010-01-02, 7:20

January Goals:

"Gothic" track
* Review Lambdin's Intro. to Gothic.
* OE: Review Mitchell's Guide to Old English.
* OE: Read: Old and Middle English: An Anthology (Bede, Alfred, the Chronicle)
* ME: Read: Havelok the Dane, King Horn, Canterbury Tales "Prologue" to "Cook"

"Khitan" track
* Go through the interlinear 『舊滿洲檔(Old Manchu Documents)』 and figure out its grammar.
* CJ: Continue working through Classical Japanese grammar
* CJ: Read: 『日本古典文學選(CJ Anthology)』excerpts from Kojiki to Manyoshu
* CJ: Read: Genji Monogatari "Kiritsubo" to "Wakamurasaki"

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Re: TAC 2010 - Karavinka

Postby Karavinka » 2010-01-05, 8:58

I didn't want to leave the thread empty, so a random passage from the Manyoshu (Ten-Thousand Leaves), 8th century, Old Japanese from Nara period written in Manyogana; it is followed by transcription in Katakana & Roman, and my own English translation. (I'm keeping up with my schedule with other stuff as well.) A large number of Manyoshu love poems deal with the longing to meet their beloved one, since there were a lot of social restraints between lovers in the period.

茜草指 武良前野逝 標野行 野守者不見哉 君之袖布流
アカネサス ムラサキノユキ シメノユキ ノモリハミズヤ キミガソデフル
Akane sasu, murasaki no yuki, shime no yuki, nomori ha mizuya, kimi ga sode furu
-- 『万葉』 (I:20)

Heading towards the violet fields where akane* is bright, the forbidden fields where the guardian's unseen, wavest thou there sleeves of thine.

*Akane is a plant used to extract red dye. "where akane is bright" is a cliché (makurakotoba) for "murasaki" (purple, violet).


Addendum. I actually went a bit farther than I first planned, since the Nara passages in the CJ anthology were not as difficult as I first feared. Adding passages from Kagurauta and Saibauta, I covered the Old Japanese period (~p. 42 out of 290). I'll spend the rest of January in reviewing these passages plus other Kojiki and Manyoshu excerpts from Waka 2001 before moving on to Heian in February. (Jan 6)
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Re: TAC 2010 - Karavinka

Postby Karavinka » 2010-01-13, 17:17

Since we're now almost halfway through January, this is my interim report for this month.

I came up with an exercise which I call "rotation"; Indo-European Online contains ten lesson texts for each ancient language it treats, none of which is specially paraphrased for the sake of learner facility. (In fact, they're not even graded in terms of difficulty.) I went through one lesson per day in six of these languages: Latin, Gothic, Old French, Old English, NT Greek and Classical Greek in this particular order and I have finished working through these sixty texts once without paying too much attention on the grammar sections. Gothic and Old English are parts of my "Gothic" track, and I included Latin and Old French for the sake of retention. Two Greeks have been added as well as I am sensing a greater need for some reading knowledge of the Greek New Testament for the Gothic studies. None of these languages are completely new to me, except that I have never studied Classical Greek per se and these texts with extensive glossaries allow me a very fine-combing of the chosen samples. I'll be doing this once a month, though I may add or drop one or two from the rotation list.

More specifically, individual language-wise:

Gothic: I haven't spent as much time with Lambdin itself as I first planned to. Although Lambdin is such a wonderful resource, it's printed in the paper too large and it's quite hard to move around reading this text. I'm constantly reviewing 『고트어』("The Gothic Language"), a compact Gothic grammar in Korean that I acquired before. My copy is autographed by one of its authors. ;)

English: Finally had Word-Hoard shipped. As with any dead languages, vocabulary is the most difficult part of it since it is practically impossible to find an immersion environment, OE being no exception. This is an extremely well-planned and well-written vocabulary guide, a frequency list with detailed etymological notes. Combined with Klaeber's Beowulf and Beowulf audiobook, my understanding of the language of Beowulf is slowly growing. Also read the chapters Bede to Alfred in Old and Middle English: An Anthology and working through Havelok the Dane, while translating some excerpts on my blog. (in Korean)

Manchu: Working through Old Manchu Documents at a leisurely pace. I'm recognising some general features and mechanism of the language.

