Does (s)he have a dog?

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h34
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Does (s)he have a dog?

Postby h34 » 2017-01-08, 8:11

This isn't the most interesting sentence ever posted here but I think it can show how yes/no questions can be formed, how possession can be expressed and whether or not the third person singular pronoun distinguishes between gender.

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Abbreviations:
► Show Spoiler

[flag=]en[/flag] Does he/she have a dog?
[flag=]de[/flag] Hat er/sie einen Hund?
has s3 -- he/she s3 N -- a dog A

[flag=]lv[/flag] Vai viņam/viņai ir suns?
Q -- him/her s3 D -- is s3 -- dog N

[flag=]et[/flag] Kas tal on koer?
Q -- at him=her s3 ADE -- is s3 -- dog N
[flag=]mhr[/flag] Тудын пийже уло мо?
his=her s3 G -- dog POSS s3 -- is s3 -- Q

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Re: Does (s)he have a dog?

Postby md0 » 2017-01-08, 8:20

+gr
show how yes/no questions can be formed, how possession can be expressed and whether or not the third person singular pronoun distinguishes between gender.

a) In Greek, rising intonation is enough b) In this case, like English, c) The 3SG pronoun is gendered, but Greek is pro-drop by default, so this sentence is ungendered without context.


[flag=]en[/flag] Does he/she have a dog?
[flag=]de[/flag] Hat er/sie einen Hund?
has s3 -- he/she s3 N -- a dog A

[flag=]lv[/flag] Vai viņam/viņai ir suns?
Q -- him/her s3 D -- is s3 -- dog N

[flag=]et[/flag] Kas tal on koer?
Q -- at him=her s3 ADE -- is s3 -- dog N
[flag=]mhr[/flag] Тудын пийже уло мо?
his=her s3 G -- dog POSS s3 -- is s3 -- Q

[flag=]el[/flag] Έχει σκύλο; /'eçi 'skilo/
Has-3SG dog-ACC ?
[flag=]el-cy[/flag] Έσιει σιύλλο; /'eʃi 'ʃ:il:o/
Has-3SG dog-ACC ?
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Re: Does (s)he have a dog?

Postby h34 » 2017-01-08, 8:46

Thanks for the quick reply!

----------------------------------
Abbreviations (new version):
► Show Spoiler


+gr
(a) show how yes/no questions can be formed, (b) how possession can be expressed and (c) whether or not the third person singular pronoun distinguishes between gender.

a) In Greek, rising intonation is enough b) In this case, like English, c) The 3SG pronoun is gendered, but Greek is pro-drop by default, so this sentence is ungendered without context.

[flag=]en[/flag] Does he/she have a dog?
[flag=]de[/flag] Hat er/sie einen Hund?
Has-3SG he/she-3SG-NOM a dog-ACC

[flag=]lv[/flag] Vai viņam/viņai ir suns?
Q him/her-3SG-DAT is-3SG dog-NOM

[flag=]et[/flag] Kas tal on koer?
Q at him=her-3SG-ADE is-3SG dog-NOM?
[flag=]mhr[/flag] Тудын пийже уло мо? /'tudən 'pijʒɛ 'uɫɔ mɔ/
His=her-3SG-GEN dog-POSS-3SG is-3SG Q

[flag=]el[/flag] Έχει σκύλο; /'eçi 'skilo/
Has-3SG dog-ACC ?
[flag=]el-cy[/flag] Έσιει σιύλλο; /'eʃi 'ʃ:il:o/
Has-3SG dog-ACC ?

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Re: Does (s)he have a dog?

Postby Johanna » 2017-01-08, 10:33

Swedish and Norwegian verbs don't conjugate for person, and only personal pronouns have any sort of case markings. Luckily han and hon/hun are in the nominative in this sentence since the other case isn't in the list. It came about by mainly the accusative and dative merging, but there's also a touch of genitive in there.

I think that case, the one that marks objects of any kind, is usually called oblique, and it can be a good idea to add it :) Also, remember that some languages are absolutive-ergative rather than nominative-accusative.

