Last word in a foreign language that you learnt 2

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Re: Last word in a foreign language that you learnt 2

Postby Dormouse559 » 2020-07-03, 8:36

(fr) hosto/hosteau /ɔsto/ nm - (slang) hospital

Derived from hôpital "hospital", but I'm guessing it's based on a spelling pronunciation of the older spelling hospital. French retained some coda /s/s this way.
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Re: Last word in a foreign language that you learnt 2

Postby OldBoring » 2020-07-04, 11:27

Could it also be formed as analogy with résto?

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Re: Last word in a foreign language that you learnt 2

Postby Dormouse559 » 2020-07-04, 16:54

OldBoring wrote:Could it also be formed as analogy with resto?

Maybe? I haven't found any information on how old either word might be. In any case, CNRTL's first attestation of restaurer is from the 900s. That's before the sound changes that deleted coda /s/, indicating restaurer and restaurant are another case of spelling pronunciation.
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Re: Last word in a foreign language that you learnt 2

Postby Brzeczyszczykiewicz » 2020-07-04, 19:24

Kaff - (umg., abwert.) Kleiner, langweiliger Ort. / (coll., pej.) Small, boring place.
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Re: Last word in a foreign language that you learnt 2

Postby linguoboy » 2020-07-06, 13:38

(fi) sammakko frog
(fi) sammas axis mundi

Does anybody know the connexion?
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Re: Last word in a foreign language that you learnt 2

Postby Linguaphile » 2020-07-06, 16:22

linguoboy wrote:(fi) sammakko frog
(fi) sammas axis mundi

Does anybody know the connexion?

Actually nobody knows for sure! The best analysis of it that I've found is in Sampsa Holopainen's article "Indo-Iranian loanwords confined to Saami?" from which I'm quoting a few parts below. (The article's focus is whether Saami cuoppu "frog" and its cognates [cf. Kildin цӯммпэ "frogs"] and other Saami words are of Indo-Iranian origin, so only parts of the article directly relate to the etymology of sammakko and sammas. It's an interesting read.)

Parpola convincingly argues that the word for world pillar is an Indo-Iranian borrowing and the Finnic sampo myth also reflects early Indo-Iranian influence, which fits well into the context of other mythological loanwords borrowed into the Western Uralic languages from Indo-Iranian.
Parpola also refers to earlier research by Haavio and Setälä, who connected the word sammakko ‘frog’ to the world pillar: in Indian mythology, the pillar of the universe is carried by a tortoise, and the FinnoSaamic ‘frog’ might reflect influence from the Indo-Aryan ‘tortoise’.

If the two concepts were to stem from the same word, as Sammallahti seems to believe, the only way to explain the semantics (Finnic ‘pillar’ versus Saami and Finnic ‘frog’) would be to assume that the semantic change from the mythological sammas ‘world pillar’ to ‘frog’ would already have happened in a common proto-language of Finnic and Saami.

Ante Aikio (personal communication) regards the words for ‘pillar’ and ‘frog’ as etymologically distinct. This is probably the case: all explanations that try to connect these two words fail to assure the reader of the need to postulate a common proto-form for them. Folk etymology may naturally have played a role here, as Setälä suspected, and this could easily explain the role played by the frog in some versions of the sampo myth. It would be possible to argue that if both ‘frog’ and ‘pillar’ are central elements of cosmology, they could have a common origin, but the linguistic arguments simply do not support that assumption.

Koivulehto (1999b: 321 footnote 7) mentions as a side note an interesting fact that might shed more light on the completed etymology of the sammakko word group. There is a Finnish word sammas meaning ‘Mundschwamm’ (cf. also Estonian sammaspool ‘skin rash, pityriasis versicolor’, SSA s.v. sammas2); in Koivulehto’s view, the word sammakko ‘frog’ and its Saami cognate are probably connected to this, and he finds parallels for this kind of semantic development (‘frog’ > ‘Mundschwamm’) in other languages, such as English, French and Russian (cf. SKES: 961, s.v. sammakko and SSA s.v. sammakko). If this is correct, it is unlikely that the word sammas ‘pillar’ and the homonymic ‘Mundschwamm’ derive from the same source. The word for ‘frog’ thus probably has no connection to sammas and sampo.


