showing, teaching, learning, knowing

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h34
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showing, teaching, learning, knowing

Postby h34 » 2020-11-18, 22:43

How would you translate these verbs? (infinitive or any other citation form)

(1) to show (something to someone)
(2) to teach
(3) to learn (acquiring knowledge), to study
(4) to learn / to hear (about a fact)
(5) to know (a fact)


(da) (1) vise (2) undervise, lære (3) lære (4) få at vide (5) vide
(de) (1) zeigen (2) unterrichten, unterweisen, lehren (3) lernen (4) erfahren (5) wissen
(sv) (1) visa (2) undervisa, lära (3) lära sig (4) få veta (5) veta

(ru) (1) показ(ыв)ать (2) преподавать, обучать, обучить (3) учить, учиться, научиться (4) узна(ва)ть (5) знать

(lv) (1) rādīt (2) mācīt (3) mācīties (4) uzzināt (5) zināt

(et) (1) näitama (2) õpetama (3) õppima (4) teada saama (5) teadma
(kv) (1) индыны (2) велöдны (3) велöдчыны (4) тöдмавны (5) тöдны
(mdf) (1) няфтемс (2) тонафтомс (3) тонафнемс (4) кармамс содама (5) содамс
(mhr) (1) ончыкташ (2) туныкташ (3) тунемаш (4) пален налаш (5) палаш
(myv) (1) невтемс (2) тонавтомс (3) тонавтнемс (4) кармамс содамо (5) содамс
(udm) (1) возьматыны (2) дышетыны (3) дышетскыны (4) тодманы (5) тодыны
Thanks for any corrections!

Linguaphile
Posts: 3196
Joined: 2016-09-17, 5:06

Re: showing, teaching, learning, knowing

Postby Linguaphile » 2020-11-19, 0:50

h34 wrote:How would you translate these verbs? (infinitive or any other citation form)

(1) to show (something to someone)
(2) to teach
(3) to learn (acquiring knowledge), to study
(4) to learn / to hear (about a fact)
(5) to know (a fact)

I can think of some others that could be added to the list but don't fit into the above categories, like Spanish conocer = Estonian tundma = to know a person or place, to be acquainted with; Estonian oskama = to know how to do something. Also in some languages, (3) is two different things (to study versus to learn) and in other languages they are the same or overlap in different ways, i.e., with the difference between them coming at a different point of meaning.
Like this:
English: (a) to learn [something new] (b) to study [to work towards learning] (c) to study [scientific research]
Spanish: (a) aprender (b) estudiar (c) estudiar
Estonian: (a) õppima (b) õppima (c) uurima
In other words in English and Spanish there is a word that encompasses (b) and (c) but not (a), while in Estonian there is instead a word that encompasses (a) and (b) but not (c).
Of course you can also say analyze or investigate for (c) and so on but what I'm getting at here is that the words used for (a) and (b) have different boundaries in each language, and of course this is just a small set of languages as an example.
This whole set of words involves semantic fields with a lot of diversity. :mrgreen:

(da) (1) vise (2) undervise, lære (3) lære (4) få at vide (5) vide
(de) (1) zeigen (2) unterrichten, unterweisen, lehren (3) lernen (4) erfahren (5) wissen
(sv) (1) visa (2) undervisa, lära (3) lära sig (4) få veta (5) veta

(es) (1) mostrar, enseñar (2) enseñar (3) aprender [to learn], estudiar [to study] (4) enterarse de (5) saber
(ru) (1) показ(ыв)ать (2) преподавать, обучать, обучить (3) учить, учиться, научиться (4) узна(ва)ть (5) знать

(lv) (1) rādīt (2) mācīt (3) mācīties (4) uzzināt (5) zināt

(et) (1) näitama (2) õpetama (3) õppima (4) teada saama (5) teadma
(kv) (1) индыны (2) велöдны (3) велöдчыны (4) тöдмавны (5) тöдны
(mdf) (1) няфтемс (2) тонафтомс (3) тонафнемс (4) кармамс содама (5) содамс
(mhr) (1) ончыкташ (2) туныкташ (3) тунемаш (4) пален налаш (5) палаш
(myv) (1) невтемс (2) тонавтомс (3) тонавтнемс (4) кармамс содамо (5) содамс
(udm) (1) возьматыны (2) дышетыны (3) дышетскыны (4) тодманы (5) тодыны
(vot) (1) näüttää (2) õpõttaa (3) õppia (4) tiiüssää (5) täätää
(vro) (1) näütämä (2) oppama (3) oṕma (4) teedäq saama (5) tiidmä

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oho
Posts: 190
Joined: 2020-11-05, 6:48