Classical Japanese: I acquired another anthology, 『日本古典文學精解(Refined Anthology of Classical Japanese Literature, henceforth Refined Anthology)』 in conjuction with 『日本古典文學選(Selections of Classical Japanese Literature, henceforth Selections)』. I changed my plans to start tackling the Genji at this point; I'm working through both anthologies focusing mostly on the Nara-period.



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Re: TAC 2010 - Karavinka

Postby Kasuya » 2010-01-13, 18:25

Do most books on classical Japanese use 旧字体?

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Re: TAC 2010 - Karavinka

Postby Karavinka » 2010-01-14, 1:42

Kasuya wrote:Do most books on classical Japanese use 旧字体?


Not necessarily; most modern editions use 新字体 though there are some (usually older editions) that use the full traditional set. More orthodox texts or critical editions are more likely to use the traditional set, but the books designed for learners (that is, Japanese learners for the most cases) are more likely to use simplified ones.
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Re: TAC 2010 - Karavinka

Postby hcholm » 2010-01-14, 9:45

For supplimentary reading, I can recommend the three volume work "Germanische Sprachwissenschaft" by Hans Krahe and Wolfgang Meid. It can be hard to find, and sometimes very expensive if you find it, but I managed to find a reasonably priced used copy on a Dutch trading site a couple of years ago. There is an impressing amount of information squeezed into those books.

I can also recommend reading books in modern Icelandic. Sagas in Norse can be a bit boring after a while because of the rough literary style. As you probably know, modern Icelandic is very close to Norse, so learning modern Icelandic can be a very good starting point.

Btw, why do you think the term "Germanic" sounds forced?

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Re: TAC 2010 - Karavinka

Postby Karavinka » 2010-01-14, 11:16

hcholm wrote:For supplimentary reading, I can recommend the three volume work "Germanische Sprachwissenschaft" by Hans Krahe and Wolfgang Meid. It can be hard to find, and sometimes very expensive if you find it, but I managed to find a reasonably priced used copy on a Dutch trading site a couple of years ago. There is an impressing amount of information squeezed into those books.

I can also recommend reading books in modern Icelandic. Sagas in Norse can be a bit boring after a while because of the rough literary style. As you probably know, modern Icelandic is very close to Norse, so learning modern Icelandic can be a very good starting point.

Btw, why do you think the term "Germanic" sounds forced?


1. Thanks for the suggestion, but given my location I think it would be fairly difficult to obtain the volumes.

2. I am actually thinking that I should first tackle some Modern Icelandic before going any further with Norse at least for the phonetics if not for anything else. I'm focusing more on solidifying my knowledge of Anglo-Saxon and Gothic at the moment, and Norse wouldn't come too late.

3. *shrugs* the word sounds rather artificial to me, and "Gothic" was an acceptable alternative to "Germanic" in English up until 19th century.
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Re: TAC 2010 - Karavinka

Postby hcholm » 2010-01-14, 13:34

Karavinka wrote:1. Thanks for the suggestion, but given my location I think it would be fairly difficult to obtain the volumes.

You will have to search for it on the web in any case. That shouldn't be more difficult from South Korea than from Norway!

Karavinka wrote:2. I am actually thinking that I should first tackle some Modern Icelandic before going any further with Norse at least for the phonetics if not for anything else. I'm focusing more on solidifying my knowledge of Anglo-Saxon and Gothic at the moment, and Norse wouldn't come too late.

Modern Icelandic and Old Norse differ mostly phonetically. There are of course many new words in MI, and slight differences in spelling, but they are surprisingly similar otherwise. Do you really need to know that much about Norse phonetics? Norse writing is quite phonetic as it is, and very few people would care how you choose to pronounce it. In Norway, it's usually pronounced in a way that suits modern Norwegian phonetics, probably similar to what they do with Classical Greek in Greece. Maybe there is a common English way to pronounce Old Norse too?

