Linguaphile's 2024 reading log

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Re: Linguaphile's 2024 reading log

Postby Linguaphile » 2024-06-27, 4:14

(et) iärmark annual fair (in the Kihnu dialect)
iärmark aastalaat; igaaastane suurem laat (Kihnu murdes)
Minu vanaema meenutas, et lapsena käidi isa ja emaga korra suve jooksul ikka "iärmargil", s.o. kaupa ostmas ja ilmarattaga sõitmas.
My grandmother recalled that as a child she always used to go "fairing" with her mother and father once each summer, that is, buying goods and riding the ferris wheel.

The sentence above is in standard Estonian except for the word iärmargil, which was in quotes in the original. The Kihnu-dialect word iärmark is a German loan (from German "Jahrmarkt"). In standard Estonian the equivalent word jaarmark is obsolete but originally meant a German fair. While looking it up, I also found a sample sentence which is entirely in the Kihnu dialect.
Aᵉtt tõi iärmargast rõngassaiu. (Kihnu dialect)
Vanaisa tõi aastalaadalt rõngassaiu. (Standard Estonian)
Grandfather brought bagels home from the fair.

Joined:2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Linguaphile's 2024 reading log

Postby Linguaphile » 2024-06-28, 23:13

(es) pena flight feather
pena cada una de las plumas mayores del ave que, situadas en las extremidades de las alas o en el arranque de la cola, sirven principalmente para dirigir el vuelo
una cola de catorce penas cortas
a tail with fourteen short flight feathers

(es) tardar lo suyo to take one's time
tardar lo suyo emplear mucho tiempo
Los agentes de la ley locales habían tardado lo suyo en llegar al hospital.
The local law enforcement agents had taken their time getting to the hospital.

(es) campar a sus anchas to roam freely, to go free
a sus anchas cómodamente, sin sujeción, con entera libertad
Los "demonios" responsables de la serie de crímenes más infame que se haya cometido en este país seguirían campando a sus anchas.
The "demons" responsible for the most notorious series of crimes ever committed in this country would go free.

(es) mantener en la inopia to keep in the dark
en la inopia en la más absoluta ignorancia de algo
Hasta entonces, había logrado mantener a la prensa en la inopia sobre el papel del Bureau en el asunto.
Until then, they had managed to keep the press in the dark about the Bureau's role in the matter.

(es) negativa denial, refusal
negativa repulsa o no concesión de lo que se pide
la negativa de testigos a cooperar
the refusal of witnesses to cooperate

Joined:2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Linguaphile's 2024 reading log

Postby Linguaphile » 2024-06-29, 16:05

(es) criar malvas to push up daisies, to be dead and buried
criar malvas estar muerto y enterrado
Si uno hablaba de esos asesinatos con quien no debía, podría muy bien acabar criando malvas.
If one talked about these assassinations with the wrong person, he could very well wind up pushing up daisies.

(es) móvil motive
móvil aquello que mueve material o moralmente algo; causa, motiviación
Si Bryan había matado a Anna, ¿cuál era el móvil?
If Bryan had killed Anna, what was his motive?

(es) imberbe immature, beardless
imberbe que todavía no tiene barba
un imberbe adolescente
an immature adolescent

(et) kõlad set of weaving cards for tablet weaving
kõlad vanaaja vöökudumisvahend; õhukesed ruudukujulised lauakesed, mille igas nurgas on auk lõimelõngade tarvis
(et) ai woven or embroidered edge ribbon of a skirt or shirt
ai seeliku (või särgi) punutud või tikitud äärispael
Kitsast ühevärvilist ümbrikku kaunistati piduliku variandi puhul kudrustükiga ja selle serv palistati kõladega kootud pooga või põimitud aiaga.
A narrow single-colored wrap skirt was decorated with glass beads for festive occasions and its edge was bordered with a tablet-woven hem ribbon or a braided edge piece.