Re: showing, teaching, learning, knowing

Postby oho » 2020-11-19, 4:31

(da) (1) vise (2) undervise, lære (3) lære (4) få pat vide (5) vide
(de) (1) zeigen (2) unterrichten, unterweisen, lehren (3) lernen (4) erfahren (5) wissen
(sv) (1) visa (2) undervisa, lära (3) lära sig (4) få veta (5) veta

(es) (1) mostrar, enseñar (2) enseñar (3) aprender [to learn], estudiar [to study] (4) enterarse de (5) saber
(it) (1) mostrare (2) insegnare (3) imparare, studiare (4) venire a conoscenza di, venire a sapere, apprendere (5) sapere, conoscere

(ru) (1) показ(ыв)ать (2) преподавать, обучать, обучить (3) учить, учиться, научиться (4) узна(ва)ть (5) знать

(lv) (1) rādīt (2) mācīt (3) mācīties (4) uzzināt (5) zināt

(et) (1) näitama (2) õpetama (3) õppima (4) teada saama (5) teadma
(kv) (1) индыны (2) велöдны (3) велöдчыны (4) тöдмавны (5) тöдны
(mdf) (1) няфтемс (2) тонафтомс (3) тонафнемс (4) кармамс содама (5) содамс
(mhr) (1) ончыкташ (2) туныкташ (3) тунемаш (4) пален налаш (5) палаш
(myv) (1) невтемс (2) тонавтомс (3) тонавтнемс (4) кармамс содамо (5) содамс
(udm) (1) возьматыны (2) дышетыны (3) дышетскыны (4) тодманы (5) тодыны
(vot) (1) näüttää (2) õpõttaa (3) õppia (4) tiiüssää (5) täätää
(vro) (1) näütämä (2) oppama (3) oṕma (4) teedäq saama (5) tiidmä[/quote]
IG: riccardo__pucci

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Naava
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Joined: 2012-01-17, 20:24
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Country: FI Finland (Suomi)

Re: showing, teaching, learning, knowing

Postby Naava » 2021-01-18, 17:04

Linguaphile wrote:
h34 wrote:How would you translate these verbs? (infinitive or any other citation form)

(1) to show (something to someone)
(2) to teach
(3) to learn (acquiring knowledge), to study
(4) to learn / to hear (about a fact)
(5) to know (a fact)

(...) This whole set of words involves semantic fields with a lot of diversity. :mrgreen:

This is so true. Finnish makes a distinction between A) learning "the entire thing"; the learning has been or will be completed (maybe you could describe it as perfective aspect) B) learning (gradually) how to do something, to practise C) learning in academic context, studying something at uni. (You could also say you're "reading" for an exam or "reading" something at uni, both meaning the same as 'studying'.)
Finnish also lacks a translation of "to learn, to hear about a fact" where you'd use the verb to learn. We just say "to hear" or "to get to know something". And there's two possible translations for "to show" depending on what you mean: A) to show how something is done; to show a place to someone, or to show something you've made; to present B) to indicate (a fact) to be true; to demonstrate.

(da) (1) vise (2) undervise, lære (3) lære (4) få pat vide (5) vide
(de) (1) zeigen (2) unterrichten, unterweisen, lehren (3) lernen (4) erfahren (5) wissen
(sv) (1) visa (2) undervisa, lära (3) lära sig (4) få veta (5) veta

(es) (1) mostrar, enseñar (2) enseñar (3) aprender [to learn], estudiar [to study] (4) enterarse de (5) saber
(it) (1) mostrare (2) insegnare (3) imparare, studiare (4) venire a conoscenza di, venire a sapere, apprendere (5) sapere, conoscere

(ru) (1) показ(ыв)ать (2) преподавать, обучать, обучить (3) учить, учиться, научиться (4) узна(ва)ть (5) знать

(lv) (1) rādīt (2) mācīt (3) mācīties (4) uzzināt (5) zināt

(et) (1) näitama (2) õpetama (3) õppima (4) teada saama (5) teadma
(fi) (1) näyttää, osoittaa (2) opettaa (3) oppia, opetella, opiskella (4) saada tietää, kuulla (5) tietää
(kv) (1) индыны (2) велöдны (3) велöдчыны (4) тöдмавны (5) тöдны
(mdf) (1) няфтемс (2) тонафтомс (3) тонафнемс (4) кармамс содама (5) содамс
(mhr) (1) ончыкташ (2) туныкташ (3) тунемаш (4) пален налаш (5) палаш
(myv) (1) невтемс (2) тонавтомс (3) тонавтнемс (4) кармамс содамо (5) содамс
(udm) (1) возьматыны (2) дышетыны (3) дышетскыны (4) тодманы (5) тодыны
(vot) (1) näüttää (2) õpõttaa (3) õppia (4) tiiüssää (5) täätää
(vro) (1) näütämä (2) oppama (3) oṕma (4) teedäq saama (5) tiidmä


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