Modern Icelandic has invented many phonetic quirks that you may not want to learn, unless you really want to. I suggested Modern Icelandic mostly because it will be easy to find something interesting or easy to read. I started with the book "Demantar eyðast aldrei", of all things. I get tired rather quickly of stories about where some brave viking traveled with his ship and reading his family tree in detail. But I must read Hávamál in Old Norse some day.

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Re: TAC 2010 - Karavinka

Postby Karavinka » 2010-01-14, 16:54

Indeed, I'm not really using the "reconstructed" pronunciation for neither Greek nor Norse. I simply use Pimsleur Greek with its reading lessons and an Icelandic audiobook version of Egils saga to aid me in pronouncing these languages. I don't pronounce Old Japanese as it was pronounced either, I just superimpose Modern Japanese phonetics while ignoring the differences between e1 and e2 and o1 and o2, for example. ...But I do use reconstructed pronunciation (however bad mine may be for Gothic, Anglo-Saxon, Middle English (Chaucerian London) and Classical Latin... (Because there is no modern descent of Gothic, I know modern English better than its historical phases, and I don't want to pronounce Latin in French or English way.)

I'll be using Sagas as my primary choice of reading Icelandic - rough the style may be, it's easier to comprehend for a beginning student. But now I'm thinking of doing something else after reading your plan of attack... I'm considering a Biblical rotation of 2 Corinthians in your manner, from Gothic, German, Icelandic and Greek. (2 Corinthians because it's the only fully intact NT book in Gothic.)

Anyways, thanks for your helpful comments. You seem to be very well-versed in Indo-European. ;)
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Re: TAC 2010 - Karavinka

Postby Karavinka » 2010-01-25, 3:38

We're coming to the end of January, so here it goes. I have to start out by saying that I did extremely little in the meantime because of the unexpected turmoil that is taking place in my life. However, I didn't neglect my studies altogether... *yet*.

Gothic. I did extremely little that is not even worth mentioning. I was more taken by Anglo-Saxon in the last two weeks, and I don't think I'll cram over Gothic like I first planned. I'm considering setting a pair group study of Gothic.

Anglo-Saxon. I spent quite a lot of time with Word-Hoard and acquiring Anglo-Saxon vocabulary while reading parallel AS-ModE texts in the anthology. My comprehension is steadily growing and I can follow the vanilla texts of longer poems (such as Dream of the Rood, Maldon, Elene, Beowulf...) and have some idea of what's going on, though my comprehension rate is still lower than desirable. I expect this situation to ameliorate itself by the end of March.

Middle English. I find it much more useful to closely read a single text than reading a bunch of random ones. Still reading Havelok the Dane, a Northern poem, and translating excerpts from it. (It's pretty long, 3001 lines) After this, I'll probably come to some Southern (London) poem or West Midlands.

Japanese. I have read some chunks from Manyoshu and Kojiki, but didn't do much interms of grammatical exercise per se. And I think it may not even be entirely necessary after a point? I'll spend some more time on Old Japanese until February and (hopefully) go on to the Classical period.

Manchu. Some important grammatical features seem to start making sense. Acquired passive recognition of some of very frequent words - army, speak, order, district, raid, lord.. ;)

Chinese, Ainu, Norse are still on the queue.


And although it's extra-TAC, I'm studying Lais of Marie de France in Anglo-Norman. The most sensual Medieval poetry I've read so far.


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Re: TAC 2010 - Karavinka

Postby Karavinka » 2010-01-27, 5:43

Assessment for January:

Gothic
Reading through the Gothic grammar gave me a decent enough passive understanding that I can parse the Gothic texts without too much difficulties, though there are still more to be learned. I still often rely on the Germanic "reflex"; when I read Gothic, I read it in comparison with other Germanic languages and I feel that I am yet to read Gothic in its own terms. Other than some vocabulary issues, reading the Gothic Bible does not pose too much difficulty now especially when I read it side-by-side with Greek in Streitberg's Die Gotische Bibel. Two languages complement each other in my brain.