Joined:2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Linguaphile's 2024 reading log

Postby Linguaphile » 2024-07-02, 16:03

(et) -mte = -mtõ negating particle in the Kihnu dialect, added to the end of a word; often used for emphasis in conjunction with negative conjugations
mte ~ mtõ mitte
Examples: põlõ'mte is not (Standard Est. pole mitte); tahass'mtõ didn't want (ei tahtnud); tohe'mtõ doesn't permit (ei tohi); sua’mtõ doesn't get (ei saa); suass'mtõ didn't get (ei saanud); levä'mte can't be found (ei leidu); ming'mte don't go (ära mine); minge'mte don't go (ärge minge); limsutag'mte don't handle roughly (ära väntsuta); paelju'mtõ not much (mitte palju); sia'mtõ not you (sa mitte), pehm'mtõ not soft (ei pehme), et'mte that not (et mitte); inime'mte person (nom.) doesn't (inimene mitte); inimest'mte person (part.) doesn't (inimest mitte); käsitsi'mte not by hand (mitte käsitsi); kissi'mte who himself didn't (kes ise ei); teesed'mte nor others (ega teised)

Ning sedä kuõti siis, mio aegõs kuõti kua viel, mõnõd kudusid, aga meil ema ei tahass, no olõss matõrjali kua na paelju'mtõ.
And they wove it like that back then, in my time they still did, some did, but our mother didn't want to, well, there also wasn't so much material.

Ning ljõnanõ materjal ei olõss üldse siokõ, ei põlõ na pehm'mtõ, na vedel, lörts'mtõ.
And the linen material wasn't like that at all, it wasn't so soft, so flexible, it wasn't bad.

Abielus ta ei olõss'mtõ ning pärispunasõga käüs ikka.
She wasn't married and she still went around in a proper red skirt.

Nied ei olõss pärispunasõd'mtõ.
They aren't a proper red.

Sie põlõ enäm rahvariiemte. = Rahvariie sie põlõ enämte.
It isn't folk clothing anymore.

The above sentences are in the Kihnu dialect. The last example shows how the suffix can be added to different words in a sentence, but as an emphatic particle it usually comes at the end, with the word order adjusted accordingly. The spelling used by dictionaries and language materials is 'mtõ and 'mte, with the apostrophe placed to indicate where the second word (mitte) is affixed, but sometimes it is written without the apostrophe or as m'tõ and m'te, with the apostrophe placed to indicate the letters that are missing (m[it]te). The title of the book Meri põlõm'te paljas vesi (meaning "the sea is not simply water") has it spelled this way.

Joined:2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Linguaphile's 2024 reading log

Postby Linguaphile » 2024-07-09, 0:13

(et) pulmad wedding (ritual celebration)
laulatus wedding (religious ceremony)
pulm abielu sõlmimise rituaalne pidustus (vahel hõlmab ka abielu laulatust)
laulatus abielu sõlmimise tseremoonia, kiriklikult abiellu õnnistamine
I had thought that pulmad and laulatus were just two ways to say the same thing ("wedding"). In modern usage they tend to be used interchangeably (or if not, then the difference between them had simply never been noticeable to me before; pulmad is often the word used and it can encompass both). But in this book I am reading, it explains that the laulatus is supposed to take place before the pulmad.
Laulatus toimus Kihnus reeglina enne pulmi.
As a rule, on Kihnu Island the church wedding ceremony took place before the traditional marriage rituals.

(et) uju traditional Western Estonian and Estonian island wedding veil of linen (completely covers the bride's face so that she can't be seen, like this, this and this)
uju uig; pruudilinik (Lääne-Eestis ja saartel)
Esialgu saabub ta peigmehe koju valge uju all peidus olevana, seejärel toimuvad uju mahalaulmine ja muud rituaalid, mille käigus muutub pruut aina rõõmsamaks ja võib ka riietuda järjest punasemalt.
At first she arrives at the groom's house hidden under a white linen veil, then the unveiling ceremony and other rituals take place during which the bride becomes more and more joyful and can dress ever more redly.*

