+Spanish, Finnish, Livonian, Votic, Võro, Northern Saami, Skolt Saami, Kildin Saami
Cardinal directions in some Finnic languages are shifted 45 degrees in relation to other Finnic languages (i.e. Estonian lõuna
= south but Finnish lounas
= southwest and Livonian lȭnag
= southeast; Estonian edel
= southwest but Finnish etelä
= south and Livonian jedāl
south; Estonian loe
= northwest and Finnish luode
= northwest but Ludic luodeh
= west, and so on. They are consistent with a word related to põhi
for north though!
There is a similar (but larger, 90-degree) shift in Saami languages, i.e. Northern Saami nuorti
= east, Skolt nuõrti
= east and Kildin нуҏҏьт
= east but Southern Saami noerhte
= north and Ter nīrdte
These shifts are generally believed to have resulted from differing weather conditions in different locations, i.e. winds blowing from different directions and bird migration patterns differing, etc.
Põhi (=bottom; basis), lõuna (=noon; lunch), lääs, ida.
I would think the meaning "lunch" and the meaning "south" are both derived from an earlier meaning "midday" which might now be obsolete.
Cf. Finnish lounas
Or more generally, "day". Cf. Komi лун
"day" and лунвыв
"south" ("day-direction"), Udmurt нунал
) "day" and Udmurt dialect луназе
, standard Udmurt нуназе
"during the day", Karelian lounat
"evening meal" and so on. It seems that the meaning of "day" (Proto-Finno-Permic *lowna
) and the directional meanings (Proto-Uralic *luwe
) both precede the various "meal" meanings.
In any case the "midday" meaning is not obsolete for the languages that settled on that particular time of day and the southern direction for that word; as Irusia mentioned, lõuna
in Estonian means "south," "lunch", and "noon" (or "midday"). More commonly, keskpäev
is used for actual midday but the word lõuna
does have the meaning of "midday" too, and is used extremely frequently as a frame of reference in other phrases, c.f. pärastlõuna
"afternoon"). Definitely not obsolete usage.
So from *lowna originally meaning "day" we've gotten directional words that variously mean south, southeast, and southwest, and meal meanings that variously mean midday meal and evening meal. What it does point to is the fact that while the sun and its marking of time were part
of the equation, other factors such as wind direction, bird migration and the location of water were at least as important in determining direction. Maybe especially in the far northern areas this comes from the fact that the sun was less reliable for determining either direction or time as there were times of the year when it didn't fully rise or fully set. Regardless, the other factors that were used for direction caused spatial (for directional words) and temporal (for mealtimes) shifts in the meaning of the words.
North, south, west, east.
Northwest, northeast, southwest, southeast.
Norte, sur, oeste, este
Noreste, noroeste, sudoeste/suroeste, sudeste/sureste
The Spanish words are Germanic borrowings, but Spanish has also kept Latin-based forms used in certain contexts, such as the adjectives septentrional, austral, occidental, oriental (northern, southern, western, eastern).
Північ (=midnight), південь (=noon, midday), захід (=sunset), схід (=sunrise).
Північний захід, північний схід, південний захід, південний схід.
Šiaurė (=north), pietūs (=noon, lunch), vakarai (from vakaras =evening), rytai (from rytas =morning)
Šiaurės vakarai, šiaurės rytai, pietvakariai, pietryčiai
Ziemeļi (ziema=winter), dienvidi (diena=day, vidus=middle), rietumi (saulriets=sunset), austrumi (aust=to dawn).
Ziemeļrietumi, ziemelaustrumi, dienvidrietumi, dienvidaustrumi.
Põhi (=bottom; basis), lõuna (=noon; lunch; based on an earlier word meaning "day"), lääs (etymologically from an earlier word meaning "low"), ida (from an earlier word meaning "appear").
Loe (uncertain etymology), kirre (uncertain etymology), edel (etymologically from an earlier word meaning "in front"), kagu (related to the verb meaning "to waddle" and to numerous bird names, most like referring to migration of birds); there is also a word for "west-northwest": vesikaar, which means "water-direction" or "water-arc".
Pohjoinen (from pohja=bottom, base), etelä (etymologically from an earlier word meaning "in front"), länsi (etymologically from an earlier word meaning "low"), itä (from an earlier word meaning appear)
Luode (uncertain etymology, possibly related to words meaning create or descend), koillinen (from koi=dawn), lounas (=lunch, based on an earlier word meaning "day"), kaakko (etymologically related to names of birds)
Войвыв (=night-direction), лунвыв (=day-direction), рытыв (=evening-direction), асыв (=morning)
Рытыв-войвыв, асыв-войвыв, рытыв-лунвыв, асыв-лунвыв
Pūoj (=bottom, base), jedāl (from an earlier word meaning "in front"), vežgõr (=water-direction)/ȭdõgpūol (=evening direction), ūomõgpūol (=morning direction)/mǭgõr (=land-direction)
Lūod (uncertain etymology, possibly related to creation), idā (from an earlier word meaning "appear"), lēņtš (=without water, also from an earlier word meaning "low"), lȭnag/līnag (from an earlier word meaning "day")
Йӱдвел (=night-direction), кечывалвел (=day-direction), касвел (=evening-direction), эрвел (=morning-direction).
Йӱдвел-касвел, йӱдвел-эрвел, кечывалвел-касвел, кечывалвел-эрвел.
Пелевеёнкс (=midnight-direction), пелечиёнкс (=midday-direction), чивалгома (=sunset), чилисема (=sunrise).
Пелеве-чивалгома, пелеве-чилисема, пелечи-чивалгома, пелечи-чилисема.
Davvi (from an earlier word meaning "deep"), máddi (from an earlier word meaning "base")/lulli (unknown etymology), nuorta (unknown etymology), oarji (original meaning "south")/viesttar (loanword?)
Davveoarji (=north west)/davveviesttar (=north west)/oarjedavvi (=west north), davvenuorta (=north east)/nuortadavvi (=east north), máttaoarji (=south west)/máttaviesttar (=south west)/oarjelulli (= west south), máttanuorta (=south east)/nuortalulli (=east south)
Таввял (from an earlier word meaning "deep"), со̄а̄ййв, вуэрьял, нуҏҏьт
Tâʹvv (from an earlier word meaning "deep"), saujj, viõstâr, nuõrti
Reddviõstâr, tâʹvvnuõrti/ääppal, vuärjjal/lieʹtni/låʹddǩeʹrddem, ooʹbbdneǩ
Põhja =(bottom, base), lõuna (=noon, lunch, based on an earlier word meaning day), länsi (=earlier word meaning low)/loojang (=sunset), itä (earlier word meaning appear)
Looõ (uncertain etymology), itäpõhja (east-north), etelä (earlier word meaning "in front"), kakko (earlier word related to bird migration), veskaarõ (=water-direction, for west-northwest)
Põhi =(bottom, base), lõunõq (=noon, lunch, earlier meaning day), õdak (=evening), hummok (=morning)
Põh'aõdak (=north west), põh'ahummok (=north east), lõunaõdak (=south west), lõunõhummok (=south east)الشمال
(=left side)، الجنوب
(=declining, turning off)، الغرب
(=going away)، الشرق
(=east)الشمال الغربي، الشمال الشرقي، الجنوب الغربي، الجنوب الشرقي