English
Anglo-Saxon: The major issue, vocabulary, is greadually becoming less troublesome and reading AS poetry, previously simply impossible, merely became difficult. Using Word-Hoard and the parallel texts helped me greatly with passive vocabulary acquisition. The structure per se doesn't seem to be too big a problem now.

Middle English: Focusing on a single dialect that is used in Havelok the Dane (Northern; Lincolnshire) made me very familiar to it, that I sometimes find myself translating from it on spot. But since Middle English is by no means a unitary language, getting accustomed to its countless variants (practically, there are as many variants as there are works in ME) would still be a challenge.

After a while, probably after having myself accustomed to other major dialects such as London and West Midlands, I'll read more from Ancrene Wisse and even parts of Ormulum where the boundary between AS and ME is vague. Wrestling with Middle English has done me another benefit that I learned to handle a unstandardised chaos like that, and it turned out to be a very useful skill as I navigate between Anglo-Saxon, Old Saxon Heliand and Old High German Hildebrandslied.

Norse
Very little, though I occasionally flipped through its grammar and tried reading a random prose text and see how much I might understand. I'd say about one third, clearly not enough to follow the narrative.

Chinese
While I can decipher through Classical Chinese texts with the help of a dictionary, I am yet to have adopted Mandarin phonetics which becomes quite annoying when I use a mixture of Mandarin, Korean or Japanese phonetics for the different letters at once. I'll have to work on re-learning the phonetics in Mandarin before I could do anything meaningful with this.

Korean
Haven't really looked at any Middle or Early Modern Korean in January. No progress.

Japanese
Close reading of some Nara-period texts dispelled the irrational fear or mystery. I'm more confident in reading the texts from later periods as well, which is quite satisfying. More Nara in February and deep into Heian from March.

Ainu
No progess yet.

Manchu
Feeling a growing need of a manual.
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Re: TAC 2010 - (Classical Greek) Karavinka

Postby No passive learning » 2010-01-27, 18:29

Hello Karavinka:

My question (for you or whomever reading this) is simple: How do you manage to read/translate Classical Greek? I've tried so a million times but it seems that most of the sentences (by Homer or Aristotle) are simply pointless, and polysemic. Is there any method to read and understand languages like Latin or Classical Greek?

Thanks in advance. :?:
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Re: TAC 2010 - Karavinka

Postby ''' » 2010-01-27, 20:22

I've done both, and while they are rather weird they are perfectly translatable. You just need to get used to the style. When we did latin we had our teacher with us and he would explain sentences which we didn't understand and draw the conclusions we couldn't come to then after a while you start to get used to the style. I'd recommend reading glossed/translated texts for a while first since classical languages tend to be pretty idiomatic in poetry.
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Re: TAC 2010 - Karavinka

Postby Karavinka » 2010-01-29, 6:44

A language is just a languae, whether it is ancient or modern, or dead or alive.
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Re: TAC 2010 - Karavinka

Postby Karavinka » 2010-02-23, 9:14

February: The reality consumed most of my time during this month and I haven't been able to do much works on the languages and reading in general. It's largely because I simply couldn't be spending time at home working on the languages as I wasn't even at home - I was either at work or on a date. :blush: (I didn't even log in to this place for a while!)

My only improvement with respect to languages has been with Latin and Anglo-Norman (neither of which is TAC), as I read quite various kinds of texts in Medieval Latin - hymns, drama, history, essays, etc (Sorry, not interested in Romans) and started tackling some lais of Marie de France. Now I'm generally confident in reading Latin with dictionaries, and getting the hang of Anglo-Norman/Old French.