(et) mürkroheline a vivid green color with a bluish tone, similar to emerald green or dark cyan (like this and this).
mürkroheline ere, terav, sinaka varjundiga või tumedam roheline
Ülejäänud körditriibu värvid (must, tumesinine, türkisinine, kollane, lilla, mürkroheline, valge) on olenevalt kördi kasutamissituatsioonist mõedud põhitähendust võimendama või lahjendama, seega tuleb neid vastavalt doseerida.
Depending on the context in which the skirt is worn, the remaining colors of the stripes on the skirt (black, dark blue, turquoise, yellow, purple, emerald green, white) are meant to either amplify or attenuate its basic meaning*, so it is necessary to proportion them accordingly.

(et) kiutkört striped folk-dress skirt (like this and this)
küüt jutt, joon, triip
Alles siis, kui lõngavärvid muutusid odavamaks ja kättesaadavamaks, muutus ka kiutkörtide kasutamine maasilisemaks ja vana korduskörtide mood jäi algul kokkuhoidliku vanema generatsiooni kanda ning hiljem unustati üldse.
Only when colored threads because cheaper and more obtainable did the wearing of striped skirts become widespread and the old fashion of wearing ruffled skirts at first was left for the more conservative older generation to wear and then completely forgotten.

*ever more redly / amplify or attenuate its basic meaning: the "basic meaning" refers to the fact that the colors of the skirt have a coded symbolism, the basis of which is that the more red on the skirt, the happier the mood; the more dark blue, the more solemn the occasion and the more worries the wearer has (see here and here). A mostly red skirt is worn to a happy occasion, a mostly blue one to a funeral or by a widow in mourning. The bride wears one that is partly red and partly blue when she leaves her parents' home, but changes into skirts with progressively more red as the wedding progresses. Thin stripes of the other colors mentioned serve to demarcate the width of the red or blue stripes and to increase or decrease the ratio of the red or the blue.

Joined:2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Linguaphile's 2024 reading log

Postby Linguaphile » 2024-07-11, 17:57

(es) tener la sartén por el mango to call the shots, to have the upper hand
tener alguien la sartén por el mango ser dueño de la situación, poder decidir o mandar
Se mantuvo imperturbable, como si aún tuviera la sartén por el mango.
He remained unperturbed, as if he was still the one calling the shots.

(es) estar en el ajo to be in the know, to be in the loop
estar en el ajo estar al corriente, estar al tanto de un asunto tratado reservadamente
Él estaba en el ajo y lo tenía todo bien atado, empezando por el capataz de obra y terminando por el gobernador
He was in the loop and had everything taken care of, from the foreman to the governor.

(es) tirarse un farol to bluff, to brag
farol hecho o dicho jactancioso que carece de fundamento. (marcarse, tirarse un farol)
Burkhart, consciente de que ya se habían tirado antes un farol, dijo que no les creía.
Burkhart, aware that they had already bluffed before, said that he didn't believe them.

(et) änn skua (Arctic seabird)
änn tundra ja arktiliste saarte kajakasuurune konksja noka ja valdavalt tumepruuni sulestikuga röövlind
Eile nägin esimest änni, pani söökla jäätmehunnikult lendu.
Yesterday I saw the first skua, it took off from the cafeteria's trash heap.

(et) pesalohk pit or hollow for a nest
lohk väheldane looduslik v. tehissüvend; nõgu, vajutusjälg, (mitte sügav) auk milleski
Emane istus nagu part kivikestest ehitatud pesalohul, ootas muna.
A female sat like a duck on a nest built out of pebbles, waiting for an egg.

(et) kumõss kumis, Central Asian drink made from fermented mare's milk
kumõss hobuse-, harvemini lehma- v. kaamelipiimast kääritatud Kesk-Aasia rahvaste jook
Enne ärasõitu retke hobusekarjuste juures, kumõssijoomist öise lõkke ääres, kõndi koiduajal küngastelt tagasi külasse.
Before leaving, a trip out to the horse herders, drinking kumis by the night fire, and a walk back to the village from the hills at dawn.