My most recent words:
(vro) kirmaśk summer celebration in honor of a village church's name-day or patron saint
(vro) kiior royal staff (a juniper cane with traditional woven ribbons, used by the ülembsootska)
(vro) kroonikogo council composed of current and all living former representatives of the Seto kingdom
(vro) sootska former elected representative of the Seto Kingdom
(vro) tsäposka = tśaposka Seto silver necklace decorated with coins
(vro) ülembsootśka elected representative of the Seto Kingdom; regent of the king or king's herald; considered to be the voice of the legendary hero-king Peko

and inspired by the discussion above, also
(vro) sammas pillar, monument, statue
(vro) sammaspuul skin rash, eczema
(vot) sammaz pillar, post, doorjamb, beehive
(vot) täitara skin rash, eczema (lit. louse-garden :shock: )

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Re: Last word in a foreign language that you learnt 2

Postby Brzeczyszczykiewicz » 2020-07-08, 7:29

Camiño de Santiago - Parte da Vía Láctea que se percibe desde a Terra a simple vista. / Part of the Milky Way visible to the naked eye from Earth.
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Re: Last word in a foreign language that you learnt 2

Postby md0 » 2020-07-08, 15:40

(de) Freilauf freewheel

Had to get my bike's one replaced.
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Re: Last word in a foreign language that you learnt 2

Postby Brzeczyszczykiewicz » 2020-07-09, 22:33

エロカワ (erokawa) - Sexy, but still cute. 8-)
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Re: Last word in a foreign language that you learnt 2

Postby linguoboy » 2020-07-10, 2:36

(ga) creatháin yips
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Re: Last word in a foreign language that you learnt 2

Postby Dormouse559 » 2020-07-12, 17:49

(fr)
obnubiler v - (figuratively) numb, dull; engross, obsess
relativiser v - put things in perspective; relativize
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Re: Last word in a foreign language that you learnt 2

Postby Brzeczyszczykiewicz » 2020-07-14, 20:15

rambunctious - Difficult to control, boisterous, exuberant.
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Re: Last word in a foreign language that you learnt 2

Postby linguoboy » 2020-07-17, 13:32

(de) stopfen darn [e.g. socks]
(fi) takatukka mullet (hairstyle)
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Re: Last word in a foreign language that you learnt 2

Postby Brzeczyszczykiewicz » 2020-07-17, 16:55

奇人 (kijin) - eccentric person
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Re: Last word in a foreign language that you learnt 2

Postby Car » 2020-07-21, 12:44

(nl) tutoyeren - to address someone informally (from (fr) tutoyer with the same meaning).
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Re: Last word in a foreign language that you learnt 2

Postby Dormouse559 » 2020-07-27, 4:24

(fr)
narcissique adj - narcissistic
diligence nf - stagecoach (< carrosse de diligence)
subalterne adj - inferior

(es)
columpio nm - swing
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Re: Last word in a foreign language that you learnt 2

Postby linguoboy » 2020-07-27, 8:43

(cy) anneuaidd, di-ddeuaidd non-binary
(ca) meuca barn owl; whore
(fi) siilitukka crewcut
(de) Verschnaufpause breather
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Re: Last word in a foreign language that you learnt 2

Postby linguoboy » 2020-08-01, 20:33

(fi) tuliainen

I was very charmed to discover that Finnish has an equivalent of German Mitbringsel and it made me wonder why English lacks one. Wiktionary glosses it as "homecoming gift", but I've never heard that term before. Instead, you'd just say "I brought you something back from my trip" or "I brought you a little something". For a gift given out of obligation to someone who's having you over, I'd say "hostess gift", but I don't think that would be universally understood among English-speakers.
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Re: Last word in a foreign language that you learnt 2

Postby Linguaphile » 2020-08-01, 23:09

linguoboy wrote:(fi) tuliainen

I was very charmed to discover that Finnish has an equivalent of German Mitbringsel and it made me wonder why English lacks one. Wiktionary glosses it as "homecoming gift", but I've never heard that term before. Instead, you'd just say "I brought you something back from my trip" or "I brought you a little something". For a gift given out of obligation to someone who's having you over, I'd say "hostess gift", but I don't think that would be universally understood among English-speakers.


I'd say "hostess gift" (or "host gift") too. If it's not as well-known in English I think it would be because bringing a gift when visiting someone's home is not as much of a tradition in English-speaking countries.

(fi) Hän toi makeisia tuliaisiksi / tuomisiksi.
(vot) Tämä tõi erkkua toomussissi / gastnitsassi.
(et) Ta tõi maiustusi külakostiks / kostiks.
(vro) Tä tõi magahuisi kostis.
(en) He/she brought some sweets as a hostess gift.

"Homecoming gift" to me sounds like something rather different: a gift you give to someone who is coming home after a long absence, sort of a "welcome-home" gift. I don't know why Wiktionary would gloss it that way. The "coming" (tuli-) in the Finnish word refers to the visitor who brings the gift, not to the person it is given to.


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