As for the TAC, other than reading and translating a few passages from Anglo-Saxon and Middle English, I did extremely little. Although slacker that I am at work, I can't be doing exercises from a language textbook in the office. ;) This situation would ameliorate itself around late March.
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Re: TAC 2010 - Karavinka

Postby Karavinka » 2010-03-03, 11:18

Assessment for February and goals for March:

I've done some extra work by the end of the month on Gothic, and reading the Gospels in Gothic, apart from the vocabulary, does not present me with much difficulties. I'm planning to do some serious vocabulary drills in Gothic, though I don't know exactly when I'd be doing it. Probably starting from the late March or early April. The same goes with Anglo-Saxon - reading the prose works in AS pose little challenge to me, but the poetic texts are still more difficult as the Old Germanic poetry often tend to be very dense and concise. While I'm slowly accustoming myself to the AS poetic style, it'd be still a long way until I could read them at leasure. Frankly, they're still more pain than pleasure. Haven't done much for Middle English and Norse. It will just take more time, and I'm quite positive that I could develop a decent reading skills in Gothic and English, and I'm even tempted to include Old Saxon and Old High German later on.

I obtained a Middle Korean coursepack from the Open University of Korea and began working with it. A more serious grammatical work in Classical Japanese could follow, which is at a stale at the moment. The two languages show even more grammatical parallels in their older stages than in their modern versions. Also, I started speaking Modern Japanese on a daily basis, at times for hours after hours; I'm polishing my rusty speaking abilities which will cement the language deper in my brain. I'll finally start working with Manchu from the script, which I've been delaying for a long while; my girlfriend will take a course in Manchu this semester and I'll make use of her course materials as well. ;) It'd be a different experience to read Manchu in its own script rather than in Romanisation. I feel like I need a better focus, so Chinese and Ainu will follow Japanese and Manchu, respectively.

As for extra-TAC, I decided to register for DALF C1 this year. I'll be reading and shadowing some French from now on. Reading Latin, Old French and French is kind of interesting but I won't include it formally to TAC. (And... I want to learn Thai again. :( )
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Re: TAC 2010 - Karavinka

Postby Karavinka » 2010-03-29, 8:03

I've been slacking with my readings for a while; my current routine demands eight hours of work and four hours of commuting but I still did some meaningful works. As for Middle English, I'm getting at a point where I can read somewhat comfortably especially the later stages of the language. The earlier documents like Ancrene Wisse is fairly readable to me, but not as readily understood as Bevis of Hamptoun or Le Morte d'Arthur. I haven't done a lot with Anglo-Saxon, though I am close to a stage where I can just read Beowulf and roughly follow the narrative even when I don't ge to get everything. Nothing on Gothic and Norse in March.

I started more systematic grammatical studies of Middle and Modern Korean. Although Modern Korean is the language of my childhood, I simply do not possess much explicit grammatical knowledge of it, and it's quite pleasant (though perplexing) to learn the mechanisms by which the language operates. I began reading Late Middle Korean fictional works in prose, and I find that this kind of knowledge of Middle Korean is of a great help. (For those curious; "Middle Korean" proper in Korean scholarship refers to the language of 15C to 16C; from 17C to 19C are referred variously as "Ealry Modern", "Late Middle", "Late Joseon" etc)

The study of Japanese and Chinese is at a halt. I'll cover the Classical Japanese grammar in conjunction with the Middle Korean by the end of April.

I only recently obtained two books on the Manchu language: 『満州語入門20講』『満州語文語入門』, both in Japanese. I should get to reading these books.. fortunately enough, Manchu explained in Japanese is not terribly complex in structure (But for anyone trying to learn Manchu via the medium of a western language, it might well be as complicated as Japanese.)


Non-TAC aside: Lego libros de rhetorica Ciceronis in Latina appellantur De Inventione.
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Re: TAC 2010 - Karavinka

Postby Karavinka » 2010-04-13, 12:50

Early half of April: still pretty busy, I'm teaching even more classes at work than before and it's taking up more time. Still, I did a few things, with the focus on Old and Middle English and Middle Korean. The most of what I did on the historical variants of English have been passive reading, mostly medieval romances, while most of my efforts on Middle Korean have been on the technical/grammatical aspects of the language.