Joined:2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Linguaphile's 2024 reading log

Postby Linguaphile » 2024-07-17, 20:19

(es) hacer piña con alguien to band together, to circle wagons, to back someone up, close ranks around someone
piña conjunto de personas o cosas unidas o agregadas estrechamente
Los osage formaron piña y se puede decir que ellos alimentaban a la familia.
The Osage banded together and you could say that they fed the family.

(es) ser alguien de la misma cuerda to be of the same opinion
cuerda conjunto de personas con ideas o características semejantes
Hoover les vendió la historia a periodistas de su cuerda.
Hoover gave (sold) the story to journalists who were of the same mind.

(et) keelesügamine gibe, jeer, taunt (poking with words at someone's expense)
keelt sügama kellegi kallal või arvel sõnadega nokkima, torkima, närima
Säärased keelesügamised siin meie poissmehepõlve vahetuseks.
Such are the gibes that we bachelors exchange here.

Joined:2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Linguaphile's 2024 reading log

Postby Linguaphile » 2024-07-20, 4:04

(et) põlisus state of being long-established, time-honored, perpetual
põlisus väga vanadest aegadest pärinemine, sellisena püsimine, kestmine
Murdekeelte kasutamist mõjutab ka inimeste põlisus ehk pere- ja kogukondlikud sidemed konkreetses kultuuripiirkonnas mitme inimpõlve jooksul.
Usage of a local dialect is also influenced by a person's established heritage, i.e. familial and community connections in a specific cultural space over the course of several generations.

(et) kõrvalekalle aberration, deviation
kõrvalekalle suunast, teemast, normist, eeskirjadest vms eemaldumine; kõrvalekaldumine
Kõrvalekaldeid normitud kirjakeelest üldiselt halvustati riiklikul tasandil.
Deviations from the standardized written language were generally frowned upon at the national level.

Joined:2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Linguaphile's 2024 reading log

Postby Linguaphile » 2024-07-21, 3:49

(et) pähkel (figurative) complicated problem or difficult task
pähkel (piltlik) keeruline probleem v. ülesanne; kõva pähkel raske ülesanne, keeruline probleem
Iga keel pakub keeleteadusele huvi, sest igas keeles on midagi iseäralikku, mille olemuse mõistmine ja seletamine võib olla päris paras pähkel.
Every language offers something of interest to the field of linguistics, because in every language there is something unique, the understanding and explanation of which can be a real challenge.

(et) suubuma to flow into
suubuma sisse voolama
Silbivälte teooria võidulepääsuga (taastulekuga) suubub eesti keele häälikusüsteemi uurimine ja tõlgendamine üldkeeleteadusele arusaadavasse voolusängi.
With the rise to prominence (or comeback) of the theory of degrees of syllabic quantity, the study and interpretation of the Estonian sound system flows into a riverbed that is understandable to the field of general linguistics.

Joined:2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: Linguaphile's 2024 reading log

Postby Linguaphile » 2024-07-24, 4:29

(es) estar como una cabra to be completely mad, totally nuts
estar como una cabra estar loco, chiflado
Soy una zorra que está como una cabra.
I'm a crazy bitch.
Literally, "I'm a fox that is like a goat." I feel like this combination doesn't make a lot of sense; this is from a book that was translated to Spanish from English, and surely they could have found a better way* to translate the original English into Spanish besides mixing two animal metaphors! The English version is common, but this Spanish version is not. (I'm listing it here anyway, because from it I learned the phrase estar como una cabra, and that's valid. It's just combining it with zorra that strikes me as weird.)
*for example: soy una zorra loca

(es) sentar la cabeza to settle down; to clean up one's act
sentar la cabeza hacerse juicioso y ordenado, moderar la conducta
Se casó con su novio e intentó sentar la cabeza.
She married her boyfriend and tried to settle down.

(es) estar en posición de firmes to stand at attention
firmes interjección usada para ordenar que se adopte la postura de firmes
Attention! (At-ten-SHUN! Ten-hut!)

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