I should add that in Swedish, you can put the article back if your're asking whether this person has one dog or several. But if you just want to know if they're a pet owner, you leave it out.

--------------------

English (en) Does he/she have a dog?
German (de) Hat er/sie einen Hund?
Has-3SG he/she-3SG-NOM a dog-ACC
Norwegian (no) Har han/hun hund?
Has he/she-3SG-NOM dog
Swedish (sv) Har han/hon hund?
Has he/she-3SG-NOM dog

Latvian (lv) Vai viņam/viņai ir suns?
Q him/her-3SG-DAT is-3SG dog-NOM

Greek (el) Έχει σκύλο; /'eçi 'skilo/
Has-3SG dog-ACC
Cypriot Greek (el-cy) Έσιει σιύλλο; /'eʃi 'ʃ:il:o/
Has-3SG dog-ACC

Estonian (et) Kas tal on koer?
Q at him=her-3SG-ADE is-3SG dog-NOM
Meadow Mari (mhr) Тудын пийже уло мо? /'tudən 'pijʒɛ 'uɫɔ mɔ/
His=her-3SG-GEN dog-POSS-3SG is-3SG Q
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Re: Does (s)he have a dog?

Postby h34 » 2017-01-08, 12:12

Johanna wrote:I think that case, the one that marks objects of any kind, is usually called oblique, and it can be a good idea to add it :) Also, remember that some languages are absolutive-ergative rather than nominative-accusative.

Tack så mycket! It was just meant to be an open-ended list with some suggestions for possible abbreviations. Perhaps O could be added to be used for the oblique/objective case (so nobody would have to make up their mind which term to use :) ), ABS for the absolutive, ERG for the ergative case... but I'd better leave that to anyone who wants to reply.

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Re: Does (s)he have a dog?

Postby linguoboy » 2017-01-08, 15:01

h34 wrote:Abbreviations (new version)

Hurrah, someone found the Leipzig Glossing Rules page!

h34 wrote:[flag=]de[/flag] Hat er/sie einen Hund?
Have-3SG he/she-3SG-NOM a-M.SG.ACC dog-ACC

[flag=]lv[/flag] Vai viņam/viņai ir suns?
Q he/she-3SG-DAT be-3SG dog-NOM

Don't overinflect in your glosses. If you're glossing inflections, then you should be using minimally-inflected citation forms. At the same time, you shouldn't be glossing what isn't there. (Hund is, at best, a non-oblique form. But since that's the unmarked/citation form for German nouns, why gloss it as anything?)

Irish has distinct forms for possession and ownership (somewhat similar to the alienable/inalienable distinction of other languages):

An bhfuil gadhar/madadh aige/aici? [possession]
Q.NPST be.3S.PRS dog at.3SM/at.3SF
An bhfuil gadhar/madadh leis/léi? [ownership]
Q.NPST be.3S.PRS dog with.3SM/with.3SF

Welsh has syntactically distinct dialect variants:

[South] Oes ci (gy)da ti?
be.INT.PRS.3S dog with you.SG
[North] Oes gen/gyn ti gi?
be.INT.PRS.3S with you.SG dog

(The mutation on ci in the Northern form is a so-called "contact mutation" because it follows a personal pronoun that is the logical subject. There's no easy way to gloss this.)
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Re: Does (s)he have a dog?

Postby h34 » 2017-01-09, 21:45

Thanks.
linguoboy wrote:Don't overinflect in your glosses. If you're glossing inflections, then you should be using minimally-inflected citation forms.

Inflected glosses may be inaccurate but I think they can help making the glosses more readable. Since the glosses of the Greek, Swedish and Norwegian translations also use the inflected form of the verbs, I think it's best to leave everything unchanged for now.

linguoboy wrote: At the same time, you shouldn't be glossing what isn't there. (Hund is, at best, a non-oblique form. But since that's the unmarked/citation form for German nouns, why gloss it as anything?)

Of course that's right, the accusative form of Hund happens to be identical with the nominative form. It would have been better to use a noun that forms the accusative with a suffix, such as Bär 'bear', (ACC Bären)...