I think the extensive passive reading is the most important, if not the only, way to learn to read Middle English. While some specialised treatments are available -- Henry Sweet wrote his primers on the languages of Ancrene Riwle, Ormulum and works of Chaucer -- the sheer diachronic and synchronic diversity of ME makes every work unique and the learner just has to accept this pluricentricity and learn to live with it. And sometimes it's helpful to know Old French. For example:

The kynge of Calabre, allas,
That the lady fadir was

(Octavian lines 190-1)

Octavian is a Middle English romance which survives in two versions, the above quoted from the Northern one. It has a French original from which it was somewhat abridged and translated, and the Old French structures sometimes creep in, such as the genitive above. "The king of Calabre, alas, that was father of the lady..." This is perfectly analogous to Old French, e.g. le rei gunfanuner (Chanson de Roland 106), "the king standard-bearer", that translates itself as the standard-bearer of king. The possessor first in the definite, and then the possessed second in the indefinite.

Well, I think I am on the right path to the Middle English language and literature, but at the same time I'm considering purchasing a more technical treatment of the language despite its variants - it still feels like there is a slight veil blocking some of the comprehension. It's partly dialectal - West Midlands still looks more alien than London or Northeastern (my favourite) - and partly global. This need appears to be more pressing as I find myself reading Middle Korean with much more ease only after a brief treatment on the technicalities.
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Karavinka
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Re: TAC 2010 - Karavinka

Postby Karavinka » 2010-04-19, 12:55

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This is the first page of the sixth book of Seokbo Sangjeol (釋譜詳節), a fifteenth century Life of Buddha by Prince Suyang, later king Sejo of Joseon. It is made of 24 books, not all of which survive. This is considered as one of the most representative Middle Korean texts, and it is valued not only in linguistic terms but also in the literary terms. The bigger prints are the main texts, while the smaller prints indicate that they are notes.

And - if you want to read it, you don't only learn Middle Korean but also need to get used to different early prints scanned. For various reasons, it is customary to have even the begining textbooks of Middle Korean present the extended reading sections in scans from early prints, and I'm navigating through the entire book (there are 130 pages like that). Ugh.

Although I don't think there is anyone who has an interest in this form of Korean language (as of now at least) I think it's still nice to raise an awareness that there is such. ;)

MidK: 世尊이 象頭山애 가샤 龍과 鬼神과위ㅎㆍ야 設法ㅎㆍ더시다
ModK: 세존이 상두산에 가셔 용과 귀신을 위하야 설법하셨다
Eng: Buddha went to Mountain Sangdu and preached for the Dragons and the Ghosts.

MidK: 부톄 目連이ㄷㆍ려 니ㄹㆍ샤ㄷㆎ
ModK: 부처가 목련이에게 말하시기를
Eng: Buddha told Mokryeon

There are some significant phonological and grammatical differences: the most obvious is the vowel ㆍ, which is like "o" in English words "hot" or "cock". ModK monophthongs like ㅔ /e/ were then diphthongs, as their graphic representations are: ㅔ was pronounced ㅓ+ㅣ. "부톄" is not pronounced as it might be in ModK: it was pronounced as diphthong, somewhat like 부텨이 where -ㅣ at the end is the subject marker. ModK has two such markers 이/가 depending on whether the preceding word ends in a consonant or a vowe, but MidK has only one, -이. We see the use of different kinds of particles such as -ㄷㆍ려 instead of -에게 (~더러 in some dialects) and vocabulary such as 니ㄹㆍ- instead of 말하-.

The MidK encoding is as of imperfect in Unicode, and it's difficult to have them shown in a neat syllable block unless using a special software; although I typed the MidK vowels as separate blocks for this reason, they should be read in one block as shown on the scanned text.
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