---------------
English (en) Does he/she have a dog?
German (de) Hat er/sie einen Hund?
Has-3SG he/she-3SG-NOM a dog-ACC
Norwegian (no) Har han/hun hund?
Has he/she-3SG-NOM dog
Swedish (sv) Har han/hon hund?
Has he/she-3SG-NOM dog

Latvian (lv) Vai viņam/viņai ir suns?
Q him/her-3SG-DAT is-3SG dog-NOM

Greek (el) Έχει σκύλο; /'eçi 'skilo/
Has-3SG dog-ACC
Cypriot Greek (el-cy) Έσιει σιύλλο; /'eʃi 'ʃ:il:o/
Has-3SG dog-ACC

[flag=]ga[/flag] An bhfuil gadhar/madadh aige/aici? [possession]
Q.NPST be.3S.PRS dog at.3SM/at.3SF
[flag=]ga[/flag] An bhfuil gadhar/madadh leis/léi? [ownership]
Q.NPST be.3S.PRS dog with.3SM/with.3SF
[flag=]cy[/flag] [South] Oes ci (gy)da ti?
be.INT.PRS.3S dog with you.SG
[flag=]cy[/flag] [North] Oes gen/gyn ti gi?
be.INT.PRS.3S with you.SG dog
► Show Spoiler


[flag=]et[/flag] Kas tal on koer?
Q at him=her-3SG-ADE is-3SG dog-NOM
[flag=]mhr[/flag] Тудын пийже уло мо? /'tudən 'pijʒɛ 'uɫɔ mɔ/
His=her-3SG-GEN dog-POSS-3SG is-3SG Q

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Re: Does (s)he have a dog?

Postby Elaine » 2017-01-10, 15:03

Turkish

English (en) Does he/she have a dog?
German (de) Hat er/sie einen Hund?
Has-3SG he/she-3SG-NOM a dog-ACC
Norwegian (no) Har han/hun hund?
Has he/she-3SG-NOM dog
Swedish (sv) Har han/hon hund?
Has he/she-3SG-NOM dog

Latvian (lv) Vai viņam/viņai ir suns?
Q him/her-3SG-DAT is-3SG dog-NOM

Greek (el) Έχει σκύλο; /'eçi 'skilo/
Has-3SG dog-ACC
Cypriot Greek (el-cy) Έσιει σιύλλο; /'eʃi 'ʃ:il:o/
Has-3SG dog-ACC

[flag=]ga[/flag] An bhfuil gadhar/madadh aige/aici? [possession]
Q.NPST be.3S.PRS dog at.3SM/at.3SF
[flag=]ga[/flag] An bhfuil gadhar/madadh leis/léi? [ownership]
Q.NPST be.3S.PRS dog with.3SM/with.3SF
[flag=]cy[/flag] [South] Oes ci (gy)da ti?
be.INT.PRS.3S dog with you.SG
[flag=]cy[/flag] [North] Oes gen/gyn ti gi?
be.INT.PRS.3S with you.SG dog
► Show Spoiler


[flag=]et[/flag] Kas tal on koer?
Q at him=her-3SG-ADE is-3SG dog-NOM
[flag=]mhr[/flag] Тудын пийже уло мо? /'tudən 'pijʒɛ 'uɫɔ mɔ/
His=her-3SG-GEN dog-POSS-3SG is-3SG Q

[flag=]tr[/flag] Onun köpeği var mı? /oˈnun cøpeˈji vaɾ mɯ/
His=her-3SG-GEN dog-POSS-3SG is-3SG Q
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Re: Does (s)he have a dog?

Postby Michael » 2017-01-11, 8:43

Azerbaijani, Persian and Pizzonese.

English (en) Does he/she have a dog?
German (de) Hat er/sie einen Hund?
Has-3SG he/she-3SG-NOM a dog-ACC
Norwegian (no) Har han/hun hund?
Has he/she-3SG-NOM dog
Swedish (sv) Har han/hon hund?
Has he/she-3SG-NOM dog

[flag=]nap[/flag] Tè isso/éssa nu cuano? /tɛ isːə / ei̯sːa nə kwoə̯nə/
Has he/she a dog

Latvian (lv) Vai viņam/viņai ir suns?
Q him/her-3SG-DAT is-3SG dog-NOM

Greek (el) Έχει σκύλο; /'eçi 'skilo/
Has-3SG dog-ACC
Cypriot Greek (el-cy) Έσιει σιύλλο; /'eʃi 'ʃ:il:o/
Has-3SG dog-ACC

[flag=]ga[/flag] An bhfuil gadhar/madadh aige/aici? [possession]
Q.NPST be.3S.PRS dog at.3SM/at.3SF
[flag=]ga[/flag] An bhfuil gadhar/madadh leis/léi? [ownership]
Q.NPST be.3S.PRS dog with.3SM/with.3SF
[flag=]cy[/flag] [South] Oes ci (gy)da ti?
be.INT.PRS.3S dog with you.SG
[flag=]cy[/flag] [North] Oes gen/gyn ti gi?
be.INT.PRS.3S with you.SG dog
► Show Spoiler


[flag=]fa[/flag] سگی دارد؟ /ˈsæɟi dɑˈræd/ (formal)
dog-INDEF have-3SG
یه سگ داره؟ [je sæɟ doˈre] (colloquial)
a dog-NOM have-3SG

[flag=]et[/flag] Kas tal on koer?
Q at him=her-3SG-ADE is-3SG dog-NOM
[flag=]mhr[/flag] Тудын пийже уло мо? /'tudən 'pijʒɛ 'uɫɔ mɔ/
His=her-3SG-GEN dog-POSS-3SG is-3SG Q

[flag=]tr[/flag] Onun köpeği var mı? /oˈnun cøpeˈji vaɾ mɯ/
His=her-3SG-GEN dog-POSS-3SG is-3SG Q
[flag=]az[/flag] Onun iti varmı? /oˈnun ɪˈtʰɪ vaɾmɯ/
His/her-GEN dog-POSS.3SG exists.3SG-Q
American English (en-us) Pizzonese (nap) N Italian (it) Mexican Spanish (es-mx) Brazilian Portuguese (pt-br) Albanian (sq) B1 Greek (el) Persian (fa) A2 Turkish (tr) Azerbaijani (az) Old English (en_old) A1
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Re: Does (s)he have a dog?

Postby voron » 2017-01-11, 19:17

Russian and Kurmanji.

English (en) Does he/she have a dog?
German (de) Hat er/sie einen Hund?
Has-3SG he/she-3SG-NOM a dog-ACC
Norwegian (no) Har han/hun hund?
Has he/she-3SG-NOM dog
Swedish (sv) Har han/hon hund?
Has he/she-3SG-NOM dog

[flag=]nap[/flag] Tè isso/éssa nu cuano? /tɛ isːə / ei̯sːa nə kwoə̯nə/
Has he/she a dog

[flag=]ru[/flag] У неё есть собака?
at her-GEN be-3SG dog-NOM

Latvian (lv) Vai viņam/viņai ir suns?
Q him/her-3SG-DAT is-3SG dog-NOM

Greek (el) Έχει σκύλο; /'eçi 'skilo/
Has-3SG dog-ACC
Cypriot Greek (el-cy) Έσιει σιύλλο; /'eʃi 'ʃ:il:o/
Has-3SG dog-ACC

[flag=]ga[/flag] An bhfuil gadhar/madadh aige/aici? [possession]
Q.NPST be.3S.PRS dog at.3SM/at.3SF
[flag=]ga[/flag] An bhfuil gadhar/madadh leis/léi? [ownership]
Q.NPST be.3S.PRS dog with.3SM/with.3SF
[flag=]cy[/flag] [South] Oes ci (gy)da ti?
be.INT.PRS.3S dog with you.SG
[flag=]cy[/flag] [North] Oes gen/gyn ti gi?
be.INT.PRS.3S with you.SG dog
► Show Spoiler


Kurmanji (ku) Kûçikê wê heye?
dog-CONST she*-OBL exists-3SG
*He/she differ only in the oblique case. They are the same in the nominative.
[flag=]fa[/flag] سگی دارد؟ /ˈsæɟi dɑˈræd/ (formal)
dog-INDEF have-3SG
یه سگ داره؟ [je sæɟ doˈre] (colloquial)
a dog-NOM have-3SG

[flag=]et[/flag] Kas tal on koer?
Q at him=her-3SG-ADE is-3SG dog-NOM
[flag=]mhr[/flag] Тудын пийже уло мо? /'tudən 'pijʒɛ 'uɫɔ mɔ/
His=her-3SG-GEN dog-POSS-3SG is-3SG Q

[flag=]tr[/flag] Onun köpeği var mı? /oˈnun cøpeˈji vaɾ mɯ/
His=her-3SG-GEN dog-POSS-3SG is-3SG Q
[flag=]az[/flag] Onun iti varmı? /oˈnun ɪˈtʰɪ vaɾmɯ/
His/her-GEN dog-POSS.3SG exists.3SG-Q

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Re: Does (s)he have a dog?

Postby ainurakne » 2017-01-20, 10:18

I think the most neutral form of this question in Estonian would be "Kas tal koer on?" (verb at the end), especially when casting aside all kinds of emphasization that could be put on various words in spoken language.
"Kas tal on koer?" is more likely used when asking for confirmation, either when you already have a hunch about the dog or you have already heard something about the dog. Alternatively, this word order is also used when asking whether the pet (s)he has is really a dog (and not some other animal).

English (en) Does he/she have a dog?
German (de) Hat er/sie einen Hund?
Has-3SG he/she-3SG-NOM a dog-ACC
Norwegian (no) Har han/hun hund?
Has he/she-3SG-NOM dog
Swedish (sv) Har han/hon hund?
Has he/she-3SG-NOM dog

[flag=]nap[/flag] Tè isso/éssa nu cuano? /tɛ isːə / ei̯sːa nə kwoə̯nə/
Has he/she a dog

[flag=]ru[/flag] У неё есть собака?
at her-GEN be-3SG dog-NOM

Latvian (lv) Vai viņam/viņai ir suns?
Q him/her-3SG-DAT is-3SG dog-NOM

Greek (el) Έχει σκύλο; /'eçi 'skilo/
Has-3SG dog-ACC
Cypriot Greek (el-cy) Έσιει σιύλλο; /'eʃi 'ʃ:il:o/
Has-3SG dog-ACC

[flag=]ga[/flag] An bhfuil gadhar/madadh aige/aici? [possession]
Q.NPST be.3S.PRS dog at.3SM/at.3SF
[flag=]ga[/flag] An bhfuil gadhar/madadh leis/léi? [ownership]
Q.NPST be.3S.PRS dog with.3SM/with.3SF
[flag=]cy[/flag] [South] Oes ci (gy)da ti?
be.INT.PRS.3S dog with you.SG
[flag=]cy[/flag] [North] Oes gen/gyn ti gi?
be.INT.PRS.3S with you.SG dog
► Show Spoiler


Kurmanji (ku) Kûçikê wê heye?
dog-CONST she*-OBL exists-3SG
*He/she differ only in the oblique case. They are the same in the nominative.
[flag=]fa[/flag] سگی دارد؟ /ˈsæɟi dɑˈræd/ (formal)
dog-INDEF have-3SG
یه سگ داره؟ [je sæɟ doˈre] (colloquial)
a dog-NOM have-3SG

[flag=]et[/flag] Kas tal koer on?
Q at him=her-3SG-ADE dog-NOM is-3SG
[flag=]mhr[/flag] Тудын пийже уло мо? /'tudən 'pijʒɛ 'uɫɔ mɔ/
His=her-3SG-GEN dog-POSS-3SG is-3SG Q

[flag=]tr[/flag] Onun köpeği var mı? /oˈnun cøpeˈji vaɾ mɯ/
His=her-3SG-GEN dog-POSS-3SG is-3SG Q
[flag=]az[/flag] Onun iti varmı? /oˈnun ɪˈtʰɪ vaɾmɯ/
His/her-GEN dog-POSS.3SG exists.3SG-Q
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Re: Does (s)he have a dog?

Postby h34 » 2017-01-20, 10:32

@ainurakne: Suur aitäh!


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